Saturday, March 31, 2012

The Art of Jenny Kee
Wearable Art

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Jenny Kee was born in Sydney in 1947 with an unusual Australian mixed heritage for those times - her mother was of Anglo-Saxon and Italian decent and her father was Chinese. In 2012 such a melded heritage in Australia is far more commonplace. She wrote her autobiography – A Big Life[1] - in 2006.

Jenny grew up in Bondi (Sydney) with a younger sister, Lizzie, and an older brother, Anthony. In the 1950s she attended Bondi Beach Public School. Jenny started doing a dress designing course at East Sydney Technical School in 1963 [2]: “… 'cause that's what I wanted to be - a [fashion] designer” . She was in reality doing a dress making course (practice only) rather than a dress-designing course (concept put into practice) and so she only lasted a year. Moreover, she wanted to be in the midst of a youth scene rather than be with dress makers.

Jenny Kee.
Courtesy of reference[2].

1964 was a seminal year for most Australian teenagers in the 60s. The Beatles had captivated the world in the early 60s – with their music, their humor and their art. In 1964 they had not reached the zenith of their musicality or influence, but because of Australian music promoter Kenn Brodziak's foresight, the Beatles were contracted to give numerous concerts in Australia on the cusp of their rise to fame.

Jenny was determined to meet them, which resulted in one night with John Lennon that changed her life forever. Jenny travelled to England and worked at Biba, which was “the” boutique in London at that time.

In London, Jenny discovered the Chelsea Antique Market that later she viewed as: “…my university of fashion and life”. Her life in London reflected the times since [3]: “For the first few years I was very fuelled with a lot of sex, drugs and rock'n'roll and pop stars coming out of every corner. So, from that heavy sort of, pop world, and sort of, being very wild sexually, I just had enough at a certain point and I just wanted to meet someone and fall in love”. Jenny met Michael, an Australian artist. For the first time, she felt genuinely adored and loved and so started developing self-confidence.

By the early 70s, London was no longer the youth vanguard in music, fashion and the arts. San Francisco had arrested the attention and life style of the youth. The Italian fashion houses were imbued with a new wave of designers that etched out future directions that stemmed from the youth revolution. The arts were once again dominated by New York. In 1973 Jenny Kee and her husband returned to Australia. At this time a new exciting and optimistic political framework was in play, and so they stayed. Six months later she opened a shop, Flamingo Park, which modelled itself on the vintage and retro fashion experience she had in London. Just before she opened Flamingo Park, Jenny met Linda Jackson - another turning point in her life[3]. Her friendship with Linda bought her back to the roots of her passion, namely wearable art.

Jenny Kee had always been conscious of wearable art. Her mother bought her Charles Jourdan shoes when she was 12-13 years old. Both would often roam all over Sydney, finding clothes or the fabrics that Jenny Kee wanted [2]. She had a dressmaker, who made clothes to her own designs[2]. Jenny also came from a background of fashion since her Aunt - Una - had worked for Madame Pellier, making silk blouses in the 1920s that were selling for 100 pounds (the Australian currency at the time)[3].

Jenny Kee's mentor was Vern Lambert from Melbourne (Australia), who had no formal fashion training, but was as knowledgeable as any professor of fashion. He taught her the detail of how something was stitched - why it might have been so in the context of its era[3]. Linda Jackson and Jenny Kee travelled to Milan, New York and the Paris fashion houses[2]. She was the first Sydney-sider to ever be in “Italian Vogue”[2].

As her husband was leaving Australia, another turning point occurred in her life – Jenny met Danton Hughes (his father was Robert Hughes - an Australian who worked in New York as an art critic). A passionate relationship lasted eleven years with Danton - until his untimely death[2]. He was for her a most creative designer.

Australia has so little moisture in its atmosphere that UV light is not effectively mitigated, resulting in clear, sharp, brash colors and images that are embedded in its soil (red ochre), burnt into its grass (yellow greens), radiated from its atmosphere (deep blues), and stitched in the memories of its people. Consequently, Jenny Kee's designs are quintessential Australian with motifs such as native animals (e.g. koalas), native plants (e.g. waratahs and black boys), and gem stones such as opals. She was also influenced by its first peoples - the Australian Aboriginals and their heritage, that fills this land of ours.

Jenny Kee's colors reflect the physical and psychological landscapes of its peoples. Her colors are bold and vibrant, reflecting the freshness and vibrancy of a newly awakening continent that is boldly striving forward, unaware of past shackles, unaware of structured or forced or unnatural boundaries. Her color palette is often compared to Australian artists Ken Done, but actually it reflects her own melded Australian heritage and her world-wide experiences.

Jenny Kee's sweaters were worn by Lady (and then Princess) Di, Barry Humphries, and Olivia Newton-John (just to name a few!)[3] Her opal prints arrested international attention, where it caught the attention of Italian "Vogue" and also Karl Lagerfeld. The opal print went into "Vanity" magazine. Lagerfeld saw it there, and then he said, "That will be my print" for the first designer range that he was doing with Chanel. The latter had 64 of her garments coming down his cat walk[3].

Jenny's designs are world-renowned, exhibited at such places as the Art Gallery of NSW, the Australian National Gallery, Sydney's Powerhouse Museum, London's Victoria and Albert Museum and the Marimura Museum in Tokyo.

The Wearable Art Of Jenny Kee

Courtesy of reference[4].

Courtesy of reference[4].

Courtesy of reference[4].

Courtesy of reference[4].

Courtesy of reference[4].

Courtesy of reference[4].

Courtesy of reference[4].

Courtesy of reference[5].

Courtesy of reference[5].

Courtesy of reference[5].

Courtesy of reference[5].

[1] Jenny Kee, A Big Life, Latern, Sydney (2006). ISBN 192098934X.

[2] "Talking Heads" (ABC programme).

[3] "Sunday Arts" (ABC programme).

[4] Australian Fashion Design, Elina Mackay Design Pty. Ltd., McMahons Point, Sydney (1985). ISBN 0949708 17 8.

[5] The Great Aussie Fashion, Kevin Weldon and Elina Mackay, McMahons Point Sydney (1984) ISBN 0 949708 11 9.

Saturday, March 24, 2012

“Leaves Transformed”
A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

On this blog spot there are posts that center on my “Wearable Art” (e.g. scarves, digital or analogue created fabric lengths etc.) For your convenience I have listed these posts below.

A Selection of My Scarves
My New Silk Rayon Velvet Scarves@Purple Noon Art And Sculpture Gallery
My Fabric Lengths@QSDS
My Fabric Collection:"Oh, Oh Marilyn and Mona!"@Spoonflower
2013 Australian Craft Awards – Finalist
My Scarves@2014 Scarf Festival: "Urban Artscape" Pashminas
My New Scarves and Fabric Lengths
New Range of Silk Neckties - Karma and Akash
AIVA: My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
New Colorways For My 'Cultural Graffiti' Fabrics
Byzantine Glow: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Wall Flower: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Ink Fern: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Celebratory Fireworks
My New Silk ArtCloth Scarves
New ‘Unique State’ Silk ArtCloth Scarves
 - My New Hand Dyed & Printed Fabric Design
Renaissance Man - My New Hand Dyed & Printed Fabric Design
Banksia - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

Ginkgo Love - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

“Garden Delights I & II”
 - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
Wallflower III - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
Rainforest Beauty
 Collection - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
Spring & Autumn Flurry Collection
 - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

La Volute Collection - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
Urban Butterfly -
 My New Hand Printed Fabric Design
Acanthus Dream
 - My New Hand Printed Fabric Design

Cascading Acanthus - 
My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

Introduction: Digital Textile Printing
Digital textile printing is often referred to as direct to garment printing (DTG printing). Digital garment printing is a process of printing on textiles and garments using specialized or modified inkjet technology. Inkjet printing on fabric is also possible with an inkjet printer by using fabric sheets with a removable paper backing. Today major inkjet technology manufacturers can offer specialized products designed for direct printing on textiles, not only for sampling but also for bulk production.

Since the early 1990's, inkjet technology and specially developed water-based ink (known as dye-sublimation or disperse direct ink) has offered the possibility of printing directly onto polyester fabric. This is mainly related to visual communication in retail and brand promotion (flags, banners and other point of sales applications). Printing onto nylon and silk can be achieved by using an acid-based ink. Reactive ink is used for cellulose-based fibers, such as cotton and linen. Using inkjet technology in digital textile printing allows for single pieces, mid-run production and even long-run alternatives to screen printed fabric. (Wikipedia).

I have been designing my hand dyed and hand printed fabric lengths using a range of fabrics and multiple surface design techniques. As a graphic designer in a previous career, I have always had an interest in creating imagery, prints and illustrations using digital processes. This interest has led me to some fascinating experimentation in the field of digitally created fabrics and textiles. I have uploaded my new digitally designed fabric collection, "Leaves Transformed", to this blog.

The designs have been created from my personal photographic stock, which have been transformed using painterly tools in a digital format. The colors have been sensitively and painstakingly manipulated to create a superb complimentary color-ways suite. The stunning designs can be used for interior design, clothing items and other decorative purposes. There are six color-ways in the collection that are available for purchase.

The eco-friendly textile printed designs are available in ten natural fabrics including silk crepe de chine, upholstery weight twill, organic cotton sateen, organic cotton knit, linen-cotton canvas, cotton silk, cotton voile, cotton poplin, quilting weight cotton and Kona® Cotton. Fabric widths vary from 40" (102 cm), 42" (107 cm), 54" (137 cm), 56" (142 cm), and 58" (147 cm) depending on the chosen fabric.

There is no minimum order and the printed fabrics range from a test swatch (8" x 8" or 20 cm x 20 cm) to a fat quarter (21" x 18" or 53 cm x 46 cm) or to whatever your yardage requirements may be.

These fabric lengths can be used for wearable art, accessories, furnishing and interior design projects. If you would like to purchase fabric lengths from my “Leaves Transformed” collection please email me for pricing or for any other information.

Email Marie-Therese

My "Leaves Transformed" Collection - for wearable art and interior design projects
Each work in the collection below shows a fat quarter (21" x 18" or 53 x 46 cm) view of the printed fabric design and a one yard length (36" or 91.5 cm) view of the printed fabric design.

Leaves Transformed in green color-way (fat quarter).

Leaves Transformed in green color-way (one yard).

Leaves Transformed in grey-green-multi color-way (fat quarter).

Leaves Transformed in grey-green-multi color-way (one yard).

Leaves Transformed in grey-purple-green-multi color-way (fat quarter).

Leaves Transformed in grey-purple-green-multi color-way (one yard).

Leaves Transformed in blue color-way (fat quarter).

Leaves Transformed in blue color-way (one yard).

Leaves Transformed in purple color-way (fat quarter).

Leaves Transformed in purple color-way (one yard).

Leaves Transformed in grey-white color-way (fat quarter).

Leaves Transformed in grey-white color-way (one yard).

Saturday, March 17, 2012

In Pursuit of ArtCloth - MultiSperse Dye Sublimation (MSDS)
Technique Based Article - Embellish Magazine

Author: Marie-Therese Wisniowski

In the late 1990s I started to work with disperse dyes on polyester and synthetic fabrics employing transfer printing techniques. I was captivated by the richness, depth of color and overprinting possibilities that could be achieved using the dyes. Since then I have been actively experimenting with hand printing techniques using disperse dyes on synthetic and polyester fabrics. These experiments have led to one of my new signature techniques that I have developed and termed - MultiSperse Dye Sublimation (MSDS). I have been teaching my MSDS technique at international and national conferences/workshops, textile forums, to textile groups and within university courses.

The MultiSperse Dye Sublimation (MSDS) Technique
The MSDS technique employs disperse dyes and involves hand printing multiple resists and multiple overprinted layers employing numerous color plates, mixed media and low relief plant materials. The completed works are rich in color, light, shade, contrast, movement and depth. The multiple layers also imbue a painterly aesthetic and textural, three-dimensional quality to the finished ArtCloth works. Each print is unique and cannot be replicated.

Sublimation Printing
In sublimation printing, once the dye has been painted on a paper and is dry, the painted side of the paper is placed on top of the fabric surface that is to be dyed. Then heat is applied via an iron or a heat press (under pressure) to the back of the dry, dyed paper. The dye vaporizes from the paper and infuses into the surface of the target fabric. The vapor dye reacts with the target fabric surface and adheres to it via ‘attractive’ forces. The heat of the iron serves a dual purpose: (a) it vaporizes the dye; (b) it assists the dye to infuse into the fabric surface and adhere to it.

My MSDS technique has been published in the March/June 2012, Volume 2, Issue 9 copy of Embellish: The Australian magazine for shibori and more (Artwear Publications). If you would like to have a reference copy, which shows images and text of the technique, it will be available in newsagents in the first week in March until June 2012. It is also available via subscription. There are of course a lot of other great techniques in the issue as well. Note: ArtWear Publications also publish Felt magazine, Yarn magazine and Textile Fibre Forum magazine.

Disclaimer: Marie-Therese Wisniowski, Art Quill Studio, and Art Quill & Co has no financial interest in Embellish or in any of the products mentioned in the article.

Now to whet your appetite, have some fun and have a go!

Scarf printed using the artist’s signature MultiSperse Dye Sublimation (MSDS) and mixed media resists on polyester.

One stage of the process.
Place your scarlet (mid) disperse dye painted paper plate onto the dyed fabric and flora items, color side down.

Another stage of the process.
Start pressing and overprinting an area of the paper plate with a hot iron being careful not to move the low relief items.

The final stage of the process.
Leave the fabric to cool and then remove the low relief flora items to reveal the finished print.
Note the complexity of the work, the painterly quality, and the three dimensional aspect of the finished ArtCloth.

See this blog site for more examples of disperse dyed ArtCloth works employing my MSDS technique (2010 - September 23rd, 2011 - February 5th, May 7th, June 11th, October 29th and those of my students (2011 - January 22rd and 29th, July 9th, September 17th, October 15th) in the Art Quill Studio blog archives.

Saturday, March 10, 2012

My Voice using Disperse Dyes on Cloth

Guest Artist: Jennifer Libby Fay

This blogspot has a number of posts that highlight the artwork of invited artists. For you convenience I have listed them below:
Lesley Turner
Flora Fascinator
Shirley McKernan

I first met Jennifer in 2011 at the Surface Design Association's "Confluence" conference in Minneapolis, Minnesota (USA). Since then I have been delighted to experience her distinctive artistic voice using disperse dyes on cloth.

Jennifer Libby Fay - Guest Artist - at work in her studio lifting cloth.
Kansas City, Missouri (USA).

I love her artwork and so I was pleased that she agreed to be a Guest Artist on this blog spot.

Guest Artist: Jennifer Libby Fay
Artist’s Statement

My work is about transformation, imagination and symbol. Beyond the obvious and immediate meaning of a composition, I am interested in exploring the relationship between art, nature and spirituality. Despite the complexity of my subject matter, my goal is to find peace in a confusing and precarious world; to project a calm, contemplative atmosphere in my work. I enjoy exploring the deeper meaning - the source. I hope to engage your eyes, inspire your passion, and take you on a visual expedition into new territory.

As a small child I received a box of silk brocade fabric swatches from my grandmother—multicolored iridescent squares, pinked around the edges. I suppose it was part of her mission to teach me to sew. Girls were expected to do that in her day. Little did she know the spell she had cast. I sorted, stacked and arranged those jewel-like bits every day, captivated by their beauty.

Although I could not have articulated it then, I was experiencing a strange and powerful phenomenon—the capacity that textiles have to stir our souls and capture our hearts. Don’t believe me? I have two words for you: fashion industry. Oh, and don’t forget bedsheets, kitchen towels and throw pillows. Or maybe you would prefer kilims, tapestries and kente cloth.

Cloth, sensuous silk, crisp linen, warm wool, is part of what makes being a human being pleasurable, like delicious food or great sex.

Or maybe it’s just me?

I make art on fabric because it pleases me, speaks to me, but ultimately fabric is the substrate and not the art itself.

I use many surface design techniques to achieve the marks on the fabric, and primarily disperse dyes, but these techniques are not the art itself.

For me making art is about exploring and expressing. I begin with an idea and then build on it by both thinking and doing. If I am working on a body of work for an exhibition, the process starts with a theme. I can’t honestly say where the first thought comes from. It feels like a nudge from the universe, from God, from my unconscious, even the collective unconscious? I don’t know. What I do know is that if I listen for the clues they will guide me.

Then, I research. I read what I can find on the subject. If I know someone who has expertise or experience in a related area I will seek them out. I journal, watch movies, do whatever I can to immerse myself in the concept. I try to remain open and nonjudgmental during this process. I believe in “take what you need and leave the rest.” That means I give myself permission to retain only what is meaningful to me.

This is a highly personal process, which can feel self-indulgent at times, but because I believe that art explores the deeper meaning of life and then symbolizes the essence on a personal and universal level, I think it is important to remain true to oneself. I find my work resonates with others more readily if I am working on a deeper level. I know that sounds strange, the more personal I get, the more others relate, but I think this is true in all the arts. Like when a musician writes a song about breaking up with her boyfriend and then thousands of individuals listen to it and are moved. Personal and universal.

Simultaneously I am working in the studio. Each day before I begin, I concentrate on my theme by journaling or meditation, I hold the intention (theme) in my mind, and then I start working by slowly exploring where it takes me. Using this process it is my hope to create a cohesive body of work—each piece a reflection on the overall theme.

Currently I am developing work for a solo exhibition, Rubicon, May 2nd - June 1st, at the Arts Center of the Ozarks in Springdale Arkansas. Rubicon, Wikipedia will tell you, is a shallow river in northeastern Italy whose name comes from the Latin word rubico, which comes from the adjective rubeus, which means red. You may have heard the figure of speech, “Crossing the Rubicon” —it means to pass a point of no return.

So these days you will find me in my studio, up to my elbows in red dye and wondering if I’ve passed the point of no return.

My ArtCloth

Autumn Etude
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 21 x 14 inches.

Bloom, Where Are You Planted.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 22 x 23 inches.

Sunshine, Sunshine.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 22 x 23 inches.

Winds Of Change.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 20.5 x 20.5 inches.

Petal Love.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 12 x 12 inches.

Sunday Blessing.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 15 x 15 inches.

Tender Truth.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 22.5 x 22.5 inches.

Tumbling Vine No. 1.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 22.5 x 22.5 inches.

Tumbling Vine No. 2.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 22.5 x 22.5 inches.

Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 22.5 x 22.5 inches.

Jennifer Libby Fay worked as a graphic and product design entrepreneur on the West Coast, applying her aesthetic sensibility to create effective visual communications and useful objects for the home. An accomplished handweaver and fiber artist, Fay now focuses primarily on textile surface design and multiple dying techniques, embellishment and fabric manipulation. Fay's work has been shown in select exhibitions in California, Washington State and Arkansas. She was recently named an “Arkansas Women to Watch” artist by the National Museum of Women in the Arts Arkansas State Committee. Fay’s colorful abstract and modern textiles have been well received, winning several awards and finding homes with many new collectors.

Saturday, March 3, 2012

Glossary of Terms
Edition 5.0[1-29]
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

There are currently seven data bases on this blogspot, namely: Glossary of Terms; Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff; A Fashion Data Base; Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins; the Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns, the Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements and lastly, the Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms.

The Glossary of Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, the Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns,the Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements and the Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms have been updated. These Glossaries will be updated in the future to incorporate more definitions that we should be aware of in our art practice.

If you find any post on this blog site useful, you can save it or copy and paste it into your own "Word" document etc. for your future reference. For example, Safari allows you to save a post (e.g. click on "File", click on "Print" and release, click on "PDF" and then click on "Save As" and release - and a PDF should appear where you have stored it). Safari also allows you to mail a post to a friend (click on "File", and then point cursor to "Mail Contents On This Page" and release). Either way, this or other posts on this site may be a useful Art Resource for you.

The Art Resource series will be the first post in each calendar month. Remember - these Art Resource posts span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist to that required by a final year University Fine-Art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource post may appear far too technical for your needs (skip over those mind boggling parts) and in other parts, it may be too simplistic with respect to your level of knowledge (ditto the skip). The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that Art Resource posts will hopefully be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately may not be satisfying to all!

It used to begin with just a dictionary, then thesaurus, and before too long perhaps even an encyclopedia - all bound and proudly standing on your bookshelf. Sooner or later as you gathered technical tomes, with extensive glossaries, you always wished that you could combine the glossaries into one super compendium that reflected your interest. Unfortunately, Blogger have got size restrictions and so I had to create well focussed glossaries, rather than a single all-encompassing one.

I started my own glossary of terms several decades before Wikipedia. Initially, Wikipedia was only as technically correct as its contributors - and that, in some cases was found to be wanting. Then in its second incarnation, they required their editors to list sources, encouraged their readership to challenge incorrect entries, created dialogues in order to eventually move to agreed definition(s) or description(s). It has become a great resource – a one-stop shop for unpacking definitions. What is more - it is fast and efficient.

How good is it in defining terms used in dyeing, fabrics and textiles? Not bad at all! However, there are some terms you cannot find, some fabrics that are not listed and some dye processes poorly worded. For example, the difference between two natural dyes such as substantive and adjective dyes is that one does not require a mordant whereas the other does. Wikipedia does not even have an entry for “substantive dyes” and so it cannot make clear the difference between them.

What Wikipedia also does not let you do is - browse. Search algorithms are getting smarter on that score. Just Google a word or a phrase! However, when you look up "Kersey" in Wikipedia you do not see "Kasha" (which is defined as: “A type of flannel that has black and colored fibers in the filling yarns.”) Serendipity sometimes works wonders. “Ah, I have often wondered what was Kasha - thanks Kersey!” That is why some Emeritus Professors lament a digitized world - they see serendipity fast disappearing in a manically ordered information systems. A little bit of serendipity, they say, is the basis of some great discoveries.

The first week of every month will give an overview of some area which underpins the art practice of dyeing or printing on cloth. The intention is to present small parcels of knowledge, which will be understood by novices, who may wish to enter this new continent of art called ArtCloth or dabble in the traditional fine-art prints on paper.

Marie-Therese Wisniowski's ArtCloth Work Titled - Entropy (Detailed View).
Techniques: Multiple discharge processes, silkscreened, stenciled and mono printed employing gels, transparent, opaque and metallic paints on rayon.
Size: 110 cm (width) x 320 cm (length).

The references - that were invaluable in this compilation - are given at the end of the glossary. All errors are mine. Enjoy!


Glossary of Terms

Acetone: A solvent. One of its uses is to remove rosin from metal.

Acetylate: To introduce an acetyl group (CH3CO-) into an organic compound. In textile chemistry this may be due to the reaction between a hydroxyl group(s) (-OH) with acetic acid and/or acetic anhydride.

Acid: When dissolved in water, an acid is a proton donor; on the pH scale, it has a pH lower than 7. Rainwater, sourced from the ocean, is slightly acidic with a pH ca. 5.0 - 5.6.

Acid Free: Material and paper without acidity; also termed "pH neutral".

Aging: Variety of techniques for simulating the effect of time and wear on new paint, wood or plasterwork.

Aggregate: The coarse or inert ingredients which are mixed with cement in the making of concrete.

Alcohol: Organic compounds containing one or more -OH groups.

Alkali (Base): When dissolved in water, a base is a hydroxide anion (OH-) donor. On the pH scale, its pH is greater than 7. For example, the lilac plant prefers soil that is slightly basic (pH 7.1 - 8.0).

Altimeter: Instrument that measures the height of an aircraft above the ground.

Amide Group: It has the chemical formula -CONH-. When found in nylon polymers it is called an amide group; when found in wool polymers it is called the peptide group.

Amino Goup: A radical with the chemical formula -NH2. This group is found in amino acids.

Amino Acid: A building block of proteins. There are approximately 22 amino acids available for protein construction. Amino acids contain a basic amino group and a carboxylic acid group.

Ammonia: Ammonia is a colorless gas. However, the public has incorrectly associated the name with ammonium hydroxide (which is the aqueous solution of ammonia). Hence in the latter form, it is often used as a cleaning agent and also in natural dyes as an additive when fermenting orchil-yielding umbilicate lichens. An alkali, it used sparingly in dyebaths, otherwise copious use of it will impair the quality of the fiber. A small amount added to a yellow bath (such as goldenrod) will result in a yellow-green color.

Anangu: An Australian aboriginal Pitjantatjara word meaning people; it may be used in a general way to mean "Aboriginal person" or more usually to denote a person from the Western Desert region (Australia).

Angstrom: 10-10 of a meter.

Aniline: Oily liquid from a nitro-benzene base used in preparing dyes and aniline ink, a volatile, quick drying printing ink.

Anion: A negative charge carrier.

Antistatic Agent: A polar or a small charge molecule that is added to the fiber in order to negate its static electric charge.

Aquamanile: Secular or ecclesiastic pouring vessel for hand-washing, often in the form of an animal figure.

Aramid: A high strength and/or flame resistant polyamide that contains aromatic components.

Arcade: A series of arches carried on columns. When the columns and arches are fixed against a wall, this is known as blind arcade.

Aromatic: A compound containing a benzene ring system.

Atom: The smallest particle of an element.

ATSIC: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission.

Auxochrome: A polar group or a negative atom, which intensifies the absorption of light by a dye. In some cases it will alter the hue of the dye.

Basilica: Originally a Roman building used as a court of law or for public meetings; evolved under Christianity into the Church, building with a long, narrow nave, side aisles, an apse at the end formerly occupied by the judge or emperor’s representative.

Baume Scale (abbr. Be): A scale of specific gravity of liquids.

Biomorphic: Having the qualities of living form.

Bond: The linkage between atoms in a molecule and between molecules and atoms in a crystal. It is also referred to as a chemical bond.

B.P.: In chemistry it is an abbreviation for boiling point.

Buffer Solution: Any solution that is formulated to a specific pH and that has the ability to oppose any pH change by the small addition of acids or bases. For example, human blood is buffered at a neutral pH (i.e. pH 7).

Cantilever: The free part of a horizontal member that projects into space, seemingly without support, while its internal end is anchored in the main structure.

Carragheen: The seaweed carragheen, is commonly used as an emulsifier in food, can also be used to thicken the floating bath for marbling techniques.

Cartridge Paper: Cartridge paper comes in several weights (e.g. 130 - 150 g) and is often used to apply paint or dye to it. It is good for collaging or intercutting into other designs, as it is flat and untextured.

Cassone: (plural: cassoni). Italian meaning: “large chest”. Term generally used to refer to decorated Italian wedding chest.

Catalyst: A chemical that speeds up a reaction, without it being altered by the reaction. In time, side products usually poison its catalytic activity.

Cation: A positive charge carrier.

Cellulose: The main constituent of the cell wall of all plants. It is a polymer of glucose (a natural sugar).

Cellulose Acetate: Plastic sheet material, usually transparent or translucent, available clear or colored and with shiny or matt finish. It is used as the basis of artwork and overlays.

Certosina: Geometric patterned inlay of wood, bone, mother of pearl, and metal favored in North Italian centers such as Venice.

Chemical Affinity: In chemical physics and physical chemistry chemical affinity is an electronic property by which dissimilar chemical species feel an attraction toward each other and so are capable of forming chemical compounds (e.g. electron deficient systems are attracted to electron rich systems). It can also refer to the tendency of an atom or compound to combine by a chemical reaction with atoms or compounds of unlike composition.

Chevet: French term for east end of church with chancel, ambulatory, and radiating chapels.

Clay Plaster: Versatile, natural “breathing” material.

Cloisonne: A means of setting cut stones or enamel between thin metal “walls” which have been fixed to a back-plate.

Computer Aided Design (CAD): The use of software packages such as Adobe’s Photoshop in order to create designs that can be translated onto fabrics by such companies as Spoonflower.

Computer Graphics: The use of computers to output information in graphic form.

Conjugated Bond Systems: A chemical system of alternating double and single bonds. These systems absorb strongly in the ultraviolet and in certain cases can absorb in the visible region of the light spectrum.

Contrapposto: A figural pose in which one part of the body turns or twists away from another, usually in an unsymmetrical pose characteristic of classical Greek and Roman figure sculpture, in which the weight is carried by one leg while the other is relaxed. This system of figural articulation was revived and much exploited during the Italian Renaissance.

Conversion Factors: (i)Area - 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2; (ii) Volume - 1 gallon(US) = 3.785 litres (l); 1 cubic foot = 28.317 litres; (iii) Pressure - 1 atmosphere = 101 325 Pa; 1 milli-meter (mm) of mercury ( or mm Hg) = 133.32 Pa; (iv) Energy - 1 erg = 10-7 Joules (J); 1 calorie = 4.184 J; (v) Temperature - Centigrade to Fahrenheit: oF = oC (9/5) + 32; Fahrenheit to Centigrade: oC = (oF -32)x(5/9); (vi) Length - 1 mile = 1.609 x 103 meters; 1 yard = 0.9144 meter; 1 inch = 2.54 cm; 1 foot = 12 inches = 30.48 cm; (vii) 1 pound (lb) = 0.4536 kg or 453.4 g; 1 ounce (oz) = 28.35 g; 1 kg = (1/0.4536) lb = 2.2046 lb.

Coplanar: In one plane. A coplanar molecule is one where all atoms are contained in one plane.

Copolymer: A polymer consisting of two or more different monomers.

Covalent Bond: A chemical bond in which electrons are shared between the atoms.

Crackleglaze: See craquelure.

Craquelure: Decorative glaze developed in the eighteenth century France to reproduce the fine network of cracks on Eastern lacquer work and pottery. Also known as crackleglaze.

Crayon Manner: An eighteenth century intaglio process (also called “chalk” manner) that employed spiked wheels (roulettes) to established grainy areas on an etching ground. The etched areas imitated chalk (crayon in French) marks when printed. Crayon manner was used primarily to reproduce sanguine chalk drawings popular in the eighteenth century.

Creole: Born or assimilated into the Caribbean region.

Dado: Lower part of the room wall when it is faced or colored differently from the upper part.

Degree of Polymerization: The average number of monomer units in a polymer chain. More specifically, it is the average molecular weight.

Density: Density is equal to mass divided by volume and so in the SI system has units of kg/m3 or g/cm3. The density of a substance varies at different temperatures (due to volume that changes as temperature changes) and so is quoted at particular temperatures. For the Imperial System - see Conversion Factors.

Detergent: A molecule with both polar or highly charge segments and a long non-polar chain, which therefore has both hydrophilic (water loving) and oleophilic (strong affinity for oils) character; it is used to remove or break up grease or oil and to increase wettability.

Devonshire Clay: China clay.

Diazo: abbr. Diazonium. A method of reproducing in limited quantities from a transparent or translucent original on paper, cloth or film. the image is exposed onto a light-sensitive coating of diazo salts and dyestuff and the print may be blue, black or another color.

Digital Positive: Positive created and output using a computer.

Dispersion Force: It is a force that is caused by an induced dipole – induce dipole contribution to more general force called the intermolecular force. That is, a dispersion force is when one neutral molecule (dye) can induce a dipole (negative and positive charges separated within it) in another neutral molecule (fiber) and vice-versa, thus causing a cohesive interaction between the two. It is the second strongest force between neutral molecules after the hydrogen bond.

Drywall: Plaster substitute such as plasterboard.

Electrolyte: A compound, which in a water solution (i.e. aqueous solution) or in a molten state, conducts an electric current and is simultaneously decomposed into ions; compounds which dissociate into ions and/or radicals in a water solution.

Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum: The complete range of wavelengths that constitute light.

Electronegative: A property of atoms, ions or molecules that have a strong attraction toward electrons (e.g. fluorine or chlorine).

Electropositive: A property of atoms, ions or molecules in which they readily give up electrons (e.g. lithium as in the lithium battery).

em: A unit of linear measurement, 12 points or 4.5 mm.

Emulsion: Suspension of an oil in water.

Endothermic: Describes a chemical process, such as a reaction, that absorbs heat in order for it to occur.

Energy: The capacity to do work. There are various form of energy: electrical, mechanical, heat, nuclear, chemical, potential, kinetic, translational, rotational and vibrational etc.

Entablature: The portion of a classical building façade between its column capitals and its roof; it contains the architrave, frieze, and cornice.

Entasis: A slight convexity or swelling in the shaft of a classical column; it counteracts the optical effect whereby perfectly straight columns seem to be narrower in the center.

Ester: The organic compound formed from a reaction between an alcohol and an organic acid. It has a general formula of, R-COO-R', where R and R' are various chemical groups.

Exothermic: Describes a chemical process, such as a reaction, that releases heat in order for it to occur.

Flash Point: The flash point is the lowest temperature at which a flame above the solvent will cause the solvent's vapor to ignite. Obviously, the lower the flash point the more readily the solvent's vapor will ignite at room temperature. In general those solvents with a flash point below 21oC are considered the most dangerous, while any solvents with a flash point below 32oC are still considered dangerously flammable. For example, methanol and ethanol have flash points of 11oC and 12oC, respectively. On the other hand butanol has a flash point of 36oC.

Fractions (Prefix) {Symbol}: 10-1 (deci) {d}; 10-2 (centi) {c}; 10-3 (milli) {m}; 10-6 (micro) {μ}; 10-9 (nano) {n}.

French Chalk: Talc is commonly sold under this name. It is neither precipitated chalk nor Paris white as its name suggests by its confusing name.

Frisee: Like a file except that the metal thread is twisted instead of flat.

Frottis (French): Glaze.

Full-Spectrum of Light: Artificial or natural light that contains all wavelengths of visible light.

Gel: A hydrophilic colloids, capable under certain conditions (such as lowering of the temperature) to produce a pseudo-solid (like a jelly) that may be easily deformable.

Generic Classification (Chemistry): Classification by chemical nature.

Geodesic: Word invented by R. Buckminister Fuller to describe his basically hemispherical domes, which rely for strength on the geometric grid of thin, straight members in tension and compression; sixty carbon atoms arranged as hexagons and pentagons – similar to a soccer ball – have been named after him and so are one of a family of “fullerines”.

Glass Transition Temperature of a Polymer: The glass transition temperature (Tg) of polymer is an accurate measure of its softness. A polymer that is too soft will lead to a cold flow in an adhesive and pick up dirt in a coating or fabric. A polymer, which is too hard, may crack when stressed or may not be able respond to movements in a fabric. Most polymers in fabrics have a glass transition temperature around room temperature.

Glucose (D form): A common sugar present in many plants and in human blood. It is a constituent of starch, cellulose and sucrose etc. and can be obtained from the latter in the hydrolysis with acids or enzymes.

Hagiography: The writing of Saints’ lives.

Hardness: For main measures of hardness of a material are: resistance to indentation; scratch resistance; damping of a pendulum; flexibility.

Hardness of Water: The property of water conferred by the presence of salts that prevent formation of a lather, with soaps.

Heat: Energy possessed by a substance in the form of kinetic energy of atoms or in the case of molecules due to their translational, rotational, and vibrational energies.

Heterocyclic: Describes organic compounds whose molecules are ring structures, which include atoms of elements other than carbon (C) and hydrogen(H); for example nitrogen (N).

Hieroglyph: An element of language recorded in the form of a pictogram or symbol rather than as a written word.

Hydrocarbons: Organic compounds whose molecules only containing carbon (C) and hydrogen (H).

Hydrofuge: A means of removing moisture; a substance or apparatus that removes moisture.

Hydrogen Bond: It is a linkage between a hydrogen atom (labeled H) in a molecule and another atom (labeled B) either in another molecule or in another part of the same molecule. Hence, has the pictorial form A-H…B (where … represents the hydrogen bond) and A and B are electronegative atoms with A belonging to the same molecule as hydrogen (H) but being covalently bonded to it.

Hydrolysis: The chemical decomposition of a substance by the reaction with water in which water is itself decomposed. Acids and alkalis often catalyze hydrolysis. The destructive effect of hydrolysis upon fiber polymers will also result in the rupture of inter-polymer forces of attraction.

Hydrophilic: Water loving (i.e. completely miscible in water).

Hydrophobic: Water hating (i.e. sparingly soluble in water).

Hygroscopic: The capacity for a chemical compound to uptake water. For example, NaCl (table salt) is extremely hygroscopic and so can dry out atmosphere in a confined area.

Imino Group: It has the chemical formula -NH-. The hydrogen atom (H) of this group is known as the imino hydrogen.

Imperial System Of Units: Units defined by the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824. The units of length (inches, foot and miles), mass (ounces and pounds), volume (gallon) and temperature (e.g. Farenheit) has historical rather than scientific significance.

Indigenous: Native to a region or locale; naturally produced or born in a specific place.

Infra-Red: Not a color name. Denotes those rays which lie beyond the red end of the visible spectrum, with wavelengths longer than those of visible light. Can be experienced as heat. From the Latin infra or under, which in this context has the same meaning as beyond.

Inorganic: Of mineral or non-livinig origin; the opposite to organic. Example of inorganic substances are mineral ores, rocks etc. Examples of inorganic compounds are salts (e.g. sodium chloride - table salt), acids (e.g. sulfuric acid) and mordants (e.g. potassium dichromate).

Insulation: Resistance to the passage of heat or electricity.

Intermolecular Forces: Commonly known as van der Waals’ forces (named after a scientist who first investigated the phenomenon), intermolecular forces can be weakly attractive and repulsive and so they operate at close range to be effective. In the case of the attractive force, it arises principally from: ion-ion interactions; ion-dipole interactions; dipole-dipole interactions; dipole-induced dipole interactions etc. It is the principle force that binds a dye to a fiber in hydrophobic fibers.

Ion: A carrier (atom or molecule etc.) possessing charge(s).

Ionic: Possessing charge(s).

Ionic Bond: A bond between two ions due to a mutual electrostatic attraction (e.g. table salt is made from the attraction of a positive sodium ion to a negative chlorine ion within a crystal lattice). In the case of dyeing, the mutual attraction generally is between positive centers in the fiber and negative centers in the dye molecule and between negative fiber sites and positive centers in the dye molecule. The dyeing of wool provides a simple example of this.

Isomerism: The existence of two or more compounds that have the same chemical formula but different chemical and physical properties due to different spatial arrangements of the atoms in the molecules. Each compound is called an isomer.

Jamb: The edge of a door or window opening.

Jesse Tree: Tree illustrating Christ’s descent from Jesse.

Joule: Unit of energy (e.g. heat) named after a scientist.

Jukurrpa: Dreaming (in Warlpiri, one of the Aboriginal languages spoken in the Western Desert, Australia).

Kelpie: Australian sheep dog breed.

Kelvin Temperature Scale: An absolute temperature scale. The zero point of the scale is the temperature at which a perfect gas would occupy zero volume if it could be cooled indefinitely without becoming a liquid. Absolute zero is -273.16oC. Hence water cools at 0oC or 273.16oK.

Kern: Part of a piece of type sticking out to one side of a body so that it overlaps onto the adjacent piece. See diagram below.

Keystone: The wedge shaped stone in the center of a masonry arch.

Keyword Index (Keyword-from-title Index): One of the significant word or words in the title of a written work by which it may be identified for retrieval, especially from computer memory store.

Kilogram: It is equal to the mass of a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at BIPM in Paris, France.

Kinetic Energy: The energy an entity possesses by virtue of its motion. Heating a fiber raises the motion of the fiber via the molecular vibrations of the polymers of the fiber.

Kirda: Among the Walpiri and related Australian Aboriginal desert groups, those with primary, usually patrilineally inherited rights in ceremonies, Dreamings, designs and so on -see kurdanguris.

Kitchen Measurements: 1/4 teaspoon (tsp) = 1 milli-litre (ml); 1/2 tsp = 2 ml; 1 tsp = 5 ml. (This illustrates a rough rounding off for 1/4 and 1/2 tsp); 2 tsp = 10 ml; 1 table spoonful (tbsp) = 15 ml; 1/4 cup (standard drinking cup) = 60 ml; 1/3 cup = 70 ml; 1/2 cup = 120 ml; 1 cup = 240 ml; 1 pint (US pt) = 0.473 litres (l); 1 quart (qt) = 1.1 litres (l).

Kookaburra/Laughing Jackass: Australian raucous kingfisher.

Koori: Generic term for the Aboriginal people of the Southern Eastern part of Australia- see also Murri, Nunga, Nyoongar.

Kore: Plural: korae. Greek meaning: “girl”. A Greek statue of a girl or young woman.

Kouros: Plural: kouroi. A Greek statue of a boy or young man.

Kraton: Javanese palace.

Kurdungiurlu: Among the Walpiri and related Australian Aboriginal groups, those with secondary, usually matrilineally inherited rights in ceremonies, Dreamings, graphic designs and so on - see also kirda.

Kurrajong: An Australian evergreen tree.

Kuruwarri: Men's designs and ceremonies (in the Australian Aboriginal Walpiri language).

Kwertengerl: An Anmatymerr word (Australian Aboriginal) meaning the manager of ceremony; this aboriginal language is spoken by many artists in the Utopia region (Australia).

Lake Base: Both blanc fixe and alumina hydrate are given this name.

Lantern: An open cylindrical construction which lets light into the top of a dome.

Light: (i) Common term for electromagnetic radiation; (ii) The opposite of dark. Principally used to modify generally defined colors such as light blue etc.

Lintel: The horizontal member of the post and lintel structural device supporting the weight above an opening in a wall such as a door or window etc.

Loc cit: abbr. loco citato, a Latin term for "in the place named", used as a reference in footnotes.

Luminescence: Light not associated with heat.

Luminosity: Measure of brightness of a paint or color.

Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS): An international standardized form which manufacturers are legally obliged to supply, containing information about materials and chemicals.

Megaliths: Immense stones such as were used in Stonehenge.

Menhir: A single, uncut, prehistoric megalith.

Meter (Metre): It is equal to the length of the path travelled by light in a vacuum during a time interval of 1/(299 792 458) of a second.

Methylene Radical: The radical -CH2- , which is found in many fiber polymers.

Methyl Radical: The radical -CH3 , which is derived from methane (CH4). Methyl radicals are found in many dye molecules.

Micron (also Micrometer): 10-6 of a meter.

Minaret: The tall, slender tower attached to a mosque; it has one or more balconies from which the muezzin calls Muslim to prayer.

Minnekastchen: Small love casket term used for northern European boxes decorated with scenes of courtly love, chivalric romance or similar themes.

Misting: Causes a vapor of droplets, which can easily be inhaled, especially when using a high-pressure hose.

Module: A standard or unit for measuring and designing; in architecture a device for standardizing the sizes and proportions of building parts and furnishings. See Le Corbusier’s modular.

Mole: Molecular weight of a substance expressed in grams.

Molecule: Molecules are composed of atoms and they are the smallest entity of any compound. Polymers are the molecules of fibers.

Molecule Orientation: The degree to which the fiber molecules are parallel to each other and to the longitudinal axis of the fiber.

Monomer: A single unit, which goes to make a polymer.

Multiples (Prefix) {Symbol}: 10 (deca) {da}; 103 (kilo) {k}; 106 (mega) {M}; 109 (giga) {G}; 1012 (Tera) {T}.

Nanometer: One billionth of a meter i.e. 10-9 of a meter.

Nave: The central part of the church used by congregants, running from the main entrance to the altar; usually flanked by side aisles and bordered by piers and columns.

Neolithic: Also Stone Age; starting about 10,000 or 8,000 B.C.; beginnings of settled living; farming, animal husbandry, spinning, weaving and fired pottery.

Obeah: Rituals and magic retained in the Caribbean from African spiritual practices used in punishment or retaliation.

Occlusion: The surrounding of isolated particles of a substance by a solid or semi-solid. Absorption or adsorption of gases by a solid.

Oculus: The “eye” of circular opening at the top of a dome.

Oil Glaze: See glaze.

Oleophilic: Literally, oil-loving: describes the tendency of hydrophobic fibers to cling tenaciously to oil and grease.

Oleophobic: Having an aversion to oil; repels oil, grease, wax etc.

Organic: (i) The term used to describe substances composed essentially of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and nitrogen (N), often in conjunction with oxygen (O). All commonly used textile fibers are organic; (ii) In art, forms that resemble the structure of living things; shaped like the parts of plants and animals rather than machines; natural.

Outstation: An Australian colloquialism referring to small Aboriginal communities established away from larger communities and usually located in, or close to, their traditional country.

Oxidation: An oxidation reaction involves electron loss. That is, it is a reaction in which electrons are removed from a chemical species that is being oxidized. Older definitions (not general enough) define it in terms of the addition of oxygen atoms to, or the removal of hydrogen atoms from molecules.

Particulate Respirator: Close-fitting high grade breathing mask designed to filter very fine particles.

Parts Per Million (ppm): One part per million is 1 mg m-3.

Pearl Binder: Pearl binder is mixed with standard pigment colors turning them metallic. It is also opaque.

Pediment: The triangular spaced formed by the gable end of a classical building; the shape created by the sloping roof and the horizontal cornice; usually holds sculptured figures.

Pendentives: The curve triangular areas of masonry that supports a dome resting on a square base.

pH: A logarithmic scale between 0-14 that that measures the strength of acids or bases. A large pH indicates a strong base (e.g. pH = 14) and a low pH indicates a strong acid (e.g. pH = 1). A neutral solution has a pH of 7.

Pilaster: Rectangular column, especially one engaged in a wall.

Plumbago: Graphite.

Plumbline: Weighted string used for marking verticals.

Polar: A partial separation of electronic charge in atoms, or molecules.

Polar Group: A group of atoms which are either positively or negatively charged.

Polarity: The positive or negative charge of an atom or group of atoms.

Polymer: A large molecule formed by joining together, via chemical bonds, many smaller sub-units (called monomers) in a repeated pattern.

Polymerization: Molecular re-alignment impelled by some external force or treatment. An internal change by which properties of a substance are changed and its molecular weight increase without the addition of a new ingredient.

Polypeptide: A linear polymer of amino acid (protein) which are linked together by a peptide bond (-CONH- link).

Positive: Refers to the primary objects or shapes in a composition excluding the background.

Post and Lintel: The principal structural device of classical Greek architecture employing two vertical members of posts and a horizontal beam or lintel.

Pounds Per Square Inch (Abbreviation: psi): A British Imperial measurement of pressure used in pressure steaming.

Pragmatics: Semiotic(s).

Protein: A natural polymer of amino acids that is found in animals and plants. It is also called a natural polypeptide.

QED: abbr. Quod erat demonstrandum, a Latin term meaning "a thing which has been proved".

Quadrilateral: Plane figure bounded by four straight lines; there are six types - see below.

Quanta: Small packets of energy of light; a quanta of light can be visualized as an ethereal bullet that has no mass but only energy.

Quantity Sizes: Dozen (doz.) = 12; Score = 20; Gross = 144 (or a dozen's dozen); Ton (USA) = 907.19 kg.

Radical: A group of atoms that have unpaired electrons. They are therefore very reactive. Ozone is a radical.

Redox Reaction: In every chemical reaction that involves oxidation, a reduction process must also occur for the reaction to be balanced. A redox reaction is the simultaneous reduction-oxidation reactions that must be coupled in order to give a balanced chemical reaction or equation.

Reductant: A reductant is a chemical species capable of donating electrons.

Reduction: Reduction is a chemical reaction that involves a gain of electrons. That is, it is a reaction in which electrons are given from a chemical species that is being reduced. Older definitions (not general enough) define it in terms of the loss of oxygen atoms or the addition of hydrogen atoms from molecules.

Reduction Printing: (i) Screen filler stencil process using a single open area: a series of stencils are made (and printed) which progressively reduce the printing area; (ii) A method of printing using only one screen for every color in the image. Each color is printed after applying a block out medium to the screen, with no block-out being removed. The open or unprinted areas of the screen become increasingly smaller during the process.

Refraction: The bending of light as it passes from one medium into another (e.g. light going from air into water is refracted or bent; hence fish appear to be shifted from their actual location).

Relative Humidity: A measurement of the amount of moisture or water vapor present in one cubic meter of air, expressed as a percentage of the maximum amount of water vapor the one cubic meter of air could hold at the temperature when the measurement was taken.

Roundel: A circular or oval panel of white glass (less commonly rectangular) of approximately 20 cm in diameter, made of a single piece decorated with monochrome glass-paint and yellow stain. Later examples also display enamel colors. They depict religious and secular subject-matter and were designed to be viewed at close quarters, often in domestic and other secular settings. They became popular in the last quarter of the fifteenth century, and the largest number were made in the Low Countries.

Salt: Sodium chloride is common table salt. There are several forms: sea salt (contains other salts in smaller amounts such as magnesium chloride); coarse pickling salt and ordinary iodized salts (contains potassium iodide etc.) The addition of a salt to dye bath softens the colors and slightly retards the rate at which the fiber absorbs the dye. It is used to “draw” the color from certain dyestuffs, namely flowers, barks, lichens and roots, and is sometimes added to these when they are soaking out. A final hot water and salt rinse is beneficial when rinsing out some colors after dyeing. This adds in the fastness of these shades and prevents too much color “rubbing off” after yarns are dry.

Santeria: An African Cuban religion derived from Yoruba beliefs and rituals.

Saturated Covalent Bond: A single covalent bond that does not take part in additional reactions. In textile chemistry, saturated covalent bonds occur most frequently between two carbon atoms, and or between one carbon (C) atom and an atom of hydrogen (H), oxygen (O) and/or nitrogen (N). Saturated covalent bonds are strong, stable and so not reactive.

Scoring: It is - in bottle cutting, scratching a fine clean line into the surface of the bottle to provide a break line.

Second: It is the duration of exactly 9192631770 periods of radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium-133 atom.

Second Empire Style: The ornate, ostentatious, and largely eclectic style current in interior design in France under the reign of Napoleon III (reigned 1848-70).

Sign: In communication studies, any means whereby one human, animal or plant seeks to affect behavior or condition of another by means of communication; “sign types" are those universal (such as letters of the alphabet) which are drawn on to produce "sign events", physical embodiment of sign-types (such as speech, or a piece of writing).

Snow White: Same as white, chalky, lily white. The color of snow; the whitest of whites. Zinc white.

Sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate (Reducing Agent): Commercial names: Formosul and Rongalite C. It is a general purpose reducing agent. It is easy to handle and produces a good white on cellulose, cellulose acetate, triacetate and 100% silk fabric. It is rarely used on wool because it may cause fiber damage and shrinkage problems, because it functions best in an alkaline pH range. With some finer fabrics the production of a “halo” effect may cause some problems.

Soft Water: The absence of mineral salts in the water (see hardness of water).

Solubility: The degree to which a substance will dissolve in a solvent such as water.

Solvent: (i) Usually toxic (but it can be non-toxic) chemical used to dissolve oily block out materials from the screen or used as a pressurized removing agent (e.g. water pressure); (ii) Part of oil-based paints that evaporates during drying.

Solvent Cement: Special adhesive to join sheet plastic. It works by dissolving a small amount of the plastic on each of the surfaces being joined. When the material re-hardens, the surfaces are permanently joined.

Spandrel: The curved triangular area left between an arch, the vertical from which it springs, and the horizontal across its apex.

Specific Gravity: The density of substance, expressed as the ratio of density of water.

Standard International Units (SI Units): It is also known as the International System of Units (abbreviated SI from Systeme International D'unites). It is the modern variant of the metric system that is based on a power of ten between various categories of length (e.g. metre and centi-metre), mass(e.g. kilogram and gram), volume (litre and milli-litre), and temperature (the melting of ice - 0oC - and the creation of steam - 100oC).

Strapwork: Ornamentation imitating plaited straps.

Strip Heater: Heater designed to heat plastic along a straight line for the purpose of softening sheet plastic so it can be bent or shaped.

Symbolism: The systematic use of visual symbols according to mythical, religious, literary etc. traditions.

Tablet: Same as digitizing pad.

Taipan: An Australian venomous snake.

Taoism (Chinese Term): An indigenous belief system based on the forces of nature and teachings of Lao Tzu (6th Century BC).

Tasmanian Devil: Small fierce flesh-eating marsupial.

Tele-: Prefix meaning "at a distance".

Telecommunication: Sending or receiving signals, sounds or messages of any kind by television, radio, telephone or any other electromagnetic means.

Temperature (Degree Kelvin): It is the fraction 1/273.16 (exactly) of the thermodynamic triple point of water; that is, the point where ice, steam and liquid water can all co-exist.

Tingari: Commonly described as a group of Aboriginal ancestral beings, with one or more dominant men or women, who brought law and culture to the peoples of the Western desert region (Australia).

Threshold Limit Value (TLV): This is a limit value which gives the lower safety limit. Any solvent with a TVL less than 200 ppm should be avoided or treated with considerable caution. For example, the TVL of gasoline is ca. 300 ppm. In the case of solvents you need to prevent contact with eyes and skin for a TLV of 2 mg m-3 (2ppm). Note: Sometimes Occupational Exposure Limits (OEL) is used in lieu of TLV.

Time: Both the SI unit and the Imperial system have the same units for time.
1 Year = 3.16x107 seconds (s); 1 Month (31 Days) = 267.84 x 108 s; 1 Day = 8.64 x 104 s; 1 hour = 3.6 x 103 s; 1 minute = 60 s.

Tjukurpa: The "Tjukurpa" or "Dreamtime" or "Dreaming" as it is sometimes loosely translated into English, is fundamental to Central Australian Aboriginal life. It defines traditional aboriginal law and religion and encompasses the land and its creation and all that exists. Different language groups of Central Australia have different words and spellings for the same concepts, sometimes capitalized and sometimes not. Some of these are: Tjukurpa (Pitjantjatjara language), Altyerre (Arrernte), Jukurrpa (Warlpiri) and Tjukurrpa (Pintupi - Luritja). It is incorrect to assume that all aboriginal groups in Australia have "Dreamings" or even similar "Dreamings" to those in Central Australia.

Tog: A metric unit for insulation value equal to the thermal resistance that will allow heat flow of one watt per square meter from a temperature differential of 0.1oC.

Tongue-and-Groove: Joint made between two boards by means of a tongue projecting from the edge of one board that slots into a groove along the edge of the other.

Topography: Science of representing features of any district in detail, as on a map.

Topology: Branch of mathematics concerned with contiguity and relative position, rather than with congruence and dimension.

Trademark: Legal name of a product.

Transept: The cross arm in a basilica church; it meets the Nave at right angles, separating the nave from the apse; the main altar is usually under the crossing of the Nave and transept.

Tribute System (Chinese Term): Neighboring states submit to the Chinese Emperor by exchanging gifts for trading privileges in China.

Trumeau: A central support for tympanum in a large doorway.

Tucker: An Australian term for food.

Tweeter: Loudspeaker in a Hi-Fi system for reproducing chiefly high-pitched sounds.

Tyepty: An Anmatyerr word (Australian Aboriginal) meaning storytelling game of drawing in the ground; Anmatyerr is spoken by many artists from the Utopia region (Australia).

Tympanum: The space between the lintel and the arch above a doorway filled with stone.

Typology: A common medieval narrative mode in which events in the Old Testament are presented as prefiguring events in the New Testament.

UDC: Initials of "Universal Decimal Classification": system of classifying areas of knowledge developed as extension of "Dewey Decimal Classification".

Ultraviolet (UV or U/V): Light waves beyond the visible portion of violet waves in the electromagnetic spectrum, which can be absorbed by some photosensitive materials.

Umbrella (Religious Chinese Symbol): Royal grace.

Universal Copyright Convention (1952): Agreement beween signatory countries giving protection for copyright proprietor of text, photograph, illustration, movie, work of art, providing work carries proper copyright notice consisting of symbol, name of copyright proprietor and year of publication.

Unsaturated Covalent Bond: A double or triple bond, which in general are more reactive than saturated covalent bonds and so can undergo addition reactions. Also used in connection with saturated fats (which contain saturated covalent bonds i.e. single bonds - not reactive) and unsaturated fats (which contain unsaturated covalent bonds - double or triple bonds - very reactive)

UPC: Initials of "Universal Product Code" (see "bar code").

Vajara (Chinese Term): A Buddhist symbol representing a thunderbolt.

van der Waals Forces: These forces are really due to intermolecular forces but on occasion have been named after the Dutch physicist who investigated their effects on the properties of gases. They are weak attractions or repulsions that operate at close range between all types of atoms and molecules and in the cases of attractions are the principal reason that dyes will bond in hydrophobic fibers. See intermolecular forces.

Vault: A masonry, brick or concrete arched structure forming a ceiling or roof over a hall; barrel vault, groin vault, ribbed vault.

Vector: Generally, any quantity having both magnitude and direction and expressed by a straight line of a given length; more specifically, those line increments from which some types of computer-generated graphics displays are formed - see diagram below.

Venn Diagram: On using circles, ovals or other closed figures to illustrate sets, named after John Venn, who used them from 1880; also known as "Euler Circles" after Leonhard Euler, who used them in 1770 (although they appear to have been invented by Johann Christoph Sturm in 1661 - see diagram below.

Vertex: Plural - vertices. In geometry, meeting-point of lines that form an angle.

Vine Black: Made by calcining selected wood and other vegetable products. This pigment and the other blacks referred to it are members of a group of rather impure forms of carbon made by burning selected, but rather second-rate materials of vegetable, animal, and petroleum origins. They all have a bluish undertones and when mixed with whites will produce blue-greys. They are inferior to the lampblack group in intensity and pigment properties. While these materials are probably permanent enough for most practical uses, it is wiser to select one of the purer forms of carbon as listed under Black Pigments. The vine black group should not be used in fresco or to mix with cement, mortar etc. because of efflorescence from water-soluble impurities, which they always contain.

VOC: abbrev. Volatile organic compound.

Voussoir: A wedge-shaped block used in the construction of a masonry arch.

Waddy: Australian aboriginal term for heavy wooden war club or throwing stick.

Walka: Australian Aboriginal word which translated means meaningful or intentional marks (e.g. sometimes used in the context of mark making on cloth).

Walkabout: Australian aboriginal term for period of wandering in the Australian bush for spiritual renewal.

Wan (Chinese Religious Symbol): Ten thousand.

Wandjina: Generic term for a group of Aboriginal ancestral beings in the Kimberly (Australia), who control elements and maintain fertility in human beings and other natural species.

Warrigal: An Australian aboriginal term for dingo, or wild horse.

Wheel of Law (Chinese Religious Symbol): The teaching of Buddha.

Wire-Side: That side of some uncoated papers (such s antiques) which shows a wire-mark - as distinct from felt-side.

Wobble Board: An Australian term for a fiber-board sheet that booms when shaken and flexed and is used as a musical instrument.

Wombat: An Australian furry burrowing marsupial.

Woofer: Loudspeaker for reproducing chiefly low-pitched sounds.

Woomera: An Australian aboriginal term for hooked stick for launching spears or darts.

Wowser: An Australian term for a puritan, killjoy, prude.

Wurley: An Australian aboriginal terms for shelter or hut, typically made of branches,leaves and grass matting.

Yawulyu: Aboriginal women's designs and ceremonies (in the Walpiri language).

Yirrjta: Name for one of the two Aboriginal complementary social and religious categories (moieties) in Central and Eastern Arnhem land (Australia) - see also Dhuwa.

Yolngu: Generic term for the Aboriginal peoples of Central and Eastern Arnhem land (Australia).

Ziggurat: The almost pyramid-shaped monument of the ancient Babylonians and Assyrians, consisting of four or five stages or stories stepped back to form terraces; outside stairways lead to temples and a shrine on top.

Zoning: Partitioning a city or town by ordinance into specific areas or zones for manufacturing, recreation, and residence.

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[28] W. Caruana, Aboriginal Art, 3rd Edition, Thames & Hudson, London (2012).

[29] M-T Wisniowski, personal communication (2013).