Saturday, March 31, 2012

The Art of Jenny Kee
Wearable Art



Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Preamble
Designer clothes, cloths and wearable art itself have featured on this blogspot. For your convenience I have listed the following posts that feature images of designer clothes, cloths and/or wearable art.
Confluence – 2011 International SDA Conference
Transformation
ArtCloth Swap
A Selection of My Scarves
A New Collection of Designer Cloths
My Velvet Scarves@Purple Noon
Fabric Lengths@QSDS
Costumes of Ballets Russes
Nuno Felted Scarves@Felted Pleasure
Versace Retrospective – 1982 to 1997
After Five – Fashion From Darnell
My Fabric Collection
Costumes of the Tsars
Ludmilla's Wearable Art
Australian Craft Finalist Award
Fashion From 1907 to 1967
The Basic Kimono Pattern
The Kimono and Japanese Textile Design
My Scarves@2014 Scarf Festival
The Art of Fascinators - Flora Fascinata
Some Wearable Art@The Powerhouse Museum
Muslim Headscarves
Wearable Art Produced by the TextielLab in 2013
Ancient Egyptian Dress
Costumes Designed for the Australian Ballet
A Fashion Data Base (1.0)


Introduction
Jenny Kee was born in Sydney in 1947 with an unusual Australian mixed heritage for those times - her mother was of Anglo-Saxon and Italian decent and her father was Chinese. In 2012 such a melded heritage in Australia is far more commonplace. She wrote her autobiography – A Big Life[1] - in 2006.

Jenny grew up in Bondi (Sydney) with a younger sister, Lizzie, and an older brother, Anthony. In the 1950s she attended Bondi Beach Public School. Jenny started doing a dress designing course at East Sydney Technical School in 1963 [2]: “… 'cause that's what I wanted to be - a [fashion] designer” . She was in reality doing a dress making course (practice only) rather than a dress-designing course (concept put into practice) and so she only lasted a year. Moreover, she wanted to be in the midst of a youth scene rather than be with dress makers.

Jenny Kee.
Courtesy of reference[2].

1964 was a seminal year for most Australian teenagers in the 60s. The Beatles had captivated the world in the early 60s – with their music, their humor and their art. In 1964 they had not reached the zenith of their musicality or influence, but because of Australian music promoter Kenn Brodziak's foresight, the Beatles were contracted to give numerous concerts in Australia on the cusp of their rise to fame.

Jenny was determined to meet them, which resulted in one night with John Lennon that changed her life forever. Jenny travelled to England and worked at Biba, which was “the” boutique in London at that time.

In London, Jenny discovered the Chelsea Antique Market that later she viewed as: “…my university of fashion and life”. Her life in London reflected the times since [3]: “For the first few years I was very fuelled with a lot of sex, drugs and rock'n'roll and pop stars coming out of every corner. So, from that heavy sort of, pop world, and sort of, being very wild sexually, I just had enough at a certain point and I just wanted to meet someone and fall in love”. Jenny met Michael, an Australian artist. For the first time, she felt genuinely adored and loved and so started developing self-confidence.

By the early 70s, London was no longer the youth vanguard in music, fashion and the arts. San Francisco had arrested the attention and life style of the youth. The Italian fashion houses were imbued with a new wave of designers that etched out future directions that stemmed from the youth revolution. The arts were once again dominated by New York. In 1973 Jenny Kee and her husband returned to Australia. At this time a new exciting and optimistic political framework was in play, and so they stayed. Six months later she opened a shop, Flamingo Park, which modelled itself on the vintage and retro fashion experience she had in London. Just before she opened Flamingo Park, Jenny met Linda Jackson - another turning point in her life[3]. Her friendship with Linda bought her back to the roots of her passion, namely wearable art.

Jenny Kee had always been conscious of wearable art. Her mother bought her Charles Jourdan shoes when she was 12-13 years old. Both would often roam all over Sydney, finding clothes or the fabrics that Jenny Kee wanted [2]. She had a dressmaker, who made clothes to her own designs[2]. Jenny also came from a background of fashion since her Aunt - Una - had worked for Madame Pellier, making silk blouses in the 1920s that were selling for 100 pounds (the Australian currency at the time)[3].

Jenny Kee's mentor was Vern Lambert from Melbourne (Australia), who had no formal fashion training, but was as knowledgeable as any professor of fashion. He taught her the detail of how something was stitched - why it might have been so in the context of its era[3]. Linda Jackson and Jenny Kee travelled to Milan, New York and the Paris fashion houses[2]. She was the first Sydney-sider to ever be in “Italian Vogue”[2].

As her husband was leaving Australia, another turning point occurred in her life – Jenny met Danton Hughes (his father was Robert Hughes - an Australian who worked in New York as an art critic). A passionate relationship lasted eleven years with Danton - until his untimely death[2]. He was for her a most creative designer.

Australia has so little moisture in its atmosphere that UV light is not effectively mitigated, resulting in clear, sharp, brash colors and images that are embedded in its soil (red ochre), burnt into its grass (yellow greens), radiated from its atmosphere (deep blues), and stitched in the memories of its people. Consequently, Jenny Kee's designs are quintessential Australian with motifs such as native animals (e.g. koalas), native plants (e.g. waratahs and black boys), and gem stones such as opals. She was also influenced by its first peoples - the Australian Aboriginals and their heritage, that fills this land of ours.

Jenny Kee's colors reflect the physical and psychological landscapes of its peoples. Her colors are bold and vibrant, reflecting the freshness and vibrancy of a newly awakening continent that is boldly striving forward, unaware of past shackles, unaware of structured or forced or unnatural boundaries. Her color palette is often compared to Australian artists Ken Done, but actually it reflects her own melded Australian heritage and her world-wide experiences.

Jenny Kee's sweaters were worn by Lady (and then Princess) Di, Barry Humphries, and Olivia Newton-John (just to name a few!)[3] Her opal prints arrested international attention, where it caught the attention of Italian "Vogue" and also Karl Lagerfeld. The opal print went into "Vanity" magazine. Lagerfeld saw it there, and then he said, "That will be my print" for the first designer range that he was doing with Chanel. The latter had 64 of her garments coming down his cat walk[3].

Jenny's designs are world-renowned, exhibited at such places as the Art Gallery of NSW, the Australian National Gallery, Sydney's Powerhouse Museum, London's Victoria and Albert Museum and the Marimura Museum in Tokyo.

For more recent work go to Jenny Kee's website:

Jenny Kee


The Wearable Art Of Jenny Kee

Courtesy of reference[4].

Courtesy of reference[4].

Courtesy of reference[4].

Courtesy of reference[4].

Courtesy of reference[4].

Courtesy of reference[4].

Courtesy of reference[4].

Courtesy of reference[5].

Courtesy of reference[5].

Courtesy of reference[5].

Courtesy of reference[5].

References:
[1] Jenny Kee, A Big Life, Latern, Sydney (2006). ISBN 192098934X.

[2] "Talking Heads" (ABC programme).

[3] "Sunday Arts" (ABC programme).

[4] Australian Fashion Design, Elina Mackay Design Pty. Ltd., McMahons Point, Sydney (1985). ISBN 0949708 17 8.

[5] The Great Aussie Fashion, Kevin Weldon and Elina Mackay, McMahons Point Sydney (1984) ISBN 0 949708 11 9.

Saturday, March 24, 2012

“Leaves Transformed”
A New Collection of Digitally Designed Fabrics

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Preamble
Designer clothes, cloths and wearable art itself have featured on this blogspot. For your convenience I have listed the following posts that feature images of designer clothes, cloths and/or wearable art.
Confluence – 2011 International SDA Conference
Transformation
ArtCloth Swap
A Selection of My Scarves
The Art of Jenny Kee
My Velvet Scarves@Purple Noon
Fabric Lengths@QSDS
Costumes of Ballets Russes
Nuno Felted Scarves@Felted Pleasure
Versace Retrospective – 1982 to 1997
After Five – Fashion From Darnell
My Fabric Collection
Costumes of the Tsars
Ludmilla's Wearable Art
Australian Craft Finalist Award
Fashion From 1907 to 1967
The Basic Kimono Pattern
The Kimono and Japanese Textile Design
My Scarves@2014 Scarf Festival
The Art of Fascinators - Flora Fascinata
Some Wearable Art@The Powerhouse Museum
Muslim Headscarves
Wearable Art Produced by the TextielLab in 2013
Ancient Egyptian Dress
Costumes Designed for the Australian Ballet
A Fashion Data Base (1.0)


Introduction: Digital Textile Printing
Digital textile printing is often referred to as direct to garment printing (DTG printing). Digital garment printing is a process of printing on textiles and garments using specialized or modified inkjet technology. Inkjet printing on fabric is also possible with an inkjet printer by using fabric sheets with a removable paper backing. Today major inkjet technology manufacturers can offer specialized products designed for direct printing on textiles, not only for sampling but also for bulk production.

Since the early 1990's, inkjet technology and specially developed water-based ink (known as dye-sublimation or disperse direct ink) has offered the possibility of printing directly onto polyester fabric. This is mainly related to visual communication in retail and brand promotion (flags, banners and other point of sales applications). Printing onto nylon and silk can be achieved by using an acid-based ink. Reactive ink is used for cellulose-based fibers, such as cotton and linen. Using inkjet technology in digital textile printing allows for single pieces, mid-run production and even long-run alternatives to screen printed fabric. (Wikipedia).

I have been designing my hand dyed and hand printed fabric lengths using a range of fabrics and multiple surface design techniques. As a graphic designer in a previous career, I have always had an interest in creating imagery, prints and illustrations using digital processes. This interest has led me to some fascinating experimentation in the field of digitally created fabrics and textiles. I have uploaded my new digitally designed fabric collection, "Leaves Transformed", to this blog.

The designs have been created from my personal photographic stock, which have been transformed using painterly tools in a digital format. The colors have been sensitively and painstakingly manipulated to create a superb complimentary color-ways suite. The stunning designs can be used for interior design, clothing items and other decorative purposes. There are six color-ways in the collection that are available for purchase.

The eco-friendly textile printed designs are available in ten natural fabrics including silk crepe de chine, upholstery weight twill, organic cotton sateen, organic cotton knit, linen-cotton canvas, cotton silk, cotton voile, cotton poplin, quilting weight cotton and Kona® Cotton. Fabric widths vary from 40" (102 cm), 42" (107 cm), 54" (137 cm), 56" (142 cm), and 58" (147 cm) depending on the chosen fabric.

There is no minimum order and the printed fabrics range from a test swatch (8" x 8" or 20 cm x 20 cm) to a fat quarter (21" x 18" or 53 cm x 46 cm) or to whatever your yardage requirements may be.

These fabric lengths can be used for wearable art, accessories, furnishing and interior design projects. If you would like to purchase fabric lengths from my “Leaves Transformed” collection please email me for pricing or for any other information.

Email Marie-Therese


My "Leaves Transformed" Collection - for wearable art and interior design projects
Each work in the collection below shows a fat quarter (21" x 18" or 53 x 46 cm) view of the printed fabric design and a one yard length (36" or 91.5 cm) view of the printed fabric design.

Leaves Transformed in green color-way (fat quarter).

Leaves Transformed in green color-way (one yard).

Leaves Transformed in grey-green-multi color-way (fat quarter).

Leaves Transformed in grey-green-multi color-way (one yard).

Leaves Transformed in grey-purple-green-multi color-way (fat quarter).

Leaves Transformed in grey-purple-green-multi color-way (one yard).

Leaves Transformed in blue color-way (fat quarter).

Leaves Transformed in blue color-way (one yard).

Leaves Transformed in purple color-way (fat quarter).

Leaves Transformed in purple color-way (one yard).

Leaves Transformed in grey-white color-way (fat quarter).

Leaves Transformed in grey-white color-way (one yard).

Saturday, March 17, 2012

In Pursuit of ArtCloth - MultiSperse Dye Sublimation (MSDS)
Technique Based Article - Embellish Magazine



Author: Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Introduction
In the late 1990s I started to work with disperse dyes on polyester and synthetic fabrics employing transfer printing techniques. I was captivated by the richness, depth of color and overprinting possibilities that could be achieved using the dyes. Since then I have been actively experimenting with hand printing techniques using disperse dyes on synthetic and polyester fabrics. These experiments have led to one of my new signature techniques that I have developed and termed - MultiSperse Dye Sublimation (MSDS). I have been teaching my MSDS technique at international and national conferences/workshops, textile forums, to textile groups and within university courses.

The MultiSperse Dye Sublimation (MSDS) Technique
The MSDS technique employs disperse dyes and involves hand printing multiple resists and multiple overprinted layers employing numerous color plates, mixed media and low relief plant materials. The completed works are rich in color, light, shade, contrast, movement and depth. The multiple layers also imbue a painterly aesthetic and textural, three-dimensional quality to the finished ArtCloth works. Each print is unique and cannot be replicated.

Sublimation Printing
In sublimation printing, once the dye has been painted on a paper and is dry, the painted side of the paper is placed on top of the fabric surface that is to be dyed. Then heat is applied via an iron or a heat press (under pressure) to the back of the dry, dyed paper. The dye vaporizes from the paper and infuses into the surface of the target fabric. The vapor dye reacts with the target fabric surface and adheres to it via ‘attractive’ forces. The heat of the iron serves a dual purpose: (a) it vaporizes the dye; (b) it assists the dye to infuse into the fabric surface and adhere to it.

My MSDS technique has been published in the March/June 2012, Volume 2, Issue 9 copy of Embellish: The Australian magazine for shibori and more (Artwear Publications). If you would like to have a reference copy, which shows images and text of the technique, it will be available in newsagents in the first week in March until June 2012. It is also available via subscription. There are of course a lot of other great techniques in the issue as well. Note: ArtWear Publications also publish Felt magazine, Yarn magazine and Textile Fibre Forum magazine.

Disclaimer: Marie-Therese Wisniowski, Art Quill Studio, and Art Quill & Co has no financial interest in Embellish or in any of the products mentioned in the article.

See the following URL for more information: Embellish Magazine

Now to whet your appetite, have some fun and have a go!

Scarf printed using the artist’s signature MultiSperse Dye Sublimation (MSDS) and mixed media resists on polyester.

One stage of the process.
Place your scarlet (mid) disperse dye painted paper plate onto the dyed fabric and flora items, color side down.

Another stage of the process.
Start pressing and overprinting an area of the paper plate with a hot iron being careful not to move the low relief items.

The final stage of the process.
Leave the fabric to cool and then remove the low relief flora items to reveal the finished print.
Note the complexity of the work, the painterly quality, and the three dimensional aspect of the finished ArtCloth.

See this blog site for more examples of disperse dyed ArtCloth works employing my MSDS technique (2010 - September 23rd, 2011 - February 5th, May 7th, June 11th, October 29th and those of my students (2011 - January 22rd and 29th, July 9th, September 17th, October 15th) in the Art Quill Studio blog archives.

Saturday, March 10, 2012

My Voice using Disperse Dyes on Cloth
ArtCloth

Guest Artist: Jennifer Libby Fay

Preamble
This blogspot has a number of posts that highlight the artwork of invited artists. For you convenience I have listed them below:
Lesley Turner
Flora Fascinator
Shirley McKernan


Introduction
I first met Jennifer in 2011 at the Surface Design Association's "Confluence" conference in Minneapolis, Minnesota (USA). Since then I have been delighted to experience her distinctive artistic voice using disperse dyes on cloth.

Jennifer Libby Fay - Guest Artist - at work in her studio lifting cloth.
Kansas City, Missouri (USA).

I love her artwork and so I was pleased that she agreed to be a Guest Artist on this blog spot. To see more of her artwork go to her web site - Jennifer’s Web site - or email her: Jennifer’s Email


Guest Artist: Jennifer Libby Fay
Artist’s Statement

My work is about transformation, imagination and symbol. Beyond the obvious and immediate meaning of a composition, I am interested in exploring the relationship between art, nature and spirituality. Despite the complexity of my subject matter, my goal is to find peace in a confusing and precarious world; to project a calm, contemplative atmosphere in my work. I enjoy exploring the deeper meaning - the source. I hope to engage your eyes, inspire your passion, and take you on a visual expedition into new territory.

Process
As a small child I received a box of silk brocade fabric swatches from my grandmother—multicolored iridescent squares, pinked around the edges. I suppose it was part of her mission to teach me to sew. Girls were expected to do that in her day. Little did she know the spell she had cast. I sorted, stacked and arranged those jewel-like bits every day, captivated by their beauty.

Although I could not have articulated it then, I was experiencing a strange and powerful phenomenon—the capacity that textiles have to stir our souls and capture our hearts. Don’t believe me? I have two words for you: fashion industry. Oh, and don’t forget bedsheets, kitchen towels and throw pillows. Or maybe you would prefer kilims, tapestries and kente cloth.

Cloth, sensuous silk, crisp linen, warm wool, is part of what makes being a human being pleasurable, like delicious food or great sex.

Or maybe it’s just me?

I make art on fabric because it pleases me, speaks to me, but ultimately fabric is the substrate and not the art itself.

I use many surface design techniques to achieve the marks on the fabric, and primarily disperse dyes, but these techniques are not the art itself.

For me making art is about exploring and expressing. I begin with an idea and then build on it by both thinking and doing. If I am working on a body of work for an exhibition, the process starts with a theme. I can’t honestly say where the first thought comes from. It feels like a nudge from the universe, from God, from my unconscious, even the collective unconscious? I don’t know. What I do know is that if I listen for the clues they will guide me.

Then, I research. I read what I can find on the subject. If I know someone who has expertise or experience in a related area I will seek them out. I journal, watch movies, do whatever I can to immerse myself in the concept. I try to remain open and nonjudgmental during this process. I believe in “take what you need and leave the rest.” That means I give myself permission to retain only what is meaningful to me.

This is a highly personal process, which can feel self-indulgent at times, but because I believe that art explores the deeper meaning of life and then symbolizes the essence on a personal and universal level, I think it is important to remain true to oneself. I find my work resonates with others more readily if I am working on a deeper level. I know that sounds strange, the more personal I get, the more others relate, but I think this is true in all the arts. Like when a musician writes a song about breaking up with her boyfriend and then thousands of individuals listen to it and are moved. Personal and universal.

Simultaneously I am working in the studio. Each day before I begin, I concentrate on my theme by journaling or meditation, I hold the intention (theme) in my mind, and then I start working by slowly exploring where it takes me. Using this process it is my hope to create a cohesive body of work—each piece a reflection on the overall theme.

Currently I am developing work for a solo exhibition, Rubicon, May 2nd - June 1st, at the Arts Center of the Ozarks in Springdale Arkansas. Rubicon, Wikipedia will tell you, is a shallow river in northeastern Italy whose name comes from the Latin word rubico, which comes from the adjective rubeus, which means red. You may have heard the figure of speech, “Crossing the Rubicon” —it means to pass a point of no return.

So these days you will find me in my studio, up to my elbows in red dye and wondering if I’ve passed the point of no return.


My ArtCloth

Autumn Etude
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 21 x 14 inches.

Bloom, Where Are You Planted.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 22 x 23 inches.

Sunshine, Sunshine.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 22 x 23 inches.

Winds Of Change.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 20.5 x 20.5 inches.

Petal Love.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 12 x 12 inches.

Sunday Blessing.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 15 x 15 inches.

Tender Truth.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 22.5 x 22.5 inches.

Tumbling Vine No. 1.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 22.5 x 22.5 inches.

Tumbling Vine No. 2.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 22.5 x 22.5 inches.

Elemental.
Medium: Cloth, dye.
Size: 22.5 x 22.5 inches.


Biography
Jennifer Libby Fay worked as a graphic and product design entrepreneur on the West Coast, applying her aesthetic sensibility to create effective visual communications and useful objects for the home. An accomplished handweaver and fiber artist, Fay now focuses primarily on textile surface design and multiple dying techniques, embellishment and fabric manipulation. Fay's work has been shown in select exhibitions in California, Washington State and Arkansas. She was recently named an “Arkansas Women to Watch” artist by the National Museum of Women in the Arts Arkansas State Committee. Fay’s colorful abstract and modern textiles have been well received, winning several awards and finding homes with many new collectors.

Jennifer’s Links
Rubicon
National Museum of Women in the Arts
ACNM Women in the Arts

Saturday, March 3, 2012

Glossary of Terms
Edition 4.5[1-29]
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Preamble
There are five data bases on this blogspot, namely, the Glossary of Terms (see below), Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins and Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns. These Glossaries will be updated in the future to incorporate more definitions that we should be aware of in our art practice.

If you find any post on this blog site useful, you can save it or copy and paste it into your own "Word" document etc. for your future reference. For example, Safari allows you to save a post (e.g. click on "File", click on "Print" and release, click on "PDF" and then click on "Save As" and release - and a PDF should appear where you have stored it). Safari also allows you to mail a post to a friend (click on "File", and then point cursor to "Mail Contents On This Page" and release). Either way, this or other posts on this site may be a useful Art Resource for you.

The Art Resource series will be the first post in each calendar month. Remember - these Art Resource posts span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist to that required by a final year University Fine-Art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource post may appear far too technical for your needs (skip over those mind boggling parts) and in other parts, it may be too simplistic with respect to your level of knowledge (ditto the skip). The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that Art Resource posts will hopefully be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately may not be satisfying to all!


Introduction
It used to begin with just a dictionary, then thesaurus, and before too long perhaps even an encyclopedia - all bound and proudly standing on your bookshelf. Sooner or later as you gathered technical tomes, with extensive glossaries, you always wished that you could combine the glossaries into one super compendium that reflected your interest. Unfortunately, Blogger have got size restrictions and so I had to create well focussed glossaries, rather than a single all-encompassing one.

I started my own glossary of terms several decades before Wikipedia. Initially, Wikipedia was only as technically correct as its contributors - and that, in some cases was found to be wanting. Then in its second incarnation, they required their editors to list sources, encouraged their readership to challenge incorrect entries, created dialogues in order to eventually move to agreed definition(s) or description(s). It has become a great resource – a one-stop shop for unpacking definitions. What is more - it is fast and efficient.



How good is it in defining terms used in dyeing, fabrics and textiles? Not bad at all! However, there are some terms you cannot find, some fabrics that are not listed and some dye processes poorly worded. For example, the difference between two natural dyes such as substantive and adjective dyes is that one does not require a mordant whereas the other does. Wikipedia does not even have an entry for “substantive dyes” and so it cannot make clear the difference between them.

What Wikipedia also does not let you do is - browse. Search algorithms are getting smarter on that score. Just Google a word or a phrase! However, when you look up "Kersey" in Wikipedia you do not see "Kasha" (which is defined as: “A type of flannel that has black and colored fibers in the filling yarns.”) Serendipity sometimes works wonders. “Ah, I have often wondered what was Kasha - thanks Kersey!” That is why some Emeritus Professors lament a digitized world - they see serendipity fast disappearing in a manically ordered information systems. A little bit of serendipity, they say, is the basis of some great discoveries.

The first week of every month will give an overview of some area which underpins the art practice of dyeing or printing on cloth. The intention is to present small parcels of knowledge, which will be understood by novices, who may wish to enter this new continent of art called ArtCloth or dabble in the traditional fine-art prints on paper.

Marie-Therese Wisniowski's ArtCloth Work Titled - Entropy (Detailed View).
Techniques: Multiple discharge processes, silkscreened, stenciled and mono printed employing gels, transparent, opaque and metallic paints on rayon.
Size: 110 cm (width) x 320 cm (length).

The references - that were invaluable in this compilation - are given at the end of the glossary. All errors are mine. Enjoy!

Marie-Therese.


Glossary of Terms

AA: abbr. Author's Alteration.

Abstract Expressionism: A style of painting (mainly centered in USA in the 1950s and 1960s, emphasizing spontaneous execution, large brushing gestures, bursts of muscular energy, and non-representational imagery (see Margo Lewers on this blog spot).

Abstraction: The essential form after superficial or changeable features have been taken away; sometimes used (incorrectly) to mean any image that does not resemble its model reality.

AC: abbr. Author's Correction.

Academic: The artistic approach taught in the 18th and 19th century art academies of Europe; a philosophy of art based on bland limitations of ancient classical art; by extension, any systematic, traditional, anti-experimental type of art.

Acetone: A solvent. One of its uses is to remove rosin from metal.

Acetylate: To introduce an acetyl group (CH3CO-) into an organic compound. In textile chemistry this may be due to the reaction between a hydroxyl group(s) (-OH) with acetic acid and/or acetic anhydride.

Acid: When dissolved in water, an acid is a proton donor; on the pH scale, it has a pH lower than 7. Rainwater, sourced from the ocean, is slightly acidic with a pH ca. 5.0 - 5.6.

Acid Free: Material and paper without acidity; also termed "pH neutral".

Action Painting: A style in which the meaning and content of a picture relies strongly on the implied activity of the painted surface, especially the signs of brushing, spattering and dripping paint; related to abstract expressionism.

Aesthetic: Pertaining to art theory or matters of taste and appreciation in art; the beautiful as opposed to the good, true or useful; any vivid or intense experience. Also an aesthetic: an artistic or stylistic point of view; a philosophy of art; an engagement of the senses.

Afterimage: Any phenomenon that lingers on, even though it does not actually exist.

Against The Grain: Folding or marking paper at right angles to the grain.

Agate: (USA) Type size of 5.5 points.

Aging: Variety of techniques for simulating the effect of time and wear on new paint, wood or plasterwork.

Aggregate: The coarse or inert ingredients which are mixed with cement in the making of concrete.

a la Poupee Inking: In color printing, the use of poupee (a rag-stamp, a “doll”, a “puppet” in French) to ink parts of the plate, block, or stone separately. This approach is an alternative to printing multiple plates, blocks, or stones, each inked in only one color and registered on one sheet of paper.

Albers, Annie: Art Category: Weaver. Art Movement: Bauhaus.

Albers, Josef: Art Category: Glass Painter. Art Movement: de Stijl, Abstract Expressionism.

Alcohol: Organic compounds containing one or more -OH groups.

Alkali (Base): When dissolved in water, a base is a hydroxide anion (OH-) donor. On the pH scale, its pH is greater than 7. For example, the lilac plant prefers soil that is slightly basic (pH 7.1 - 8.0).

Alla Prima: Italian for “all at once”; direct painting; immediate achievement of final effects; the painting has one “skin” rather than many layers; the opposite of indirect painting.

Allston, Washington: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

Amide Group: It has the chemical formula -CONH-. When found in nylon polymers it is called an amide group; when found in wool polymers it is called the peptide group.

Amino Goup: A radical with the chemical formula -NH2. This group is found in amino acids.

Amino Acid: A building block of proteins. There are approximately 22 amino acids available for protein construction. Amino acids contain a basic amino group and a carboxylic acid group.

Ammonia: Ammonia is a colorless gas. However, the public has incorrectly associated the name with ammonium hydroxide (which is the aqueous solution of ammonia). Hence in the latter form, it is often used as a cleaning agent and also in natural dyes as an additive when fermenting orchil-yielding umbilicate lichens. An alkali, it used sparingly in dyebaths, otherwise copious use of it will impair the quality of the fiber. A small amount added to a yellow bath (such as goldenrod) will result in a yellow-green color.

Anangu: An Australian aboriginal Pitjantatjara word meaning people; it may be used in a general way to mean "Aboriginal person" or more usually to denote a person from the Western Desert region (Australia).

Angstrom: 10-10 of a meter.

Aniline: Oily liquid from a nitro-benzene base used in preparing dyes and aniline ink, a volatile, quick drying printing ink.

Anion: A negative charge carrier.

Antistatic Agent: A polar or a small charge molecule that is added to the fiber in order to negate its static electric charge.

Appel, Karel: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Apuatimi, Declan: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Tiwi Design - Symbolism.

Apuatimi, Jean Baptiste: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Tiwi Design - Symbolism.

Aquamanile: Secular or ecclesiastic pouring vessel for hand-washing, often in the form of an animal figure.

Aquarelle: Extremely high quality paper.

Aquatint: (i) An intaglio process that allows reproduction of even or graded tones; (ii) A type of etching in which acid-resistant resin granules are sifted on to a heated plate. When the plate is immersed in acid, the acid etches around the granules adhering to the plate, thus producing a grainy tone when the plate is inked and printed. The value of the tones in aquatint is controlled by the size of the resin grains and the length of immersion.

Aramid: A high strength and/or flame resistant polyamide that contains aromatic components.

Arcade: A series of arches carried on columns. When the columns and arches are fixed against a wall, this is known as blind arcade.

Archaic: Primitive, antiquated or obsolete; Greek art before 17th century B.C. Also, archaic smile; the expression, almost a smile, of Greek sculptured heads before the 7th century.

Archipenko, Alexander: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Cubism.

Architectonic: Architectural. Paintings, sculptures or craft objects that exhibit the structural or textural traits of buildings.

Archival: Long term stability and resistance of a material to ageing; generally, it also described by being an acid-free material.

Archival Paper: Paper that resists brown spots and yellowing.

Arial Perspective: Creation of depth illusions in painting through the use of diminishing intensity of colors, the use of cooler colors for distant objects, softening of edges and blurring of focus.

Armature: The skeleton or framework inside a wax or clay (usually) sculpture; it supports the work while it is being modeled.

Aromatic: A compound containing a benzene ring system.

Arp, Hans: Art Category: Sculptor, Painter. Art Movement: Dada, Abstraction-Creation.

Ars Sacra: Literally “scared art”. The phrase was used as a title of an exhibition of early medieval art held in Bonn in 1949, but has, thanks to the book – The Oxford History of Western Art (Peter Lakos, 1972) - more recently have been applied to small-scale arts of metalworking and ivory carving of the period.

Art Coordinator: The manager or administrator of an Australian Aboriginal arts centre, usually employed from outside the local community and answerable to an Aboriginal committee of artists.

Art Deco: Style of decorative art of the 1920s and 1930s, characterized by smooth lines, bold colors, minimalist designs, and the use of new materials, such as tubular steel, plate glass and plastic.

Artificial Light: Any light produced by incandescence, fluorescence, phosphorescence or other means than natural radiation.

Art Nouveau: French for “new art” (Judendstil in German); highly decorative style of the 1890s that emerged from Europe and the USA; emphasis on the whiplash curve, rich color, flat patterns, floral ornamentation, vertical attenuations.

Art Paper: Paper with a hard, smooth surface caused by an even coating of china clay compound on one or both sides.

Artwork - The Three Necessary Conditions: There are three necessary (as opposed to definitions) that all artworks possess: (i) they need to be “engaged”; (ii) they are non-functional, and (iii) they are aesthetic.

Aspect Ratio: A term used in computer graphics to denote the ratio of width to height in a figure or letter.

Atom: The smallest particle of an element.

Atos (Tag): Art Category: Spray-can Artist. Art Movement: Graffiti.

ATSIC: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission.

Auerbach, Frank: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism Revisited.

Aurum Mussivum: Mosaic gold.

Auteur Theory: The view that the artistic quality of a motion picture is mainly the responsibility of the film director, who is the real cinema “artist”.

Autographic: Revealing or seeming to reveal an artist’s hand or touch.

Autographic Positive: Positive made by painting or drawing opaque marks on a transparent or translucent substrate.

Autolithography: Printing from an image hand drawn directly on a lithographic stone or plate.

Auxochrome: A polar group or a negative atom, which intensifies the absorption of light by a dye. In some cases it will alter the hue of the dye.

Avant-Garde: French word for those who are advanced, “ahead of the times”; artists who point out the direction others will follow.

Avery, Milton: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Landscape Abstraction.

Awely: An Alyawarr and Anmatyerr word (Aboriginal languages) meaning women's ceremony; Anmatyerr is spoken by many of the artists from the Utopia region (Australia).

Axes: (pl. axis) Imaginary line defining the center of an object around which the object rotates or is symmetrical on a flat plane; that is, the central line, real or imaginary, around which parts of a work of art are composed and balanced.

Background Art: Part of a design such as a pattern or texture forming a background for type and illustration.

Bacon, Francis: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Surrealism, Subjective Expressionism.

Balance: In a layout or design, an arrangement that is visually pleasing.

Balla, Giacomo: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Futurism.

Balthus, Joan Miro: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Realism.

Banksy: Art Category: Stencil Artist. Art Movement: Graffiti.

Barlach, Ernst: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Neo-Classical.

Barnett, Margret: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Color-Field.

Baroque: Art of the 17th century in Europe; characterized by irregularity of form, illusions of infinite space, theatricality of color and lighting, grandiose gestures, over life-size figuration.

Base Artwork: Artwork requiring the addition of other elements.

Basilica: Originally a Roman building used as a court of law or for public meetings; evolved under Christianity into the Church, building with a long, narrow nave, side aisles, an apse at the end formerly occupied by the judge or emperor’s representative.

Bask, Leon: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Symbolism.

Base Relief: Three-dimensional design in which the image stands in shallow relief from a flat background.

BAT: Perfect proof passed by an artist as a standard against which prints in an edition will be compared.

Bauchant, Andre: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Bauhaus: The school of art and industrial design founded in 1919 by Walter Gropius to promote the unity of all arts; closed by the Hitler regime in 1933. See blog.

Baume Scale (abbr. Be): A scale of specific gravity of liquids.

Baya: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Bazille, Federic: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism.

Baziotes, William: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Color-Field.

Beardmore, Rebecca: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Beardsley, Aubrey: Art Category: Painter, Drawer. Art Movement: Art Nouveau.

Beckmann, Max: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: German Expressionism.

Beehler, Laura: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Beeston, Larry: Art Category: Weaver.

Beeston, Mary: Art Category: Tapestry Designer. Art Movement: Post Modernism.

Belling, Rudolf: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Neo-Impressionism.

Bellows, George: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Urban Realism.

Benday Prints: A series of mechanical tints in the form of celluloid sheets that are used in block making and lithography to add texture, shading and detail to line drawings.

Benn, Claire: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Bennett, June: Art Category: Soft Sculpture. Art Movement: Modernism.

Benois, Alexandre: Art Category: Painter, Stage Designer. Art Movement: Symbolism.

Benson, Regina: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Benyahialger, Samta Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Berger, Otti: Art Category: Weaver. Art Movement: Bauhaus.

Biedermeier Style: A term first used in the 1850s to characterize an unpretentious bourgeois style of furniture and interior decoration found particularly in Germany and Austria from about 1815 to 1848.

Bingham, George Caleb: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

Biomorphic: Having the qualities of living form.

Blanket: Sheet of felted wool used to distribute pressure evenly on the printed paper, when the "sandwich" of the press bed, inked plate, printing paper and three blankets passes between the etching press rollers.

Bleed: The part of an image that extends beyond the trim marks on a page.

Bleed Edge: A printed image that comes to the edge of the paper, having no border.

Blending Brush: See softening brush.

Blind Emboss: To make an impression without foil or ink.

Blinding: It is a poor surface condition on an apparently sound printing plate that causes a sub-standard image.

Block In: To sketch in the main areas and reference points of an image as preparation for a drawing or design.

Block Out: A masking material used to cover areas of the screen that are not to be printed.

Bloom: A foggy, whitish (or blue-white) dull surface effect, which forms on varnished pictures or other vanished objects.

Blotch Printing: A process in which an open screen is used, where the dyestuff covers the entire surface of the fabric.

Boccioni, Umberto: Art Category: Sculptor, Painter. Art Movement: Futurism.

Bockingford: Economical paper, with an interesting texture, caused by the pressure applied by woolen blankets in a cylinder mould machine.

Bocklin, Arnold: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romanticism.

Bolt End: Refers to the care instruction labels that are found at the end of a bolt of fabric.

Bond: The linkage between atoms in a molecule and between molecules and atoms in a crystal. It is also referred to as a chemical bond.

Bonington, Richard Parkes: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Landscape.

Bonnard, Pierre: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Post-Impressionism, Intimism.

Border: Design around the edge of a panel, wall or floor. It may be stencilled, printed or painted free hand.

Boudin, Eugene: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism.

Bouras, Ammar: Art Category: Printmaker, Film Maker. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Brancusi, Constantin: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Cubism, Romanian Folk Art, African Primitive Art.

Braque, Georges: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Cubism, Fauvism.

Brauner, Victor: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Surrealism.

Bravura: Spirited brushwork.

Brayer: Rubber faced roller with a handle designed to spread ink on a relief printing surface.

Breton, Andre: Art Category: Theoretician. Art Movement: Surrealism.

Bridging: The ability of a coating to span gaps between the threads of the mesh to form a stencil: over-heavy coatings of a screen filler applied during a reversal process can also be described as "bridging" when they form an impenetrable film over painting fluid.

British Pharmacopoeia (B.P.): (i) When these letters follow the name of a material they indicate that the material conforms to the specifications of the British Pharmacopoeia, and that it is approved for use in medicinal preparations. This grade is usually below C.P. grade in absolute chemical purity, but of more than adequate purity for average technical use. Corresponds to the American U.S.P.; (ii) In chemistry it is an abbreviation for boiling point.

Brodie, Jim: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Photographic Realism.

Brush Strokes: The range of brush strokes can be s varied as the types and sizes of brushes used.

Brutalism: An architectural style in 1950s featuring exposed steel and large areas of coarse, undecorated concrete; the building treated like an Expressionistic sculpture.

Buffer Solution: Any solution that is formulated to a specific pH and that has the ability to oppose any pH change by the small addition of acids or bases. For example, human blood is buffered at a neutral pH (i.e. pH 7).

Buffing: The final polishing of a reproduction plate before etching.

Buist, Judy: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Burne-Jones, Edward: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Symbolism.

Burnisher: A smooth curve metal tool used for removing rough spots from printing plates.

Burri, Alberto: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Bury, Pol Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Kinetic Art.

Butcher Paper: Low grade paper that is often used as an absorbent in processes such as to wrap up silk prior to steaming.

Butcher Rayon: It is either acetate and rayon blend or 100% rayon. It is a crash-like fabric made in various weights - with the heavier weights taken on the appearance of linen.

Byzantine/Byzantine Icons: The art and architecture, mainly religious, of Byzantine Empire; icon paintings of sacred persons venerated in eastern Orthodox Church; style of strict frontality, little or no naturalistic modelling, rich decoration, other-worldly outlook.

Cabena, Carolyn: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Calder, Alexander: Art Category: Sculptor, Painter, Constructivist. Art Movement: Abstract Sculptor – he created first mobiles that preceded Kinetic Art.

Calligraphic: Pertaining to the art of beautiful writing as in scripts in Persia, China and Japan; an artistic style characterized by graceful, flowing curves.

Calligraphy: The art of fine writing, the term derived from the Greek words meaning "beautiful hand writing".

Cantilever: The free part of a horizontal member that projects into space, seemingly without support, while its internal end is anchored in the main structure.

Canvas Board: A prepared board with simulated canvas texture, suitable for oil or acrylic painting.

Capital: The head or topmost part of a column or pier; because of its characteristic shape and decoration, it may be called Doric, Ionic, Etruscan, or Corinthian.

Capriccio: Italian caprice. An imaginative or fanciful subject, such as an architectural view based on composite or totally invented buildings and/or ruins.

Carbonizing: The treatment of wool with sulfuric acid in order to destroy any cellulosic contaminants.

Carbon Paper (Stains): (i) Fabric: All; (ii) Method: Work detergent or soap into the stain, rinse. If the stain is still visible, lace a few drops of ammonia on the stain and repeat washing.

Carpeaux, Jean-Baptise: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Neo-Classical.

Carra, Carlo: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Futurism.

Carragheen: The seaweed carragheen, is commonly used as an emulsifier in food, can also be used to thicken the floating bath for marbling techniques.

Cartoon: A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting, mural or tapestry; a humorous sketch or caricature or series (as in a comic script) usually made for a newspaper or magazine.

Cartridge Paper: Cartridge paper comes in several weights (e.g. 130 - 150 g) and is often used to apply paint or dye to it. It is good for collaging or intercutting into other designs, as it is flat and untextured.

Casein: A substance obtained from curled milk, used as an adhesive in the manufacture of coated paper and sometimes as a binder for paint.

Cassat, Mary: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: American Impressionism.

Cassone: (plural: cassoni). Italian meaning: “large chest”. Term generally used to refer to decorated Italian wedding chest.

Cast Coated Paper: Art paper with an exceptional glossy, enamel finish.

Castle, Lyn: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Naïve Realiasm.

Catalyst: A chemical that speeds up a reaction, without it being altered by the reaction. In time, side products usually poison its catalytic activity.

Cation: A positive charge carrier.

Caulfield, Patrick Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: British Pop Art.

Cellophane: Transparent cellulose acetate film that is thin and very flexible.

Cellulose: The main constituent of the cell wall of all plants. It is a polymer of glucose (a natural sugar).

Cellulose Acetate: Plastic sheet material, usually transparent or translucent, available clear or colored and with shiny or matt finish. It is used as the basis of artwork and overlays.

Certosina: Geometric patterned inlay of wood, bone, mother of pearl, and metal favoured in north Italian centers such as Venice.

Cezanne, Paul: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Post Impressionism.

Chagall, Marc: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Fauvism, Cubism.

Chalking: A printing fault caused by ink soaking into paper leaving pigment deposited on the surface.

Champleve: An enamelling technique in which the glass is contained within engraved depressions in metal (usually copper alloy) plate.

Chancery Cursive: Style of calligraphy with a contemporary look. Less formal lettering.

Chang, Young-Hae: Art Category: Photography. Art Movement: Web Art.

Chasseriau, Theodore: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Academic Classicism, Romanticism.

Cheang, Shu Lea: Art Category: Collagist. Art Movement: Post Modernism.

Chemical Affinity: In chemical physics and physical chemistry chemical affinity is an electronic property by which dissimilar chemical species feel an attraction toward each other and so are capable of forming chemical compounds (e.g. electron deficient systems are attracted to electron rich systems). It can also refer to the tendency of an atom or compound to combine by a chemical reaction with atoms or compounds of unlike composition.

Chemical Pulp: Process wood pulp used in high quality printing papers.

Cheret, Jules: Art Category: Art Posters. Art Movement: Art Nouveau.

Chevet: French term for east end of church with chancel, ambulatory, and radiating chapels.

Chicago, Judy: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Futurism.

Chin, Shin-Hee: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Chino, Dave: Art Category: Spray Cannist. Art Movement: Graffiti.

Chlorine (Stains): (i) Fabric: No treatment for chlorine stains on wool or silk; (ii) Method: Rinse fabric thoroughly with water. Soak for 30 minutes or longer in a solution of 1 teaspoon of sodium thiosulfate to each liter of water (as hot as is safe for the fabric). Bleaching cause by chlorine cannot be removed.

Chop: Embossing or printing stamp applied by hand to finish prints; normally specific to the printer or studio, they identify the provenance of the print.

Christo: (Christo Javacheff): Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Landscape Art.

Chung, Jiyoung: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Clarke, Deb: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Classical Period: The art of ancient Greece and Rome; any work exhibiting the traits of ancient Greek art; an art of formal order stressing simplicity, dignity, clearly defined intervals, mathematical proportion. A “classic” is, by extension, a work generally accepted as a Masterpiece.

Clay Plaster: Versatile, natural “breathing” material.
Clifford, Morgan: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Color-Field.

Cloisonne: A means of setting cut stones or enamel between thin metal “walls” which have been fixed to a back-plate.

Close, Chuck: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Superrealism.

Closed Form: The sense of unbroken space characteristic of classical composition in painting, sculpture, and architecture.

Cole, Thomas: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

Collage: From the French coller - “to paste”; any artistic composition made by gluing assorted materials (cloth, newsprint, wood veneers) to a flat surface, usually a canvas or a panel.

Collage Blocks: The basic principle of relief printing, in which the design is formed by contrast between positive (raised) areas of a printing block and negative cut-away sections. The blocks are constructed from a range of materials and are assembled on a flat base to form a relief block with different surface levels.

Collage Blocks Equipment: Buttons, wood shavings; pulses, yarn and pasta or other low relief items; PVA adhesive; scissors; craft knives; fabric and/or paper .

Commercial Art: A term used to describe artwork intended for use in advertising or promotion - as distinct from fine-art.

Composite Artwork: Artwork combining a number of different elements.

Computer Aided Design (CAD): The use of software packages such as Adobe’s Photoshop in order to create designs that can be translated onto fabrics by such companies as Spoonflower.

Computer Graphics: The use of computers to output information in graphic form.

Conceptualism: An art movement (after 1960) emphasizing the transient character of the creative, rather than its outcome; art objects become the report, written or spoken, of an event; de-emphasis of visual imagery. It is related to process art.

Conjugated Bond Systems: A chemical system of alternating double and single bonds. These systems absorb strongly in the ultraviolet and in certain cases can absorb in the visible region of the light spectrum.

Connoisseur: Literally, one “who knows” and is therefore competent to offer critical judgement of art; an expert in a particular branch of art who can recognize certain techniques, establish dates, verify authenticity, estimate prices; a person of discriminating taste in art, cooking etc.

Constable, John: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

Constructivism: Twentieth-century non-representational sculptural style, associated with Russians Naum Gabo and Antoine Pevsner; theoretical foundations in modern physics, engineering and technology; an endeavour to treat volume with a minimum of mass.

Contact Screen: A half tone screen made on a film base, which has a graded dot pattern. It is used in direct contact with a film or plate to obtain a halftone negative from a continuous tone original. They provide better definition than the conventional glass screen.

Contrapposto: A figural pose in which one part of the body turns or twists away from another, usually in an unsymmetrical pose characteristic of classical Greek and Roman figure sculpture, in which the weight is carried by one leg while the other is relaxed. This system of figural articulation was revived and much exploited during the Italian Renaissance.

Controlling Dimension: The width of height of an image taken as the basis for enlargement or reduction.

Conversion Factors: (i)Area - 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2; (ii) Volume - 1 gallon(US) = 3.785 litres (l); 1 cubic foot = 28.317 litres; (iii) Pressure - 1 atmosphere = 101 325 Pa; 1 milli-meter (mm) of mercury ( or mm Hg) = 133.32 Pa; (iv) Energy - 1 erg = 10-7 Joules (J); 1 calorie = 4.184 J; (v) Temperature - Centigrade to Fahrenheit: oF = oC (9/5) + 32; Fahrenheit to Centigrade: oC = (oF -32)x(5/9); (vi) Length - 1 mile = 1.609 x 103 meters; 1 yard = 0.9144 meter; 1 inch = 2.54 cm; 1 foot = 12 inches = 30.48 cm; (vii) 1 pound (lb) = 0.4536 kg or 453.4 g; 1 ounce (oz) = 28.35 g; 1 kg = (1/0.4536) lb = 2.2046 lb.

Coplanar: In one plane. A coplanar molecule is one where all atoms are contained in one plane.

Copolymer: A polymer consisting of two or more different monomers.

Corbel: A block or stone projecting at right angles from the wall in order to support the springing of an arch or the eaves of roof.

Corinth, Lovis: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: German Expressionism.

Corner Marks: The marks on a printed sheet acting as trim marks, and also sometimes as register marks.

Corot, Jean-Baptise-Camille: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Landscape.

Cotman: An inexpensive grainy paper and a good alternative to cartridge and expensive watercolor papers.

Cotman, John Sell: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

Counterproofing: In printmaking, taking an impression from another impression before the ink has dried. This allows the artist to see the image in the same direction it was drawn in order to correct mistakes, or to achieve visual effects made possible by printing the image twice.

Counter-Reformation: Roman Catholic evangelical movement in reaction to the Protestant Reformation, during which religious arts flourished in Catholic countries.

Courbet, Gustave: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Realism.

Couture, Thomas: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Academic Classicism.

Covalent Bond: A chemical bond in which electrons are shared between the atoms.

Cox, Christine: Art Category: Collagist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Cozens, Alexander: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

Cozens, John Robert: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

Craft Knife: A knife with a thin, light blade, which is kept very sharp. Cutting edge usually does not run along its length, but slopes across the end of the blade. Handle is usually heavy. Blades may be detachable.

Crackleglaze: See craquelure.

Craquelure: Decorative glaze developed in the eighteenth century France to reproduce the fine network of cracks on Eastern lacquer work and pottery. Also known as crackleglaze.

Crawford, Marian: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Crayon Manner: An eighteenth century intaglio process (also called “chalk” manner) that employed spiked wheels (roulettes) to established grainy areas on an etching ground. The etched areas imitated chalk (crayon in French) marks when printed. Crayon manner was used primarily to reproduce sanguine chalk drawings popular in the eighteenth century.

Creation Baumann: A Swiss-based company also renowned for innovative furnishing and interior design.

Creep: Effect when a printed mark spreads on the substrate.

Crenshaw, Constance: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Creole: Born or assimilated into the Caribbean region.

Crew (Dan Buller, Tyler Gibney, Gene Pendon): Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: Graffiti

Criticism: The act of describing, analyzing, interpreting, and judging works of art; informed talk about art; incorrectly used to mean censure, or fault-finding.

Crome, John: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

Crop, Cropmark: The part of an image that is discarded after it has been trimmed.

Crow Quill: A term referring to a very fine pen, derived from the original use of a cut crow's quill.

Cubism: A style of art originated by Picasso and Braque in Paris around 1917; emphasis on the geometrical foundations of form, the two-dimensionality of the picture surface, multiple views of the same objects, superimposition and interpenetration of forms. Intellectual phase is Analytical Cubism (1909-1912); decorative, playful phase is Synthetic Cubism (1912-1914).

Curley, Manyinta (Katie): Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Dadism: Post World War I style stressing accidental images and events, the logic of the absurdity, irrationality in art, literature and morality. Related to Surrealism.

Dado: Lower part of the room wall when it is faced or colored differently from the upper part.

Daguerreotype: An early photographic process (1839) named after L. Daguerre, employing silver salts, iodine and mercury vapour in developing a picture.

Dali, Salvador: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Surrealism.

Da Messina, Antonella: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Renaissance.

Daubigny, Charles-Francois: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Landscape.

Daumier, Honore: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Realism.

Davies, Stuart: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Da Vinci, Leonardo: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Late Renaissance.

de Andrea, John: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Superrealism.

Decal: A printed transfer image.

de Chavannes, Puvis: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Symbolism.

de Chirico, Giorgio: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Dada, Surrealism.

Deckle: The ragged edge on hand-made paper.

Deconstruction: Method of critical analysis which asserts that art can have no fixed meanings because it can be viewed only subjectively.

Decoupage: Method of decorating walls and objects with paper cut-outs protected by a clear glaze or vanish.

Degas, Hilaire Germain Edgar: Art Category: Sculptor, Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism.

Degrease: The process of removing oil from screen mesh; new screens require degreasing before use, although degreasing may occasionally be needed throughout a screen's life.

Degree of Polymerization: The average number of monomer units in a polymer chain. More specifically, it is the average molecular weight.

de Kooning, Willem: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

de la Pena, Nacisse Virgile Diaz: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Landscape.

Delaunay, Robert: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Neo-Impressionism, Orphic Cubism, Representational and Abstract Art.

Delineate: To accentuate outlines in line artwork by making them heavier.

de Loutherbourg, Philippe Jacques: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

Delvaux, Paul: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Surrealism.

de Maria, Walter: Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Earthen Artworks.

Demuth, Charles: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Cubism Revisited.

Density: Density is equal to mass divided by volume and so in the SI system has units of kg/m3 or g/cm3. The density of a substance varies at different temperatures (due to volume that changes as temperature changes) and so is quoted at particular temperatures. For the Imperial System - see Conversion Factors.

Depth: The thickness of a three-dimensional object measured downwards from its surface.

Derain, Andre: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism, Fauves.

de Stael, Nicolas: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Detergent: A molecule with both polar or highly charge segments and a long non-polar chain, which therefore has both hydrophilic (water loving) and oleophilic (strong affinity for oils) character; it is used to remove or break up grease or oil and to increase wettability.

Develop: To treat with an agent so that color appears.

Devonshire Clay: China clay.

Diazo: abbr. Diazonium. A method of reproducing in limited quantities from a transparent or translucent original on paper, cloth or film. the image is exposed onto a light-sensitive coating of diazo salts and dyestuff and the print may be blue, black or another color.

Die: An intaglio engraved stamp used for impressing a design.

Diebenkorn, Richard: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Landscape Abstraction.

Die-Stamping: A process of impressing the form or ornament of a manufactured object by means of a metal stamp (die).

Digital Positive: Positive created and output using a computer.

Dine, Jim: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Pop Art.

Dingbat: (USA) A general term for ornaments.

Dink: A half moon-shaped dent in a paper sheet caused by careless handling.

Diptych: A two-panelled artwork.

Direct Crimping: For direct crimping, apply the caustic soda solution directly to the surface of the cloth.

Direct Modulation: The addition of one complement to another, usually done in steps, in order to visualize the change more clearly.

Direct Painting: A technique that stresses spontaneity or the appearance of spontaneity in execution; a minimum of reworking; voids transparent effects and “build up” of a surface with several layers of paint.

Direct Stencil: A stencil created by applying a block-out medium directly to the silk screen.

Di Sotto In Su: (Italian: “with beneath made above”). Perpendicular to the picture plane.

Dispersion Force: It is a force that is caused by an induced dipole – induce dipole contribution to more general force called the intermolecular force. That is, a dispersion force is when one neutral molecule (dye) can induce a dipole (negative and positive charges separated within it) in another neutral molecule (fiber) and vice-versa, thus causing a cohesive interaction between the two. It is the second strongest force between neutral molecules after the hydrogen bond.

Dix, Otto: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Documentary: A photographic, motion picture or television presentation of not posed or uncontrived events; a style in art that seems to report actual events.

Doesburg, Theo van: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: de Stijl, Elementarism.

Domela-Nieuwenhuis, Cesar: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: de Stijl.

Dono, Heri: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Post Modernism.

Dossal: A panel painting hung behind an altar.

Dot Etching: A method of reducing the size of halftone dots by chemical action in processing, to alter the tonal values of an image.

Drake-Brockman, Charlotte: Art Category: Collagist. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Drop Shadows: A shadow behind an image designed to bring the image forward.

Drypoint: An intaglio printmaking technique in which a needle is used to scratch a plate, typically copper. The ink rests in the grooves until the plate in pressed into the paper.

Drypoint Equipment: Combined drypoint needle and burnisher drypoint needle; combined scraper and burnisher; zinc and copper plates.

Dry Transfer Lettering: Characters transferred to a page by rubbing them off the back of a sheet.

Drywall: Plaster substitute such as plasterboard.

Dubuffet, Jean: Art Category: Painter, Sculptor. Art Movement: Expressionism, Informal Abstraction.

Duchamp, Marcel: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Dada, Ready Mades.

Duchamp-Villon, Raymond: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Cubism.

Dufy, Raoul: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Fauves.

Dunnewold, Jane: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movements: de Stijl, Informal Abstraction.

Durand, Asher B.: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

Durometer: The term describing the level of hardness of a squeegee blade.

Eakins, Thomas: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Realism.

Earth Sculpture: The excavation of earth, the relocation of boulders, the digging of water channels, etc. to create pleasing or expressive aesthetic effects.

Easel: A special stand to support a canvass in an upright position.

Easel Painting: Creative painting executed in one of the standard techniques, such as oils, water colors, tempera, gouche or pastel; most frequently intended to be framed and hung on a wall (i.e. forms of object art).

Eastman, Kathryn: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Eclecticism: Creating a form or style on the basis of many borrowings.

Ecorche: Sculpture of a human or animal without skin, usually for use in teaching anatomy to sculpture students.

Ecsher, Maurits: Art Category: Printmaker, Painter. Art Movement: Surrealism in form only. Preceded Op Art.

Edelson, Mary Beth: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Pop Art.

Edition: The total number of identical, original prints made from one image, number sequentially and signed by the artist.

Electrolyte: A compound, which in a water solution (i.e. aqueous solution) or in a molten state, conducts an electric current and is simultaneously decomposed into ions; compounds which dissociate into ions and/or radicals in a water solution.

Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum: The complete range of wavelengths that constitute light.

Electronegative: A property of atoms, ions or molecules that have a strong attraction toward electrons (e.g. fluorine or chlorine).

Electroplating: A process of coating an object with a thin layer of chromium, silver etc., by means of electrolysis (the chemical reaction produced by passing an electric current through an electrolyte).

Electropositive: A property of atoms, ions or molecules in which they readily give up electrons (e.g. lithium as in the lithium battery).

Electrotype: A duplicate of a slate or block (especially a wood-graving block) produced by the use of electrolysis to coat a mould of the block with a thin layer metal; invented in 1839, the electrotype supplanted the stereotype.

Eliasson, Olafur: Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Post Modernism.

em: A unit of linear measurement, 12 points or 4.5 mm.

Embu (French): In an oil painting, a dull spot in an otherwise glossy surface caused by a sinking-in of the oil color.

Emulsion: Suspension of an oil in water.

en: A measurement half the width of em, used in casting off.

Endicott, Erin: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Endothermic: Describes a chemical process, such as a reaction, that absorbs heat in order for it to occur.

Energy: The capacity to do work. There are various form of energy: electrical, mechanical, heat, nuclear, chemical, potential, kinetic, translational, rotational and vibrational etc.

Engine Sizing: A method of sizing paper by the addition of emulsified resin to clean paper pulp.

Engraving: An intaglio printmaking technique in which a wedge-shaped implement called burin is pushed with considerable force, carving a deep and regular groove into a plate, typically copper, into which the ink is pushed and held until printing. In summary, the design or lettering etched on a plate or block and also the print taken from such a plate.

Ensor, James: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Post-Impressionism.

Entablature: The portion of a classical building façade between its column capitals and its roof; it contains the architrave, frieze, and cornice.

Entasis: A slight convexity or swelling in the shaft of a classical column; it counteracts the optical effect whereby perfectly straight columns seem to be narrower in the center.

Environmental Art: Any ordered arrangement or reconstruction of the natural and built environment. It includes such categories as the floral art of the natural environment, and/or art depicting gardens of a built environment. Marie-Therese Wisniowski's MSDS technique is often used in her Environmental Art.

Ernst, Max: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Dada, Surrealism.

Estampes Galantes: French: “gallant or gay prints”. Eighteenth century reproductive prints (usually combinations of etching and engraving) after the Rococo painters. They were generally amorous or erotic in their subject-matter.

Ester: The organic compound formed from a reaction between an alcohol and an organic acid. It has a general formula of, R-COO-R', where R and R' are various chemical groups.

Estes, Richard: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Superrealism.

Etching: A metal plate treated with acid and with certain parts protected by the application of a ground. It is also a print taken from the etch plate.

Etching Equipment: Hard ground; soft ground; stopping-out varnish; liquid hard ground; zinc and copper plates; leather-covered dabber; burnisher; etching needle; scraper; feathers for cleaning acid bubbles from plates; clamp for holding plate during smoking.

Etching Press: A press for printing intaglio plates, which are only a few millimetres thick.

Exothermic: Describes a chemical process, such as a reaction, that releases heat in order for it to occur.

Exploded View: Drawing of an object showing its component parts separately but arranged in such a way as to indicate their relationships within the object when assembled.

Expressionism: A style of modern painting, original central European, emphasizing intense color, agitated brushwork, and violent imagery to express painful emotions, anxiety, and hallucinatory states.

Expressivism: A term used here to describe the critical position that greatness in art results from the vivid, intense, and convincing expression of emotion.

Fabriano: Easy to work on paper that is durable.

Facsimile: abbr. FAX. An exact reproduction or copy usually associated with reproduction via electronic scanning.

Family: A group of printing types in series with common characteristics in design, but of different weights such as italics, bold etc.

Fashion Boards: Simple body boards lined with good rag paper on one side, and thin paper on the other side to prevent warping.

Fautrier, Jean: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Fauvism: From the French fauve (wild beast). An early twentieth century painting style emphasizing the juxtaposition of extremely bright areas of color, arbitrary drawing unrelated to the color, and distorted linear perspective. Main aim is breakdown and reform of particular picture structure; not as anguished as German Expressionism, which it resembles.

Fay, Jennifer Libby: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction; Environmental Art.

Feininger, Lyonel: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Art Nouveau, Orphic Cubism.

Fell-McLean, Susan: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Fetish: A charmed or magical object; often a sculpture regarded as home or embodiment of spiritual subject, much as ka or soul of an Egyptian pharaoh is believe to reside in the many statutes of him; a psychological obsession with an object or part of the body which results in an erotic response.

Figurine: Small carved or moulded statue; sometimes called a statuette.

Filler Stencil: The use of a liquid that is painted directly onto a screen mesh in order to fill parts of a mesh which acts as a resist to the printing process.

Fillet: An embossed line used as a decorative device on a book cover.

Film Former: Any fluid material or ingredient, which when applied over a surface, will set to a solid continuous layer of film and perform the function of a paint vehicle, medium or varnish.

Fisheye: Unwanted open area in a photo-stencil, which prints with the appearance of an eye of a fish.

Fitch: Hog-hair brush suitable for oil work (one type is available for water color work). The five types are round, filbert, long, short and herkomer. Used in many techniques and sometimes as an alternative to household brush.

Flanderin, Hipolyte-Jean: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Academic Classicism.

Flash Point: The flash point is the lowest temperature at which a flame above the solvent will cause the solvent's vapor to ignite. Obviously, the lower the flash point the more readily the solvent's vapor will ignite at room temperature. In general those solvents with a flash point below 21oC are considered the most dangerous, while any solvents with a flash point below 32oC are still considered dangerously flammable. For example, methanol and ethanol have flash points of 11oC and 12oC, respectively. On the other hand butanol has a flash point of 36oC.

Flat Side: Side of a screen frame on which mesh is glued.

Flint, India: Art Category: Fashion Art. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Flooding: Overfilling the mesh with printing mixture, usually leading to imperfect printing.

Florrimell, Michael: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Folk Art: The art of the people. It is usually associated with naïve art of the untrained.

Font: A corruption of "fount". It is a complete supply of a typeface.

Foreshorten: In illustration to depict the apparent distortion of perspective in a receding form or plane. Alternatively, the representation through drawing of the three-dimensional forms on a flat surface to create the illusion of depth, as of an arm and hand extended toward the viewer.

Formalism: A term used to describe the critical position that greatness in art results from the ideal juxtaposition and treatment of the basic elements of visual form.

Foul Bite: An etching term, which describes the speckles and dots created by unwanted corrosion of the etching plate.

Foy, Anne: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Fractions (Prefix) {Symbol}: 10-1 (deci) {d}; 10-2 (centi) {c}; 10-3 (milli) {m}; 10-6 (micro) {μ}; 10-9 (nano) {n}.

Frame: In screen printing, the rectangular suport made of wood across which a screen is stretched.

Francis, Sam: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Frankenthaler, Helen: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Color-Field.

Fraser, Mary Edna: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

French Chalk: Talc is commonly sold under this name. It is neither precipitated chalk nor Paris white as its name suggests by its confusing name.

Fresco: A type of mural or wall painting in which dry colors are mixed with water and applied to wet plaster surface; fresco means “fresh” in Italian.

Freud, Lucian: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Superrealism.

Fringe: A halo seen to surround halftone dots in the early stages of processing.

Frisee: Like a file (see above) except that the metal thread is twisted instead of flat.

Frontality: The full face or head on presentation of the human figure; planarity in the organization of forms, that is, emphasis on forms parallel to the frontal lane.

Frost, Ben: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Cartoon Style – Street Art.

Frottage: Taking a rubbing from an embossed or textured surface, such as wood or stone, using hard chalk, crayon, pastel or other medium on paper.

Frottis (French): Glaze.

Full Shadow: A heavy outline to a letter or line of type.

Full-Spectrum of Light: Artificial or natural light that contains all wavelengths of visible light.

Functionalism: The doctrine prominent in the early twentieth century that architecture, furniture and other useful objects should be designed to reveal their materials and process making, to work well and to endue, and to express their practical purpose; the view that aesthetic excellence results from successful utilitarian design and performance.

Futurism: An Italian painting style (about 1910) derived from Cubism; devoted to the celebration of speed, the representation of motion, and the “dynamization” of civilized life.

Gabo, Naum: Art Category: Constructivist, Sculptor. Art Movements: Realistic Manifesto of Constructivism, Kinetic Sculpture.

Gauguin, Eugene-Henri-Paul: Art Category: Painter, Sculptor. Art Movements: Post-Impressionism, Peasant Sculpture of Brittanny.

Gel: A hydrophilic colloids, capable under certain conditions (such as lowering of the temperature) to produce a pseudo-solid (like a jelly) that may be easily deformable.

Gelatin Process: A duplication method, using gelatin as the medium for transferring a carbon image as in gravure printing.

Generic Classification (Chemistry): Classification by chemical nature.

Geodesic: Word invented by R. Buckminister Fuller to describe his basically hemispherical domes, which rely for strength on the geometric grid of thin, straight members in tension and compression; sixty carbon atoms arranged as hexagons and pentagons – similar to a soccer ball – have been named after him and so are one of a family of “fullerines”.

Geometric Period: Period from 900 to 700 B.C. when geometric motifs on Greek vases formed a background first for animals, then for human figures.

George, Lois: Art Category: Fashion Art. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Ghost: Faint stain (often relating to image forms) in screen mesh caused by incorrect cleaning or by certain printing mixtures (e.g. haze).

Giacometti, Alberto: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Surrealism.

Giambologna, Jean Boulogna: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Mannerism.

Gibson, John: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Neo-Classical.

Girten, Thomas: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

Glass Transition Temperature of a Polymer: The glass transition temperature (Tg) of polymer is an accurate measure of its softness. A polymer that is too soft will lead to a cold flow in an adhesive and pick up dirt in a coating or fabric. A polymer, which is too hard, may crack when stressed or may not be able respond to movements in a fabric. Most polymers in fabrics have a glass transition temperature around room temperature.

Gleizes, Albert: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Cubism.

Glucose (D form): A common sugar present in many plants and in human blood. It is a constituent of starch, cellulose and sucrose etc. and can be obtained from the latter in the hydrolysis with acids or enzymes.

Glyphic: A typeface originating from carved rather than scripted letters.

Goings, Ralph: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Superrealism.

Goncharova, Natalia: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Rayonism.

Gonzalez, Julio: Art Category: Sculptor, Constructivist. Art Movement: Metal Constructivism.

Gorky, Arshile: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Surrealism.

Gothic Style: Originally applied to art and architecture of France, and then Europe, from twelfth to mid sixteenth century; emphasis on vertical space, basilica plan, long, narrow nave, slender masonry construction, progressive enlargement of the window area, ribbed groin vaults, flying buttresses, stain glass.

Gotlieb, Adolph: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Imagery Landscapes.

Graining: The process by which a lithographic plate is given a moisture-retaining surface. Abrasive powder and either glass or steel marbles are used. Mechanical agitation produces the required surface.

Graphic Art: Also the graphic arts; from the Greek word for drawing and writing. Applied to engraving, etching, woodcut, linocut, lithography; any method of printmaking or communication through line, especially when reproduced in books, magazines, posters and by electronic transmission.

Graphic Design: Design based on or involving two-dimensional processes (e.g. illustration, typography, photography and printing methods etc.)

Grass, Flowers (Stains): (i) Fabric: Washable; (ii) Method: Work soap or detergent into stain, then rinse. If safe for dye, sponge stain with alcohol. Dilute alcohol with 2 parts water for acetate; (iii) Fabric: Non-Washable; (iv) Method: Spot clean as above, using alcohol (if safe for dye) to remove soap from article.

Graticule: A linear grid placed over an image giving reference to points on the image (e.g. lines of latitude and longitude on a map).

Gravure: An intaglio printing process.

Gris, Juan: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Orphic Cubism.

Groenewegen, Dianne: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Gropius, Walter: Art Category: Painter, Creator of Bauhaus. Art Movements: Art Nouveau, Bauhaus.

Grosz, Max Herrmann-Neisse: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Dada, Expressionism.

Grotesque: Decoration in the manner of grotto sculptures, especially with fantastic interweaving of human and animal forms with foliage.

Guston, Philip: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Impressionism/Abstract Expressionism.

Guttuso, Renato: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Cubism, Social Realism.

Guys, Constantin: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Realism.

Haake, Hans: Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Ecosystem Installations.

Hagiography: The writing of Saints’ lives.

Halftone: Tonal image, which has been broken into a structure of different-sized dots, which print to give the optical illusion of continuous tonal change.

Hals, Frans: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: 17th Century Painters.

Hamilton, Richard: Art Category: Collage. Art Movement: British Pop Art.

Hand Press: A printing press in which the plate is inked and the paper/cloth is fed and removed by hand.

Hanson, Duan: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Superrealism.

Happening: A quasi-theatrical event staged or contrived in non-repeatable form, employing people, places and objects to make a visual sculptural satirical statement.

Hard Dot: A halftone dot in the second or third stage of processing, with good density and sharpness.

Harding, Richard: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Photographic Expressionism.

Harding, Tim: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Hardness: For main measures of hardness of a material are: resistance to indentation; scratch resistance; damping of a pendulum; flexibility.

Hardness of Water: The property of water conferred by the presence of salts that prevent formation of a lather, with soaps.

Harnett, Michael: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Realism.

Hartley, Marsden: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: German Expressionism Revisited.

Hartung, Hans: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Hatching: A drawing or printmaking technique; a kind of shading in which fine lines placed closed together create a tone that models form; in painting a series of parallel strikes (as in Cezanne) that create the appearance of planes or facets of form.

Hawkins, Jennifer: Art Category: Soft Sculptor. Art Movement: Modernism.

Haze: Generalized faint staining of screen mesh caused by photo-stencils, screen filters, printing mixtures, and varnishes (e.g. ghost).

Heartfield, John: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Heat: Energy possessed by a substance in the form of kinetic energy of atoms or in the case of molecules due to their translational, rotational, and vibrational energies.

Heckel, Erich: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Hectography: A duplication process based on the use of gelatin plates.

Hedonic: Pertaining to pleasure; art created to generate agreeable sensations.

Heffernen, Jodi: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Heizer, Michael: Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Earthen Artworks.

Held, Al: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Minimalism.

Hellenic: Of or relating to Greece.

Hellenism: Greek civilization.

Hellenistic: Period from 323 to 168 B.C., when the Greek language and Greek art dominated the eastern Mediterranean in numerous kingdoms established by the successors of Alexander the Great, including Ptolemaic Egypt.

Hellion, Jean: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Cubism, Abstraction-Creationism.

Helmer, Claudi: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Hemche, Abdelhalim: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Henri, Florence: Art Category: Weaver. Art Movement: Bauhaus.

Henri, Robert: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: American Expressionism.

Hepworth, Barbara: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Hesterman, Heather: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Heterocyclic: Describes organic compounds whose molecules are ring structures, which include atoms of elements other than carbon (C) and hydrogen(H); for example nitrogen (N).

Hieroglyph: An element of language recorded in the form of a pictogram or symbol rather than as a written word.

High Contrast: An image or stencil made with black ink on white paper, or film, having no shading or grey tones.

Highlight: The lightest tones of a photograph, illustration or image.

Hildebrand, Adolf von: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Neo-Classical.

Hillebrand, Bridget: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Historiated: Decorated with elaborate ornamental designs and figures, especially in a narrative (historical, religious or classical) scene.

Hockney, David: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: British Pop Art.

Hoelscher-Schacker, Kristin: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Hoffer, Carl: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Hofmann, Hans: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Symbolism.

Hokusai: Art Category: Printermaker. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Holder: The handle for holding the nib of a writing pen.

Holmes, Cas Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Homer, Winslow: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Psychological Realism.

Honing: A technique of removing image areas from a printing plate by mechanical means.

Hopper, Edward: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Urban Realism.

Horizontal Dimension: The width of an image, sometimes controlling reduction or enlargement in printing.

Huet, Paul: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Landscape.

Hunter, Anne Maree: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Hydrocarbons: Organic compounds whose molecules only containing carbon (C) and hydrogen (H).

Hydrofuge: A means of removing moisture; a substance or apparatus that removes moisture.

Hydrogen Bond: It is a linkage between a hydrogen atom (labeled H) in a molecule and another atom (labeled B) either in another molecule or in another part of the same molecule. Hence, has the pictorial form A-H…B (where … represents the hydrogen bond) and A and B are electronegative atoms with A belonging to the same molecule as hydrogen (H) but being covalently bonded to it.

Hydrolysis: The chemical decomposition of a substance by the reaction with water in which water is itself decomposed. Acids and alkalis often catalyze hydrolysis. The destructive effect of hydrolysis upon fiber polymers will also result in the rupture of inter-polymer forces of attraction.

Hydrophilic: Water loving (i.e. completely miscible in water).

Hydrophobic: Water hating (i.e. sparingly soluble in water).

Hygroscopic: The capacity for a chemical compound to uptake water. For example, NaCl (table salt) is extremely hygroscopic and so can dry out atmosphere in a confined area.

ibid: abbr. ibidem, a Latin term meaning "in the same place" used in notes to a publication to repeat a reference.

Iconoclasm: (Greek meaning “image-breaking”). The rejection of imagery as offensive to God, especially in the Byzantine Empire between ca. 730 and 843. Iconoclasts argued that religious images had come to be regarded by worshippers as idols, and hence must be displeasing to God. Iconophiles adduced a range of arguments from the Bible and Christian tradition legitimating their use.

Iconography: The conventional meanings of images used to convey or symbolize ideas in works of art; an artist’s distinctive use of visual symbols.

Iconology: The historical study and interpretation of visual symbols in art, with particular attention to their literary origins; the study of religious symbolism.

Idealization: Visual representations, which omit defects or imperfect variations in a form; a type of abstraction; a type of stylization; representation the follow perfect models.

idem: A Latin term meaning "the same" used as a reference in footnotes.

Illuminate: To decorate manuscript with gold or silver or with brilliant colors or with elaborate designs (scrolls) and miniature pictures.

Illustration: (i) A drawing, painting, diagram, image or photograph reproduced in a publication to explain or supplement text; (ii) A term used to distinguish a drawn image from one that is photographed.

Image: The subject to be reproduced as an illustration.

Imino Group: It has the chemical formula -NH-. The hydrogen atom (H) of this group is known as the imino hydrogen.

Impasto: Thick, heavy painting; usually oil painting composed of pronounced bristle-brush strokes or palette-knife applications, which stand out in relief and are plainly apparent to the spectator. From the Italian word for paste; paint applied in thick slathers or lumps.

Imperial System Of Units: Units defined by the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824. The units of length (inches, foot and miles), mass (ounces and pounds), volume (gallon) and temperature (e.g. Farenheit) has historical rather than scientific significance.

Impressionism: A late nineteenth century (mainly French) style of painting; the extension of realism to scientific analysis of color and light; stress on capture of transient atmospheric effects; use of broken color and color complementaries to render form; outdoor painting and direct observation of subject emphasized.

Imprimature: A Latin term meaning "let it be printed". It used to be a statement to show that permission to print a work had been given by the appropriate authority.

Imprint: The printer's imprint is the name of the printer and the place of printing. It is required by law if the paper or book is meant to be published. The publisher's imprint is the name of the publisher with place and date of publication.

Indiana, Robert: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Pop Art.

Indian Head: Trade name for a plain weave cotton fabric, vat-dyed or printed with a smooth durable finish.


Indigenous: Native to a region or locale; naturally produced or born in a specific place.

Indirect Stencil: A stencil created away from the silk screen and then attached prior to printing.

Infra-Red: Not a color name. Denotes those rays which lie beyond the red end of the visible spectrum, with wavelengths longer than those of visible light. Can be experienced as heat. From the Latin infra or under, which in this context has the same meaning as beyond.

Ingres, Jean Auguste Dominique: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Academic Classicism, Romanticism.

Inlay: Discontinuous brocade; the extra or brocade does not run full length of warp or weft but is added discontinuous in certain areas to the plain weave from an extra shuttle. Also a decoration in wood or other materials set into a matrix that forms the background.

Inorganic: Of mineral or non-livinig origin; the opposite to organic. Example of inorganic substances are mineral ores, rocks etc. Examples of inorganic compounds are salts (e.g. sodium chloride - table salt), acids (e.g. sulfuric acid) and mordants (e.g. potassium dichromate).

In Pro: abbr. In proportion. A term used to direct the enlargement or reduction of the original image.

Instrumentalism: A term used to describe the critical position that greatness in art results from effectiveness in advancing the objectives of humanity usually defined by one of a number of major social or economic institutions; family, church, state, guild, firm, political party, corporation.

Insulation: Resistance to the passage of heat or electricity.

Intaglio: A jewel or semi-precious stone into which a recessed image has been cut. In printmaking, any of several techniques in which lines are cut or corroded into a plate and which then print positively – the artist’s mark is what appears in the print, rather than the surface the artist left untouched.

Intaglio Printing Equipment: Mixing slab; intaglio inks; palette knife; coarse and fine wiping canvas (scrim); tinned intaglio ink; powder pigment; copperplate oil; blotting paper and tissue; rollers.

Intercutting: A method of combining different paper images is to intercut the images of one design to replace areas of another design.

Intermolecular Forces: Commonly known as van der Waals’ forces (named after a scientist who first investigated the phenomenon), intermolecular forces can be weakly attractive and repulsive and so they operate at close range to be effective. In the case of the attractive force, it arises principally from: ion-ion interactions; ion-dipole interactions; dipole-dipole interactions; dipole-induced dipole interactions etc. It is the principle force that binds a dye to a fiber in hydrophobic fibers.

Internal Sizing: Part of the paper making process, which describes the addition of glue (size) to the paper pulp so that the resulting paper contains a homogeneous mix of size within each sheet, increasing its strength and impermeability of water.

International Style: First applied to Gothic art; the style of architecture and Unitarian designed developed in the 1920s by Walter Gropius, Mies van der Rohe and Le Corbusier; an outgrowth of the Bauhaus philosophy.

Intonaco: The final layer of lime plaster upon which a fresco is painted. This is only one of the Italian terms for specific layers of fresco plaster that is in wide use.

Ion: A carrier (atom or molecule etc.) possessing charge(s).

Ionic: Possessing charge(s).

Ionic Bond: A bond between two ions due to a mutual electrostatic attraction (e.g. table salt is made from the attraction of a positive sodium ion to a negative chlorine ion within a crystal lattice). In the case of dyeing, the mutual attraction generally is between positive centers in the fiber and negative centers in the dye molecule and between negative fiber sites and positive centers in the dye molecule. The dyeing of wool provides a simple example of this.

ISBN: abbr. International Standard Book Number.

ISO: abbr. International Standards Organization.

Isomerism: The existence of two or more compounds that have the same chemical formula but different chemical and physical properties due to different spatial arrangements of the atoms in the molecules. Each compound is called an isomer.

Istoriato: Italian meaning “historiated”. Italian Renaissance maiolica decorated with a narrative (historical, religious, classical) or other figural scene.

Itten, Johannes: Art Category: Painter (Bauhaus). Art Movement: Abstract Color.

Jamb: The edge of a door or window opening.

Japonaiserie: Japanese porcelain and lacquer inspired in the European mind set of decorative ideas slightly different from those of chinoiserie.

Jawlensky, Alexey: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: German Expressionism.

Jesse Tree: Tree illustrating Christ’s descent from Jesse.

Jogging: Aligning edges of a stack of paper sheets using vibration.

Johns, Jasper: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Johnson, Eastman: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Psychological Realism.

Johnson, Tim: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Post Modernism, Post Modern Appropriation.

Jonas, Marty: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Jones, Allen: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: British Pop Art.

Jordaens, Jacob: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: 17th Century Painters.

Joule: Unit of energy (e.g. heat) named after a scientist.

Jukurrpa: Dreaming (in Warlpiri, one of the Aboriginal languages spoken in the Western Desert, Australia).

Jungendstil: See Art Nouveau.

Junk Art: The use of rubbish or trivial objects (by Schwitters, Duchamp, Dubuffet and others) to create images and objects; an extension of the collage idea.

Justified (of type): Lines of type set so as to fill "measure"; less accurately, but more usefully, lines of type that range visually on both sides.

Kagajo, Ken: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Kahlo, Frida: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Kain Panjang: Long cloth, approximately two to three meters (6.5-10ft) long, densely decorated with batik designs and with a border at one end.

Kandinsky, Vasily: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Blue Rider – German Expressionism, Russian Intermezzo, Biomorphic Abstraction.

Kantilla, Osmond: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Tiwi Design - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Kee, Jenny: Art Category: Fashion Art. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Keep Standing: Instruction to printer to keep type matter ready for possible reprinting.

Keep Up: Instruction to printer: keep type in caps.

Kelly, Elsworth: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Minimalism.

Kelpie: Australian sheep dog breed.

Kelvin Temperature Scale: An absolute temperature scale. The zero point of the scale is the temperature at which a perfect gas would occupy zero volume if it could be cooled indefinitely without becoming a liquid. Absolute zero is -273.16oC. Hence water cools at 0oC or 273.16oK.

Kenyon, Jane: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Kerkovious, Ida: Art Category: Weaver. Art Movement: Bauhaus.

Kern: Part of a piece of type sticking out to one side of a body so that it overlaps onto the adjacent piece. See diagram below.


Key: The block or plate containing the main outlines of the design. It acts as a guide for position and registration of the other colors.

Keyline: An outline drawing in artwork that shows the size and position of an illustration or halftone image.

Key Plate: In color printing, that plate which is to print first, providing the key for registering subsequent colors (also called "first color down").

Keystone: The wedge shaped stone in the center of a masonry arch.

Keyword Index (Keyword-from-title Index): One of the significant word or words in the title of a written work by which it may be identified for retrieval, especially from computer memory store.

Khadda, Mohamed: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Khnopff, Fernand: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Symbolism.

Kilogram: It is equal to the mass of a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at BIPM in Paris, France.

Kim, Sora: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Post Modernism.

Kinetic Art: Mainly three-dimension or sculptural art, which seems to move spontaneously in space (as in a Calder mobile) by the aid of a mechanism or through some naturally recurring force, like tide, wind or water.

Kinetic Energy: The energy an entity possesses by virtue of its motion. Heating a fiber raises the motion of the fiber via the molecular vibrations of the polymers of the fiber.

Kirchner, Ernst Ludwig: Art Category: Woodcuts, Painter. Art Movements: Bridge (Bruck), Blue Rider (Blaue Reiter), German Expressionism.

Kirda: Among the Walpiri and related Australian Aboriginal desert groups, those with primary, usually patrilineally inherited rights in ceremonies, Dreamings, designs and so on -see kurdanguris.

Kissel, Kevin: Art Category: Cloth. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Kiss Impression: In letterpress, ideal impression whereby the image is rich and well inked, but the paper shows no sign of an embossing effect.

Kitaj, Ronald: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: British Pop Art.

Kitchen Measurements: 1/4 teaspoon (tsp) = 1 milli-litre (ml); 1/2 tsp = 2 ml; 1 tsp = 5 ml. (This illustrates a rough rounding off for 1/4 and 1/2 tsp); 2 tsp = 10 ml; 1 table spoonful (tbsp) = 15 ml; 1/4 cup (standard drinking cup) = 60 ml; 1/3 cup = 70 ml; 1/2 cup = 120 ml; 1 cup = 240 ml; 1 pint (US pt) = 0.473 litres (l); 1 quart (qt) = 1.1 litres (l).

Kitsch: Mediocrity in the highest degree. In aesthetics, pretentiously bad art; bad taste in art; cheap, mass-produced objects and images designed to arouse easy emotions.

Klee, Paul: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Precursor to Surrealism, Blue Rider – German Expressionism, Abstract Creationism.

Kleinmeister: German meaning “little master”. Engravers who followed Albrecht Durer and were known for small, Italianate engravings prized by collectors.

Klimt, Gustav: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Art Nouveau.

Kline, Franz: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Kloiber, Joan: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Kngwarray, Emily: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Kookaburra/Laughing Jackass: Australian raucous kingfisher.

Kokoschka, Oskar: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Kollwitz, Kathe: Art Category: Printmaker, Sculptor. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Koori: Generic term for the Aboriginal people of the Southern Eastern part of Australia- see also Murri, Nunga, Nyoongar.

Kore: Plural: korae. Greek meaning: “girl”. A Greek statue of a girl or young woman.

Kornblum, Julie: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Orphism.

Kouros: Plural: kouroi. A Greek statue of a boy or young man.

Kraft Paper: Tough, brown paper used for wrapping.

Kraton: Javanese palace.

Kubin, Alfred: Art Category: Graphic Designer. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Kuder, Kristi: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Kuehn, Candy: Art Category: Fashion Art. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Kulyuru, Angkuna: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Kupka, Frank: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Orphic Cubism, Abstract Creationism.

Kurdungiurlu: Among the Walpiri and related Australian Aboriginal groups, those with secondary, usually matrilineally inherited rights in ceremonies, Dreamings, graphic designs and so on - see also kirda.

Kurrajong: An Australian evergreen tree.

Kuruwarri: Men's designs and ceremonies (in the Australian Aboriginal Walpiri language).

Kwertengerl: An Anmatymerr word (Australian Aboriginal) meaning the manager of ceremony; this aboriginal language is spoken by many artists in the Utopia region (Australia).

La Fresnaye, Roger de: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Cubism.

Lake Base: Both blanc fixe and alumina hydrate are given this name.

Lancaster, Helen: Art Category: Painter, Soft Sculptor, Cloth Artist. Art Movements: Abstract Expressionism, Naïve Realism.

Lancaster, Julie: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Landscape Format: Image format in which the width is greater than the height (e.g. portrait format).

Lantern: An open cylindrical construction which lets light into the top of a dome.

Lapping Plate: Flat surface such as a thin sheet of steel or old cookie tin used to hold abrasives for smoothing cut surfaces of bottles.

Larionov, Michael: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Rayonism.

Lateral Reversal: The transposing of an image from left to right as in a mirror reflection.

Laurens, Henri: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Cubism.

Lawrence, Alma-Tedema: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Academic Classicism.

Layout: An outline or sketch, which gives the general appearance of the printed material, indicating the relationship between illustration(s) and/or text.

Leach, Sam: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Italian Baroque.

Leader: A group of dots, usually three (...)

Leger, Fernand: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Impressionism, Orphic Cubism.

Lehmbruck, Wilhem: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Neo-Classical.

Leighton, Frederic: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Academic Classicism.

Letterpress: A printing process. The image is raised and inked to produce an impression.

Lewers, Gerald: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Modernism.

Lewers, Margo: Art Category: Painter, Constructivist, Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Lewis, Wyndham: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Cubism; Futurism.

Library Congress Number: A reference number given to the American edition of a book and recorded at the Library of Congress. This is a common practice not required by law.

Lichtenstein, Roy: Art Category: Painter, Printmaker. Art Movement: Pop Art.

Liebermann, Max: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism.

Lift-Grounding Etching: A form of aquatint etching in which an artist paints the design on a plate with sugary liquid. The plate is covered with an acid-resistant varnish and submerged in water, which causes the sugary area to lift off. The exposed parts are then aquatinted and etched. The aquatint ground can be also laid on the plate before the sugar-lift is applied.

Light: (i) Common term for electromagnetic radiation; (ii) The opposite of dark. Principally used to modify generally defined colors such as light blue etc.

Limmer, Andrea: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Line Block: A printing plate made of zinc or copper consisting of solid areas and lines. It is reproduced directly from a line drawing without tones. It is mounted on a wooden block to type height.

Lining Paper: Plain, flat wallpaper used to line the walls of a room, often over imperfect plaster. It can be painted if first sealed with diluted undercoat.

Linocut: A relief printing surface of linoleum on which the background to the design is cut away with a knife, gouge or engraving tool.

Linocut Equipment: Palette knife and push knife for mixing inks; tap knife for cutting lino; spoon for hand-printing rollers lino; gouges; V-tools; baren, a purpose made tool for hand-printing.

Linoleum Block: Linoleum surfaced block used for block printing. Image to be printed is carved on the surface of the linoleum.

Lintel: The horizontal member of the post and lintel structural device supporting the weight above an opening in a wall such as a door or window etc.

Lipchitz, Jacques: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movements: Cubism, African Art.

Lissitzky, El: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Suprematism.

Lithography: A planographic (flat-surfaced) printmaking technique invented by Alois Senefelder in 1798, employing limestone slabs, or alternatively zinc plates, and chemical antagonism of grease and water. An artist draws on the stone with any greasy medium. The stone is “etched” with a mixture of nitric acid and gum arabic to set the image, and then wetted down, inked and printed. In other words, printing from a dampened, flat surface using greasy ink, based on the principle of the mutual repulsion of oil and water.

Lithography Equipment: Lithographic stick ink; lithographic crayons; pencil and graphite sticks; lithographic drawing inks; printing inks; large inking roller; zinc litho plate; expandable sponge.

Loc cit: abbr. loco citato, a Latin term for "in the place named", used as a reference in footnotes.

Locke-Maclean, Maureen: Art Category: Fashionable Art. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Logo: abbr. Logotype. A word or image cast as one unit that symbolizes corporations.

Long, Richard: Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Earthen Artworks.

Louail, Mohamed: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Louis, Morris: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Color-Field.

Louis, Seraphine: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Low, Elizabeth: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Lowry, Laurence Stephenson: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Naïve Art.

Loy, Abbie: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Luks, George: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Dutch Realism Re-Visited.

Luminescence: Light not associated with heat.

Luminosity: Measure of brightness of a paint or color.

Mack, Franz: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Blue Rider, German Expressionism.

Macpherson, Karen: Art Category: Soft Sculptor. Art Movement: Modernism.

Maillol, Aristide: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Neo-Classical.

Malevich, Kasimir: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Suprematism.

Man, Ray: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Cubism.

Manet, Edouard: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism.

Manion, Irene: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Mannerism: A post-Renaissance, mainly sixteenth century aristocratic style, characterized by elongation of the figure, artificial poses and gestures, strange distortions of the figure, force perspective and strident color; affectedness in art as well as behaviour.

Marbling (Paper): Decorative paper used for binding books, and sometimes the book edges. It is done by dipping the sheet in a bath of color floating on a surface gum. The colors do not mix but can be combined into patterns with the use of a comb, and transfer readily to the paper surface.

Marc, Franz: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Blue Rider, German Expressionism, Cubism, Art Nouveau.

Marcoussis, Louis: Art Category: Painter, Etcher. Art Movement: Impressionism, Cubism.

Margin: Perimeter of mesh adjacent to the frame of screen: this non-printing area is closed during printing either temporarily or permanently to protect the mesh and to be used as a printing reservoir.

Margritte, Rene: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Primitive Art, Dada, Surrealism.

Marin, John: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Cubism Revisited.

Marl: Two differently colored single yarns or filaments plied together.

Marouflage: Process of affixing canvas to a wall by means of a cement, traditionally white lead ground in oil.

Marquet, Andre: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Fauvism.

Martin, John: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

Mask: (i) A material used to block out part of a layout; (ii) A photographic image modified in tone or color.

Masking: (i) Applying a protective layer to a part of a layout in order for it to resist a following process(es); (ii) A technical method of adjusting values of color and tone in a photomechanical reproduction; (iii) Covering a surface to provide a barrier against a layer of paint.

Masking Film: Transparent film in various colors with a plastic backing used to cut stencils for photo-emulsion process.

Masking Paper: In plastic work, the protective paper placed over the surface of a plastic sheet.

Masking Tape: Used to mask out areas, hold on stencils etc.

Masson, Andre: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Surrealism.

Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS): An international standardized form which manufacturers are legally obliged to supply, containing information about materials and chemicals.

Mathieu, Georges: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Matisse, Henri: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism, Fauves.

Matrix Formatting Screen Printing (MFSP): This technique was developed by Marie-Therese Wisniowski. It involves creating a number of images that are then spliced together to form a matrix. The base unit is overlaid by the components of the matrix during the screen printing process. This gives the works an underlying symmetry, which projects a real sense of vibrancy.

Matta, Roberto: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Surrealism, Abstract Expressionism.

Mattoir: In intaglio printmaking, a hand-held instrument with blunt spiked head that achieves tone by stippling the plate.

Max, Ernst: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: German Expressionism, Dada, Surrealism.

Mayo, Rebecca: Art Category: Printmaker, Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Expressionism.

McGavin Smith, Helen: Art Category: Fashion Art. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

McKernen, Shirley: Art Category: Fashion Art. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

McLoughlin, Paula: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Silhouette Art.

Measure: The width of a setting, usually measured in pica ems.

Mechanical Tints: Tints consisting of dot or line patterns that can be laid down on artwork before or during reproduction process.

Megaliths: Immense stones such as were used in Stonehenge.

Melange Printing: The printing of carded sliver in a striped pattern to produce subtle color effects in the yarn.

Menhir: A single, uncut, prehistoric megalith.

Meryon, Charles: Art Category: Painter Art Movement: French Realism.

Mesh: The woven polyester fabric of a screen.

Mesli, Choukri: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Post Modernism.

Meter (Metre): It is equal to the length of the path travelled by light in a vacuum during a time interval of 1/(299 792 458) of a second.

Methylene Radical: The radical -CH2- , which is found in many fiber polymers.

Methyl Radical: The radical -CH3 , which is derived from methane (CH4). Methyl radicals are found in many dye molecules.

Metzinger, Jean: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Cubism.

Mezzotint: An intaglio method of printmaking based on tone rather than line, in which the artists works from dark to light. The plate is first scored all over with a rocker (at this stage, the plate would print totally black after inking). Then the scoring is smoothed out in varying degrees to arrive at lighter values. Mezzotint was widely used in England as a reproductive printmaking technique (hence its alternate name - “the English manner”).

Mezzotint Equipment: Coarse mezzotint rocker; fine mezzotint rocker; copper plate; burnisher; curved scraper.

Michel, Georges: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Landscape.

Micron (also Micrometer): 10-6 of a meter.

Millet, Jean-Francois: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Realism.

Mimesis: The Greek word for imitation or reproduction; the theory generally attributed to Aristotle that art is the imitation of human beings in action.

Minaret: The tall, slender tower attached to a mosque; it has one or more balconies from which the muezzin calls Muslim to prayer.

Minimalism: A style of non-representational art that restricts itself to a very few visual elements organized as simply as possible.

Minnekastchen: Small love casket term used for northern European boxes decorated with scenes of courtly love, chivalric romance or similar themes.

Miro, Joan: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Cubism, Dada, Surrealism, Biomorphic Forms.

Mirrored Image: A pattern where the images are mirror reflections of themselves horizontally or vertically, or both at the same time.

Miso: Art Category: Painter, Drawer. Art Movement: Street Art.

Misting: Causes a vapor of droplets, which can easily be inhaled, especially when using a high-pressure hose.

Mock Up: The rough visualization of a publication or packaging design showing size, color, type etc.

Modersohn-Becker, Paula: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: German Expressionism.

Modeling: In sculpture, the direct forming of materials such as wax, clay, wood, stone. In painting, the creation of more-or-less sculpture illusions.

Modeling Tool: In foil tooling an instrument with a smooth spoon end used to raise the design.

Modernism: Successive late nineteenth-century and twentieth century movements that have broken with the past in search of new forms of expressions.

Modern Movement: A late nineteenth-century and early twentieth century tendency in architecture and design. Often characterized by the use of rectilinear forms and abstract motifs, it was frequently associated with an intention of mechanized mass-production.

Modersohn-Becker, Paula: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Nabis.

Modigliani, Amedeo: Art Category: Painter, Sculptor. Art Movements: Post Impressionism, Modernism.

Module: A standard or unit for measuring and designing; in architecture a device for standardizing the sizes and proportions of building parts and furnishings. See Le Corbusier’s modular.

Moholy-Nagy, Ladislaus: Art Category: Painter, Constructivist. Art Movements: Suprematism, Kinetic Sculpture.

Mole: Molecular weight of a substance expressed in grams.

Molecule: Molecules are composed of atoms and they are the smallest entity of any compound. Polymers are the molecules of fibers.

Molecule Orientation: The degree to which the fiber molecules are parallel to each other and to the longitudinal axis of the fiber.

Mondrian, Piet: (1872-1944) Dutch abstract painter who limited himself to rectangular forms and few colors.

Monet, Claude: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism.

Monomer: A single unit, which goes to make a polymer.

Monoprint: The result obtained from printmaking methods that yield only one unique print.

Monoprint Equipment: Brushes; papers or cloths; mixing slabs; block-printing inks; palette knife; rollers.

Monotype: A form of printmaking that produces only one or two images; a plate or glass sheet (or virtually any surface) is painted with ink or paint and paper pressed against this surface. A traced monotype is made by drawing on a top sheet placed over another sheet containing some sort of pigment, thus transferring the image to a sheet on the bottom.

Montage: Assembling portions of several images to form a single original. In other words, a method of composition in photography, cinema and television; the technique of combining imagery from various sources to create a unified visual presentation; film editing; superimposition, intercutting, overlapping etc.

Monumentality: The combined quality of dignity, grandeur, and impressiveness, especially in architecture and sculpture, regardless of actual size.

Moore, Henri: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Primitive Art.

Moreau, Gustave: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Symbolism.

Morgan, Leslie: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Morisot, Berthe: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism.

Morley, Malcolm: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Superrealism.

Morresey, Gerard: Art Category: Film Maker - Printmaker. Art Movement: Realism.

Mosaic: A surface decoration or picture made with pieces of colored glass, stone or ceramic (called Tesserae) set into cement or mastic; typical of a wall, apse and dome decoration of Byzantine churches.

Motherwell, Robert: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Muddle, Gloria: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Mueller, Otto: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: German Expressionism.

Multiples (Prefix) {Symbol}: 10 (deca) {da}; 103 (kilo) {k}; 106 (mega) {M}; 109 (giga) {G}; 1012 (Tera) {T}.

Munch, Edvard: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: German Expressionism.

Mural: Any large wall painting. See Fresco.

Nadar, Felix: Art Category: Photographer. Art Movement: French Realism.

Naive Art: The art of untrained or self-taught artists; the art of preliterate peoples. See Primitive Art.

Namatjira, Albert: Art Category: Water Colorist. Art Movement: Australian Landscapes.

Nanometer: One billionth of a meter i.e. 10-9 of a meter.

Napaltjarri, Tjunkiya: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism?Environmental Art.

Nash, Dominie: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Naturalism: The doctrine that art should consist of exact transcription of visual appearances.

Nave: The central part of the church used by congregants, running from the main entrance to the altar; usually flanked by side aisles and bordered by piers and columns.

Negative: The reverse of an image, where the areas shown as dark appear as light. In screen-printing, printing the negative space means printing the background rather than the image itself.

Neoclassical Style: A predominately mid-eighteenth century and early nineteenth century style in evidence in Europe and the USA. It drew (with varying degrees of accuracy) on the forms and motifs of Greek and Roman antiquity.

Neo-Gothic Style: The name given to various revivals in architecture and design in Europe and the USA, from mid eighteenth century onwards, of medieval forms and decorative motifs. It was associated in mid nineteenth century Europe particularly with the work of architects such as A.W.N. Pugin and E. Viollet-Le-Duc.

Neolithic: Also Stone Age; starting about 10,000 or 8,000 B.C.; beginnings of settled living; farming, animal husbandry, spinning, weaving and fired pottery.

Neo-Plasticism: A twentieth century style of painting, mainly associated with Piet Mondrian and the De Stijl group in Holland; characterized by limited palette (black, white and primaries) and restriction to absolutely vertical and horizontal forms.

Neo-Renaissance Style: The name given to mid- to late nineteenth century rivals, in architecture and design, of Italian and French styles of the sixteenth century and of English Tudor and Jacobean styles.

Newman, Barnett: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Color-Field.

Ngal, Gloria: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Niati, Houria: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Post Modernism.

Nib: Metal tip of a lettering pen, which holds ink supply; point of lettering, which touches the writing surface.

Nicholson, Ben: Art Category: Painter, Sculptor. Art Movement: Geometrical Reliefs.

Nolan, Sydney: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionist Surrealism.

Noland, Kenneth: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Minimalism.

Nolde, Emil Hansen: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Fauves.

Non-Objective Art: Literally, art without objects, wholly non-representational art; an art whose images have no obvious models in physical reality. Should not be confused with abstract art.

Nya Nordiska: A German company founded in the 1960s to produce contemporary textile and product design.

Obeah: Rituals and magic retained in the Caribbean from African spiritual practices used in punishment or retaliation.

Occlusion: The surrounding of isolated particles of a substance by a solid or semi-solid. Absorption or adsorption of gases by a solid.

Oculus: The “eye” of circular opening at the top of a dome.

Offsetting: The process by which an area of wet printing mixture or other substance (such as a screen filler) is applied to a surface, then lifted from it by contacting it with another flat surface (e.g. a sheet of glossy paper), and then printed (offset) onto a third surface (or into another position on the first surface).

Oil Glaze: See glaze.

O’Keeffe, George: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Oldenburg, Claes: Art Category: Sculpture. Art Movement: Pop Art.

Oleophilic: Literally, oil-loving: describes the tendency of hydrophobic fibers to cling tenaciously to oil and grease.

Oleophobic: Having an aversion to oil; repels oil, grease, wax etc.

Olitski, Jules: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Minimalism.

Olson, Kimber: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Ombre: Literally, shaded: fabric in which the color is graduated from light to dark. That is, a dyeing effect that graduates the fabric color from light to dark. This is achieved by lowering the fabric or yarn in the dye vat in gradual stages. An ombre effect can also be achieved by using printing methods.

Onus, Linus: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Op Art: A style of painting which creates disorienting effects by juxtaposing vibrating colors, after-images, perspectival illusions and subtle, progressive changes of repeated shapes.

Op cit: abbr. opere citato. A Latin term meaning, "in the work quoted", used as a footnote reference.

Opus Tessellatum: A mosaic technique using relatively large tesserae.

Opus Vermiculatum: A Hellenistic mosaic technique associated with Sophilos employing tesserae of cut stone, glass, and faience.

Organic: (i) The term used to describe substances composed essentially of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and nitrogen (N), often in conjunction with oxygen (O). All commonly used textile fibers are organic; (ii) In art, forms that resemble the structure of living things; shaped like the parts of plants and animals rather than machines; natural.

Orientalizing Period: Period in Greek Art from ca. 700 to ca. 600 B.C., when Eastern influences were introduced to the Phoenicians and Syrians.

Orozco, Hose Clemente: Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: European Barque Style.

Orphists: A school of abstract painters in Paris about 1912, grouped around Robert and Sonia Delaunay, combining Cubist form with vivid, bright colors.

Orthochromatic: Photographic materials sensitive to green and yellow as well as blue light.

Otte, Benita: Art Category: Weaver. Art Movement: Bauhaus.

Outstation: An Australian colloquialism referring to small Aboriginal communities established away from larger communities and usually located in, or close to, their traditional country.

Overlaying Technique: Collage method in which smaller illustrations are pasted over a background illustration.

Overprint: Printing over an already printed area.

Oxidation: An oxidation reaction involves electron loss. That is, it is a reaction in which electrons are removed from a chemical species that is being oxidized. Older definitions (not general enough) define it in terms of the addition of oxygen atoms to, or the removal of hydrogen atoms from molecules.

Ozenfant, Amedee: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Purism.

Painters Tape: Low-tack masking tape.

Paint Quality: One of the desirable visual attributes of a finished painting; the term does not refer to good or bad ingredients rather to its intrinsic material beauty or its successful surface effects.

Paleolithic: Also Old Stone Age; from 32,000 B.C. to about 8,000 B.C.; the period of cave dwellers who employed tools of stone and bone and lived mainly by hunting and gathering.

Palethorpe, Jan: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Panchromatic: Photographic material which is sensitive to all visible colors and to ultraviolet light.

Paolozzi, Eduardo: Art Category: Printmaker, Sculptor. Art Movement: British Pop Art.

Paper Stencil: The paper is firmly attached to screen mesh and so acts as a resist to the printing process. Any cut out portions of the paper creates an image onto the substrate that the screen mesh is positioned on top of.

Papier-Mache: A sculptural material made of pulped paper or strips of paper mixed with paste; can be pressed, moulded or modeled when moist; dries hard.

Parmigianino, Francesco Mazzola: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Mannerism.

Particulate Respirator: Close-fitting high grade breathing mask designed to filter very fine particles.

Parts Per Million (ppm): One part per million is 1 mg m-3.

Paschke, Teresa: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Pearl Binder: Pearl binder is mixed with standard pigment colors turning them metallic. It is also opaque.

Pechstein, Max: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: German Expressionism.

Pediment: The triangular spaced formed by the gable end of a classical building; the shape created by the sloping roof and the horizontal cornice; usually holds sculptured figures.

Peintre-Graveur: (French meaning - ”painter-engraver”). Original printmaker, in contradistinction to a professional, reproductive printmaker.

Pendentives: The curve triangular areas of masonry that supports a dome resting on a square base.

Permeke, Constant: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Perspective: A system for creating illusions of depth on a flat surface; usually it is within the confines a linear system.

Perspective (Aerial): The technique of making a two-dimensional surface, appear three-dimensional through the use of value, intensity and temperature.

Perspective (Linear): The techniques of making a two-dimensional surface appear three-dimensional through the use of line.

Petruskeviciene, Jurate: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Color-Field.

Petyarr, Ada Bird: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Petyarr, Annie: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Petyarr, Violet: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Pevsner, Antoine: Art Category: Painter, Constructivist. Art Movement: Cubism; Abstract Creationism.

pH: A logarithmic scale between 0-14 that that measures the strength of acids or bases. A large pH indicates a strong base (e.g. pH = 14) and a low pH indicates a strong acid (e.g. pH = 1). A neutral solution has a pH of 7.

Photocopy Positive: A positive made on acetate or tracing paper using a photocopier.

Photoemulsion Stencil: A stencil created by exposing a screen coated with light-sensitive emulsion.

Photoengraving: A photomechanical method for producing etched line or halftone plates.

Photographic Silhouette: A silhouette made by photographing a subject which is lighted from the side opposite the camera. Side facing the camera is on deep shadow and appears grey or black in the printed picture.

Photograph Stencil: A screen printing stencil prepared from light sensitive materials. The image is exposed on the stencil material and the stencil is developed with hydrogen peroxide and water. This treatment dissolves the stencil material over the image area so the ink can pass through.

Photomontage: The use of images from different photographs combined to produce a new composite image.

Photo Positive: A positive made photographically on lithium film using dark room techniques.

Pica: The old name for 12 points, the unit of measurement used in setting.

Picabia, Francis: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism, Cubism, Dada.

Picasso, Pablo Ruiz: Art Category: Painter, Sculptor, Constructivists. Art Movements: Blue Period, Rose Period, African Sculpture and Art, Cubism, Neo-Classical, Surrealism, Neo-romantic.

Pichelmann, Caroll: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Pilaster: Rectangular column, especially one engaged in a wall.

Pin Art: The art of creating pictures with nails and thread. See figure below.


Ping, Huang Yong: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Post Modernism.

Pinhole: An unwanted small open area on a photo-stencil that prints as a dot or a spot.

Pinnell, Judith: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Piranesi, Giovanni-Battista: Art Category: Etcher, Constructivist. Art Movement: Cubism.

Pissaro, Camile: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism.

Pistoletto, Michelangelo: Art Category: Collagist, Painter. Art Movement: Superrealism.

Plaque: In craftwork, an ornamental base often serving as a support and background for craft or art designed as a wall decoration.

Plate: A sheet of metal or paper bearing a design from which an impression is printed.

Plumbago: Graphite.

Plumbline: Weighted string used for marking verticals.

Pochoir: The method of making an individual printing by brushing through a stencil.

Pointillism: A system of painting based on the juxtaposition of dots of color tht blend optically. (See Surat).

Poirer, Anne and Patrick: Art Category: Constructivists. Art Movement: Earthen Works Art.

Polar: A partial separation of electronic charge in atoms, or molecules.

Polar Group: A group of atoms which are either positively or negatively charged.

Polarity: The positive or negative charge of an atom or group of atoms.

Pollen, Jason: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Pollock, Jackson: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Surrealism, Abstract Expressionism.

Polwarth (Fleece): (i) Count: 58-64s; (ii) Staple Length: 10 – 12 cm ; (iii) Handle: Soft; (iv) Color: Ultra White.

Polymer: A large molecule formed by joining together, via chemical bonds, many smaller sub-units (called monomers) in a repeated pattern.

Polymerization: Molecular re-alignment impelled by some external force or treatment. An internal change by which properties of a substance are changed and its molecular weight increase without the addition of a new ingredient.

Polypeptide: A linear polymer of amino acid (protein) which are linked together by a peptide bond (-CONH- link).

Pop Art: A style of painting (and sculpture) originating in the 1960s, employing enlarged images and motifs from commercial art, road signs, comic strips and outdoor advertising.

Porcelain: Generic term for fine, hard, translucent ceramic substance, used for the production of table and decorative wares. First made in China in the seventh and eight century A.D., it was made in Europe only from the eighteenth century, when Meissen, Sevre and other manufacturers began production.

Portait Format: Image format in which the height is greater than the width.

Posada, Jose Guadalupe: Art Category: Murals. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Positive: Refers to the primary objects or shapes in a composition excluding the background.

Positivism: Extreme form of nineteenth century empiricism that sought objective fact above all else.

Post and Lintel: The principal structural device of classical Greek architecture employing two vertical members of posts and a horizontal beam or lintel.

Post-Impressionism: Movement in French painting that reacted against Impressionism by emphasizing the subject, formal style, and structure of a work. It was associated with Paul Cezanne, Paul Gauguin and Vincent Van Gogh.

Post Modernism: Movement predominating in the 1980s and 1990s in reaction to the adoption of limitations by art movements. In principle, to be postmodernist is to accept that any style can be appropriate, anyone can be an artist, and any object can be a work of art.

Poulson, Peggy Napurrla: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Pounds Per Square Inch (Abbreviation: psi): A British Imperial measurement of pressure used in pressure steaming.

Powers, Hiram: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Neo-Classical.

Primitive Art: The art of preliterate peoples; a slightly opprobrious term for untrained or unsophisticated art; mistakenly applied to European paintings before the Italian Renaissance.

Printing Processes: The main classes of printing processes are intaglio, planographic, relief, stencil. All these rely on the contact of surfaces under pressure.

Printmaking: A term referring to printing processes used in making fine art prints or print editions.

Prior, Michael: Art Category: Photographer. Art Movement: Realism.

Process Engraving: The name given to several photomechanical methods of producing relief blocks or late for printing.

Process Printing: Separating color-image into a set of halftone positives each representing a translucent color (normally cyan, magenta, yellow or black). When these separations are screen printed in perfect register, the color image will be resembled.

Proof: Test print (often on newsprint or cartridge but sometimes on editioning paper), which may consist of one or more, or all, stages of a printed image.

Proofing Press: The bed of the press accommodates the height of the type blocks so it is ideal for printing woodcuts blocks and wood-mounted lino The paper is fitted to the cylinder, which is then rolled over the inked block.

Protein: A natural polymer of amino acids that is found in animals and plants. It is also called a natural polypeptide.

Provence: Also provenience; origin or source, especially of a work of art.

Pryor, Jutta: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Pulp: The basic material used in paper making broken down mechanically or chemically.

Pumice: Powered volcanic rock. A greyish inert pigment and abrasive, it is often used to impart tooth to grounds.

Putto: Plural: putti. Small child, winged or not, common in Classical and classicizing art.

PVC Sheet: Genotherm, rigid, gloss, clear sheet: a transparent substrate manufactured for the printing industry.

Pwerl, Lena: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Pynacker, Adam: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Italian Baroque.

QED: abbr. Quod erat demonstrandum, a Latin term meaning "a thing which has been proved".

Qianlong Emperor (Chinese): An avid collector and student of the arts who ruled China from 1736 - 1795.

Quadding: Driving abnormal space (e.g. "em-quad" or "en-quad") between words in order to fill out line; also used in reference to ranging left and right ("quad left/ quad right") and centering ("quad center) in linecaster composition and photocomposition.

Quadrilateral: Plane figure bounded by four straight lines; there are six types - see below.


Quadro Riportato: Italian. A framed picture.

Quanta: Small packets of energy of light; a quanta of light can be visualized as an ethereal bullet that has no mass but only energy.

Quantity Sizes: Dozen (doz.) = 12; Score = 20; Gross = 144 (or a dozen's dozen); Ton (USA) = 907.19 kg.

Quarto (4to): Cut or folded sheet, which is one quarter of a basic sheet size.

Quartz Iodine Lamp: See "tungstan halogen lamp".

Quick Point: Needlepoint which has 3.5 to 5 inches per stitch.

Quilling: Art of rolling and bending narrow strips of paper into artistic shapes.

Quilling Tool: Small round tool which has one hollow end (forming a cylinder). Paper is attached to cylinder end via a small slot and wrapped into a "quill".

Quire: One twentieth of a ream; usually 24 or 25 sheets.

Quoin (pron: coyn): In letterpress, an expandable device used to take up space and lock up "forme" ready for press.

qv: abbr. Quod vide, a Latin term meaning "which see", used to accompany a cross-reference term.

Radical: A group of atoms that have unpaired electrons. They are therefore very reactive. Ozone is a radical.

Raffer Beck, Jeanne: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Rastafarianism: Belief originating from Jamaica that venerates the Ethiopian emperor Haili Salassie (called Ras Tafari before his coronation). It teaches the eventful redemption of black people and their repatriation to Africa, considered a spiritual Eden.

Rauchenberg, Robert: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Realism: A nineteenth century style of painting associated with Gustave Courbet and related novels of Zola; emphasis on a truthful account of human existence; opposed to ideal or Academic art.

Recycled and Handmade Papers: Handmade papers can be embedded with floral, leaves and other plant fibers to yield interesting textures and colors. Photocopy paper may be used as pulp as it is cheap and stable, and any vegetable skins, flora and fauna can be used to give the paper a unique organic look.

Redon, Odilon: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Precursor to Surrealists. Symbolism.

Redox Reaction: In every chemical reaction that involves oxidation, a reduction process must also occur for the reaction to be balanced. A redox reaction is the simultaneous reduction-oxidation reactions that must be coupled in order to give a balanced chemical reaction or equation.

Reductant: A reductant is a chemical species capable of donating electrons.

Reduction: Reduction is a chemical reaction that involves a gain of electrons. That is, it is a reaction in which electrons are given from a chemical species that is being reduced. Older definitions (not general enough) define it in terms of the loss of oxygen atoms or the addition of hydrogen atoms from molecules.

Reduction Printing: (i) Screen filler stencil process using a single open area: a series of stencils are made (and printed) which progressively reduce the printing area; (ii) A method of printing using only one screen for every color in the image. Each color is printed after applying a block out medium to the screen, with no block-out being removed. The open or unprinted areas of the screen become increasingly smaller during the process.

Reformation: Reform movement in the sixteenth century church that escalated into a religious revolution. Protestant denominations concentrated in northern Europe broke away from Roman Catholicism, concentrated in the south. In several Protestant area iconoclastic outburst resulted in the destruction and prohibition of religious art.

Refraction: The bending of light as it passes from one medium into another (e.g. light going from air into water is refracted or bent; hence fish appear to be shifted from their actual location).

Registration Tabs: Stops or guides attached to the base of the screen frame in screen printing. Their purpose is to position the paper accurately during printing.

Regnault, Henri: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Academic Classicism, Romanticism.

Reinhardt, Ad: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Minimal Art.

Relative Humidity: A measurement of the amount of moisture or water vapor present in one cubic meter of air, expressed as a percentage of the maximum amount of water vapor the one cubic meter of air could hold at the temperature when the measurement was taken.

Reliquary: A container of relics, which may take any form, from a simple box to a representational image, and which can either conceal or reveal the relic within.

Relm (Tag): Art Category: Spray Cannist. Art Movement: Graffiti.

Renaissance: Also Renascence. The fifteenth century “rebirth” of art and letters; that is, the revival of Classical Art in Italy and afterward throughout Europe. The Renaissance style displaced medieval Gothic and Byzantine Art.

Renoir, Pierre Auguste: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism.

Reprographic Printing: Techniques of copying or duplicating printed material.

Retable: A structure (architectonic, carved, painted or of metalwork) position behind the altar.

Retroussage: The term given to flicking a soft rag lightly over a wiped intaglio plate, to draw out the ink slightly and give a softer line. In other words, a technique of wiping an etching plate so that ink is drawn up out of lines, thus producing softer, richer effects.

Reversal: Term used in screen printing to describe how all areas that are open (and which print) become closed (non-printing) and vice versa.

Rice Paper: Japanese papers of various types and finishes made for artists' use, including those made from mulberry fiber, are commonly grouped under this name.

Riley, Bridget: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Op Art.

RIP: abbr. Rest in Proportion. Instructions in sizing up artwork where the other dimensions or images are to be reduced or enlarged in proportion to a given dimension.

Rippon, Lesley: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Rivera, Diego: Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: European Baroque Styles.

Rivers, Larry: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Pop Art.

Roberts, Elizabeth: Art Category: Fashion Art. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Robertson, Mary Anne (Grandma Moses): Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Naïve Art.

Robertson-Swan, John: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Rocker: A hand-help, spiked instrument used in mezzotint that scores the plate when rocked over it. The scoring is then smoothed out to produce values ranging from dark to light when the plate is inked and printed.

Rococo Art: A late form of Baroque architecture and decoration, but more intimate and secular; playful, witty and often erotic; ornate decor; light colors; irregular form; reflects the effeteness of the French court in the late eighteenth century.

Rodchenko, Alexander: Art Category: Painter, Constructivist. Art Movement: Non-Objectivism.

Rodda, Elisabeth: Art Category: Photographer. Art Movement: Realism.

Rodin, Auguste: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Neo-Classical.

Rogers, Barbara: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Color-Field.

Roller: Tool with a revolving cylinder covered in various materials and used for applying paint.

Roller Printing: Application of pigment or dye to a fabric in a pattern or image by mean of engraved metal rollers.

Romanesque: The art and architecture of Europe from the ninth to the twelfth century; characterized by heavy masonry construction, dark church interiors and mystical, restless sculptural forms.

Romanticism: In art, an eighteenth- and nineteenth century style emphasizing subjective feeling and the emotions associated with exotic life-styles, escape from the present, extreme danger, suffering, nostalgia, myth and historical evocation.

Rose, Chris: Art Category: Quilter. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Rosenquist, James: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Pop Art.

Rossetti, Dante Gabriel: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Symbolism.

Rosso, Medardo: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Neo-Classical.

Rothko, Mark: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Color-Field.

Rouault, Georges: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Expressionism, Fauves.

Roundel: A circular or oval panel of white glass (less commonly rectangular) of approximately 20 cm in diameter, made of a single piece decorated with monochrome glass-paint and yellow stain. Later examples also display enamel colors. They depict religious and secular subject-matter and were designed to be viewed at close quarters, often in domestic and other secular settings. They became popular in the last quarter of the fifteenth century, and the largest number were made in the Low Countries.

Roulette: A hand-held instrument with spiked wheel that produces a grainy mark over an etching ground or directly on an intaglio plate. It was used in the eighteenth century tonal processes such as crayon and pastel manners.

Rousseau, Henri-Julien: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Cubism, Naive Realism.

Rousseau, Theordore: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Landscape.

Royal Water Color Society Paper: High quality paper that is a mixture of cotton and linen.

RTP: Perfect print; that is, "right to print".

Rubylith: A film used in silk screen printing.

Russolo, Luigi: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Futurism.

Rutherford, Diane: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Ryder, Albert Pinkham: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romanticism, Symbolism.

Ryder, Julie: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Salt: Sodium chloride is common table salt. There are several forms: sea salt (contains other salts in smaller amounts such as magnesium chloride); coarse pickling salt and ordinary iodized salts (contains potassium iodide etc.) The addition of a salt to dye bath softens the colors and slightly retards the rate at which the fiber absorbs the dye. It is used to “draw” the color from certain dyestuffs, namely flowers, barks, lichens and roots, and is sometimes added to these when they are soaking out. A final hot water and salt rinse is beneficial when rinsing out some colors after dyeing. This adds in the fastness of these shades and prevents too much color “rubbing off” after yarns are dry.

Sandpaper: Abrasive paper available in varying degrees of coarseness. See wet-dry sandpaper.

Santeria: An African Cuban religion derived from Yoruba beliefs and rituals.

Sargent, John Singer: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: American Impressionism.

Saturated Covalent Bond: A single covalent bond that does not take part in additional reactions. In textile chemistry, saturated covalent bonds occur most frequently between two carbon atoms, and or between one carbon (C) atom and an atom of hydrogen (H), oxygen (O) and/or nitrogen (N). Saturated covalent bonds are strong, stable and so not reactive.

Saunders Waterford: Stable and durable paper.

Saw Toothing: The result when photo-emulsion is applied too thinly to the mesh and does not bridge it adequately: this causes printed edges of photo-stencils to "step", resembling the teeth of a saw rather than a straight line.

Scale Drawing: An illustration, which represents an object and its parts in correct proportion to the actual size.

Scaling (Scaling Up): To determine the degree of enlargement or reduction necessary to reproduce an original image within a given area of a design. The scaling may be represented as a percentage of the image area or in figures proportional to the dimension of the original, using a diagonal bisection of the image to govern the increased or reduced measurements.

Scam: A rough sketch showing the basic idea for an advertisement or design.

Schey, Barbara: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Schiele, Egon: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Schmidt-Rottluff, Karl: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Schrimpf, Georg: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Schulze, Joan: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Schwitters, Kurt: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Merzism.

Scoop Coater: A tool used to apply photo emulsion to the screen.

Scoring: It is - in bottle cutting, scratching a fine clean line into the surface of the bottle to provide a break line.

> Screen: A wooden or aluminum frame with polyester mesh stretched over it; stencils are attached to the screen or created directly on it.

Screen Filler: Liquid applied to a degreased mesh, which dries close areas of mesh, forming a stencil: stopping out.

Screen Landing Pad: Small pad of soft material (a household duster folded in four and taped at the edges), with a length of cord attached for retrieval. It is placed on one of the front corners of the horizontal glass surface of a UV exposure unit. When a screen is placed on the unit, one corner is "touched down" on the pad, allowing the screen to be slid to the back of the unit in a controlled fashion and protecting the glass surface from scratches.

Screenprinting: A printing method that produces prints by using a squeegee to push ink through a screen. That is, a printing through an intermediary surface – the screen mesh. The images of screen prints are formed by various kinds of stencilling techniques, based on blocking out areas of the mesh either with sheet materials such as paper or stencil film or with liquids that fill the mesh.

Screenprinting Equipment: Squeegee; screen; screenprinting inks; palette knife; solvent brush to remove stencils; cleaning rags.

Second: It is the duration of exactly 9192631770 periods of radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium-133 atom.

Second Empire Style: The ornate, ostentatious, and largely eclectic style current in interior design in France under the reign of Napoleon III (reigned 1848-70).

Sedgley, Peter: Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Kinetic Art.

Sedira, Zineb: Art Category: Photographer. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Semiotics: The study of signs and sign-systems.

Sensitometry: The science for measuring the properties of photosensitive materials.

Separation Artwork: Artwork in which a separate layer is created for each color to be printed.

Serial Art: Also series painting, system sculpture and “ABC” art. A style of the 1960s and 1970s in which simple geometric configurations are repeated with little or no variation; sequence becomes important as in mathematics and linguistic theory.

Serigraphy: The term used for fine art screen-printing.

Serini, Gino: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Futurism.

Serusier, Paul: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Post-Impressionism 2.

Seurat, Georges-Pierre: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism, Pointillism

Shahn, Ben: Art Category: Painter Art Movement: Urban Realism.

Shaman: Sorcerer, magician, medicine-man, priest of the Old Stone Age hunting cultures; he was probably responsible for pictures of animals painted on cave walls and ceilings.

Shetland Moorit (Fleece): (i) Count: 56/58s; (ii) Staple Length: 2-6 cm; (iii) Handle: Soft and silky; (iv) Color: Brown.

Shoulder: Raised edge of a stencil (particularly a paper stencil or thickly applied photo-emulsion).

Signac, Paul: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Pot-Impressionism.

Silhouette: A drawing of an object showing simply the outline filled with solid tone or color.

Silk Papers: A highly textured, sometimes delicate, almost translucent papers, with strands and fibers of silk embedded in the structure.

Siqueiros, David: Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: European Barque Style.

Sisley, Alfred: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism.

Sketch Book: An exercise book design to assist in the collation of source sketched materials.

Sloan, John: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Dutch Realism Revisited.

Smith, Barbara Lee: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Smith, Carter: Art Category: Fashion Art. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Smith, Richard: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: British Pop Art.

Smithson, Robert: Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Earthen Artworks.

Smoking (Etching): Wax tapers are burnt yielding a dark smoke that deposits carbon on the ground during an etching process.

Snap: The action of the mesh lifting away from the wet print, determined by the height of the gap between the mesh and the press bed (when the press frame is down).

Snow White: Same as white, chalky, lily white. The color of snow; the whitest of whites. Zinc white.

Social Realism: The style of art, allegedly Marxist, which is based on the doctrine that painting and sculpture should accurately represent the worker’s experiences, especially their oppression by class enemies and their triumphs of production.

Sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate (Reducing Agent): Commercial names: Formosul and Rongalite C. It is a general purpose reducing agent. It is easy to handle and produces a good white on cellulose, cellulose acetate, triacetate and 100% silk fabric. It is rarely used on wool because it may cause fiber damage and shrinkage problems, because it functions best in an alkaline pH range. With some finer fabrics the production of a “halo” effect may cause some problems.

Softening Brush: Long-haired brush used for softening and blending paint in marbling, wood graining and many other bravura finishes. Badger hair softeners are easier to use but more expensive than hog-hair softeners. Available in a range of sizes.

Soft Water: The absence of mineral salts in the water (see hardness of water).

Solubility: The degree to which a substance will dissolve in a solvent such as water.

Solvent: (i) Usually toxic (but it can be non-toxic) chemical used to dissolve oily block out materials from the screen or used as a pressurized removing agent (e.g. water pressure); (ii) Part of oil-based paints that evaporates during drying.

Solvent Cement: Special adhesive to join sheet plastic. It works by dissolving a small amount of the plastic on each of the surfaces being joined. When the material re-hardens, the surfaces are permanently joined.

Somerset: Inexpensive quality paper.

Soto, Jesus-Raphael: Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Kinetic Art.

Soutine, Chaim: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Spacklng or Sparkling: The rectifying of a defect in a plaster wall or mural painting by digging out the defective spot and filling it in with a plastic gesso, plaster of Paris, Keene's cement or similar material.

Spalliera: (Plural: spalliere). From the Italian - spalla - meaning “shoulder”. Ornamented or figurated panel about shoulder height of a textile or, when set into a wall or on furniture, of painted wood.

Spandrel: The curved triangular area left between an arch, the vertical from which it springs, and the horizontal across its apex.

Specific Gravity: The density of substance, expressed as the ratio of density of water.

Stahmer, Gail: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Standard International Units (SI Units): It is also known as the International System of Units (abbreviated SI from Systeme International D'unites). It is the modern variant of the metric system that is based on a power of ten between various categories of length (e.g. metre and centi-metre), mass(e.g. kilogram and gram), volume (litre and milli-litre), and temperature (the melting of ice - 0oC - and the creation of steam - 100oC).

Stanley, Tjariya (Nungalka): Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Staple Fiber: Short fiber lengths as opposed to filaments; fiber of cotton, wool, cut filaments etc.

Staszakowna, Norma: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Color-Field.

Stella, Frank: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Minimalism.

Stella, Joseph: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Italian Futurism Revisited.

Stencil Card: Stout oiled manila card, from which shapes are cut in order to make stencils.

Stencil or Spray Printing: In stencil or spray printing the color is sprayed, dabbed, brushed or sponged onto a material through a stencil which has been prepared from a substrate (e.g. thin sheet of metal, plastic, cardboard or water proofed transparent paper etc.)

Stereotype: A metal cast of a mould of a wood-engraving block. The duplicate of the original block enabled more efficient printing of images on steam-driven presses. It was invented in 1829.

Stet: A Latin word meaning, "let it stand". It is used in proof correcting to cancel a previously marked correction.

Stevens, Alfred: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Neo-Classical.

Stewart, Bob: Art Category: Film Maker. Art Movement: Realism.

Still, Clyfford: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Stippling: Making sharp indentations in a surface with a sharp point to provide texture.

Stippling Brush: Rectangular brush used for a stippled finish and for removing excess paint cornices and architraves etc. Available in a variety of sizes.

Stokes, Linda: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Stolzl, Gunta: Art Category: Collargist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Strapwork: Ornamentation imitating plaited straps.

Stretcher: Sometimes termed a chassis. It is usually a wooden frame strong enough to allow the canvas to be tautly stretched and to support the weight of the paint.

Strike Off: The production of a sample print to prove the accuracy of a printed design and registration of screens or rollers.

Strip Heater: Heater designed to heat plastic along a straight line for the purpose of softening sheet plastic so it can be bent or shaped.

Strout, Gail: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Stucco: Fine plaster-type material used both to cover exterior brickwork and to decorate internal walls and ceilings.

Studiolo: A small private study in a secular setting such as a house or palace.

Styling: As used in industrial or product design; superficial change. The stylist alters the appearance of product for marketing rather than functional reasons.

Stylization: The process of making visual representations conform to a conventional model.

Subject: Term for any image, which is to be reproduced or originated.

Sugarlift: Tradition etching process which results in a characteristic bold, broken, painted mark. See also lift-ground etching.

Sullivan, Carolyn: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Surrealism: A literary and artistic style stressing the sub-conscious and non-rationale sources of imagery; influenced by the Freudian psychology. Movement based in Paris between the First and Second World Wars that sought to access a superior reality through contact with the subconscious mind by means of dream imagery and spontaneous creation. Its chief theoretician was Andre Breton.

Sustris, Lambert: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Later Renaissance.

Symbol: A letter, figure or drawn sign that represents or identifies an object, process or activity.

Symbolism: The systematic use of visual symbols according to mythical, religious, literary etc. traditions.

Symbolist: A late nineteenth century school of painters (including Gauguin) who used color especially to suggest ideas and emotions.

Szablewska, Gabriella: Art Category: Sculptor – Ready Mades. Art Movement: Street Art.

Tabbing: (i) Arranging copy (typewritten or typeset) in multi-columnar pattern within set measure; colloquialism for "tabulation"; (ii) Forming projecting portions to edges of book so as to make a tab index.

Tab Index: One in which divisions are indicated by projecting tabs on foredge.


Tablet: Same as digitizing pad.

Tableau Vivant: A group of figures posed motionless to represent a historical event or some other scene.

Tabulation: Arranging information in a list or table form.

Tail: Bottom of book; also known as "foot", especially in USA.

Taipan: An Australian venomous snake.

Takis, Greek: Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Kinetic Art.

Tamayo, Rufino: Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: European Barque Style.

Tanguy, Yves: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Surrealism.

Tanning: The treatment of hides to preserve them and keep them permanently supple.

Tanzini, Amando: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Post Modernism.

Taoism (Chinese Term): An indigenous belief system based on the forces of nature and teachings of Lao Tzu (6th Century BC).

Tapaya, Tjunkaya: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Tapies, Antonio: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Tasmanian Devil: Small fierce flesh-eating marsupial.

Tatlin, Vladimir: Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Relief Construction.

Tear Sheet: An image, feature or advertisement torn from a periodical and filed as reference material.

Techne: Greek term for technical skill in making and resenting.

Technical Illustration: A specialist branch of graphic design dealing with illustrations of all types depicting technical machines, systems and processes.

Tectonic: Pertaining to architecture and construction; one of Wolffin’s categories meaning “closed-form”, where it applies to painting and sculpture, too.

Tele-: Prefix meaning "at a distance".

Telecommunication: Sending or receiving signals, sounds or messages of any kind by television, radio, telephone or any other electromagnetic means.

Temmam, Mohamed: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Temperature (Degree Kelvin): It is the fraction 1/273.16 (exactly) of the thermodynamic triple point of water; that is, the point where ice, steam and liquid water can all co-exist.

Template: Shape or sheet with cut out forms and designs, used as a drawing aid.

Terbrugghen, Hendrick: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: 17th Century Painters.

Terra-Cotta: A reddish brown baked clay used for earthen ware, sculpture and building construction, as in terra cotta titles, pies and fire insulation.

Tessera: A small vitreous or ceramic cube or a stone; one of the units of a mosaic. That is, any small object used in constructing a mosaic.

Tesserae: Pieces of colored glass, stone or ceramic used in making mosaics.

Thermocopy: A copy produced by the action of heat, rather than light as in photocopy.

Thick (Space): Commonly used word space in hand setting: 1/3 em of set.

Thin (Space): Commonly used word space in hand setting: 1/5 em of set.

Tingari: Commonly described as a group of Aboriginal ancestral beings, with one or more dominant men or women, who brought law and culture to the peoples of the Western desert region (Australia).

Thirtytwo-MO, 32 MO: Cut or folded sheet which is one thirty second of a basic sheet size.

Thirtytwo Sheet Poster: Poster size 120 x 160 inches (3048 x 4065 mm).

Threshold Limit Value (TLV): This is a limit value which gives the lower safety limit. Any solvent with a TVL less than 200 ppm should be avoided or treated with considerable caution. For example, the TVL of gasoline is ca. 300 ppm. In the case of solvents you need to prevent contact with eyes and skin for a TLV of 2 mg m-3 (2ppm). Note: Sometimes Occupational Exposure Limits (OEL) is used in lieu of TLV.

Threshold Limit Value - Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV - STEL): TVL for short term exposure, up to 15 minutes.

Threshold Limit Value - Time Weighted Average (TLV - TWA): TVL for exposure during the whole working week.

Thumb Index: One in which thumb-sized chunks are cut out of foredge for greater ease of reference - see figure below.


Tiffany (and Associated Artists): In the late nineteenth century in USA saw the beginning of Tiffany, a decorating company. The company designs influenced a women-only association called the “Associated Artists”, whose central figure was Candice Wheeler. Her approach to craft was similar to that of William Morris in the UK.

Tilde: Diacritical sign.

Tillers, Imants: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Post Modernism, Post Modern Appropriation.

Time: Both the SI unit and the Imperial system have the same units for time.
1 Year = 3.16x107 seconds (s); 1 Month (31 Days) = 267.84 x 108 s; 1 Day = 8.64 x 104 s; 1 hour = 3.6 x 103 s; 1 minute = 60 s.

Tims, Ricky: Art Category: Quilter. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Tinguley, Jean: Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Kinetic Art.

Tintoretto, Jacopo Robusti: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Mannerism.

Tint Plate: One used to print color background to type, line or half tone matter.

Titian (Tiziano Vecellio): Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Renaissance.

Title Page: That page of a book carrying title, author and publisher.

Tjakamarra, Michael Nelson: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Tjaltjarri, Tim Leura: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Tjapaltjarri, Clifford Possum: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Tjukurpa: The "Tjukurpa" or "Dreamtime" or "Dreaming" as it is sometimes loosely translated into English, is fundamental to Central Australian Aboriginal life. It defines traditional aboriginal law and religion and encompasses the land and its creation and all that exists. Different language groups of Central Australia have different words and spellings for the same concepts, sometimes capitalized and sometimes not. Some of these are: Tjukurpa (Pitjantjatjara language), Altyerre (Arrernte), Jukurrpa (Warlpiri) and Tjukurrpa (Pintupi - Luritja). It is incorrect to assume that all aboriginal groups in Australia have "Dreamings" or even similar "Dreamings" to those in Central Australia.

Tobey, Mark: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Fellow Traveller to Abstract Expressionism.

Tog: A metric unit for insulation value equal to the thermal resistance that will allow heat flow of one watt per square meter from a temperature differential of 0.1oC.

Tonal Blending: In painting, modeling a form by changes in tones of a single color instead of changes in hue.

Tongue-and-Groove: Joint made between two boards by means of a tongue projecting from the edge of one board that slots into a groove along the edge of the other.

Toorop, Jan: Art Category: Painter Art Movement: Post-Impressionism, Symbolism-Art Nouveau.

Toose, Kirry: Art Category: Fashion Art. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Topography: Science of representing features of any district in detail, as on a map.

Topology: Branch of mathematics concerned with contiguity and relative position, rather than with congruence and dimension.

Totem: The protective creature, usually an animal or bird, to which a clan believes itself related; the emblem which represents clan or family. Totem pole: a carved and painted wooden post showing figures of totemic protection or ancestors.

Toulouse-Lautrec: Art Category: Painter, Art Poster. Art Movement: Art Nouveau, Caricature.

Tracing Materials: Translucent forms of paper, cloth and acetate used as the basis of artwork for direct reproduction.

Tracing Paper And Drafting Film: Materials used to help re-create the effects of sheer translucent fabrics such as georgette, although paint effects may chip off if applied too quickly.

Tracing Tool: Round-point instrument used in tooling foil to trace the pattern and outline the design.

Trademark: Legal name of a product.

Tranny: Slang for "transparency".

Transept: The cross arm in a basilica church; it meets the Nave at right angles, separating the nave from the apse; the main altar is usually under the crossing of the Nave and transept.

Transfer: A film or acetate sheet bearing an image for transfer to a printing plate.

Transfer Leaf: Sheets of gold or silver leaf attached to tissue paper used in oil gilding.

Transferring (Lithography): Drawing or impressing inked image onto special coated paper and transferring it thence to lithographic printing surface.

Transitional: Class of typefaces dating from mid-18th century, having somewhat finer serifs and hairlines than "old-face" but not to extent of "modern" - see below.


Trevillian, Annie: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Tribute System (Chinese Term): Neighboring states submit to the Chinese Emperor by exchanging gifts for trading privileges in China.

Trim Marks: Those incorporated on sheet when printed, to show how job is to be trimmed, and which are not visible in printed result.

Trimming: Final cutting to size of printed job by guillotine.

TRS: Abbreviation for "transpose"; instructions on manuscript or proof to transpose character, word, phrase or sentence.

Truckenbrod, Joan: Art Category: Cloth Artist, Digital Artist. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Trullisatio: The first coarse undercoat of fresco plastering.

Trumeau: A central support for tympanum in a large doorway.

Tsou-Cho, Tsang: Art Category: Calligraphist. Art Movement: Graffiti.

T-Square: Ruler with cross piece at one end, used in conjunction with drawing board when drawing parallel lines.

Tucker: An Australian term for food.

Tungatalum, Bede: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Tiwi Design - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Tungsten Halogen Lamp: Photographic light source consisting of a special form of tungsten lamp with trace of a halogen gas, smaller and brighter than conventional lamp; sometimes called a "quartz-iodine" lamp, though it might not contain either quartz or iodine.

Turner, Joseph Mallord William: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

Tusche: Traditionally a greasy solution used in lithography for painting washes on stones or plates. In water based screen-printing and acrylic resist etching, tusches are specially formulated painting and print making media containing opaque particles, which are used to make autographic positives. Many types of marks can be created, from reticulated washes to soft-ground effects.

Twaddle Scale (abbreviation- TW): A scale used for expressing specific gravity of liquids.

Twelve-MO, 12 MO: Cut or folded sheet, which is one twelfth of a basic sheet size.

Twin Wire Paper: That which is made from machine producing paper, which has no "wire-mark" and so is smooth on both sides.

Tyepty: An Anmatyerr word (Australian Aboriginal) meaning storytelling game of drawing in the ground; Anmatyerr is spoken by many artists from the Utopia region (Australia).

Tympanum: The space between the lintel and the arch above a doorway filled with stone.

Type: (i) Piece of metal of standard height having raised image of character or characters on its upper face, assembled with other pieces to form line, which is printed by letterpress (relief) process - see figure below; (ii) images obtained by printing from this metal; (iii) Images obtained from composition systems, which do not use metal type (e.g. photocomposition).


Type Area: Specified area of page or trimmed sheet which contains body of text matter and illustrations.

Type Family: All variants (e.g. light, medium, bold, condensed, expanded) of all sizes of given type design.

Type Height: Standard height of type from bed to printing surface: 0.918 inches in UK and US; also called "height-to-paper".

Type Mark-Up: Typesetting instructions to compositor on manuscript or typescript, accompanied by general specification.

Type Scale/Gauge: Rule marked in ems and points, and often also in inches and millimeters, for use in layout, imposition and proof correction; also called "line gauge" and "pica rule".

Type Series: Those designs and sizes of typeface referred to by manufacturer by same series number.

Type Specimen Sheet: One giving full alphabets, figures and signs, with some text settings, of particular typeface.

Typo: Slang for typographical error; can refer to either typewriting or typesetting mistake (USA term).

Typology: A common medieval narrative mode in which events in the Old Testament are presented as prefiguring events in the New Testament.

UDC: Initials of "Universal Decimal Classification": system of classifying areas of knowledge developed as extension of "Dewey Decimal Classification".

Uhde, Fritz von: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism.

Ultraviolet (UV or U/V): Light waves beyond the visible portion of violet waves in the electromagnetic spectrum, which can be absorbed by some photosensitive materials.

u/lc (U&LC): Initials for "upper-and-lower case"

Umbrella (Religious Chinese Symbol): Royal grace.


Underlaying Technique: Method of adding a small illustration within a larger one by sitting the larger illustration and slipping a portion of the smaller one through the slit underneath.

Underpainting: The first stage of indirect painting method; the establishment of the chief shapes, lights, darks and masses, usually with a limited palette or in monochrome.

Unit System: In machine composition of type, method of relating character widths to unit measurements, originally developed by Monotype; units are not standard dimensions but vary according to set.

Unity: A feeling of wholeness or completeness in a work of art. Also a coherent relationship among parts or elements of a work of art.

Universal Copyright Convention (1952): Agreement beween signatory countries giving protection for copyright proprietor of text, photograph, illustration, movie, work of art, providing work carries proper copyright notice consisting of symbol, name of copyright proprietor and year of publication.

Unsaturated Covalent Bond: A double or triple bond, which in general are more reactive than saturated covalent bonds and so can undergo addition reactions. Also used in connection with saturated fats (which contain saturated covalent bonds i.e. single bonds - not reactive) and unsaturated fats (which contain unsaturated covalent bonds - double or triple bonds - very reactive)

UPC: Initials of "Universal Product Code" (see "bar code").

Upstroke (of Type): Lighter stroke in the type character, deriving from upward movement of pen in calligraphy - see figure below.


Urbiene, Jurate: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Vacuum Forming: Shaping thin plastic sheeting by means of a vacuum - see diagram below.


Vacuum Frame: A frame for making positive or negative process images by direct contact with an original. The frame is illuminated and creation of vacuum ensures stable contact between surfaces.

Vacuum Press: Screen-printing press with a perforated bed through which air is removed by a vacuum pump, holding the printing paper (or other substrate) in position during printing.

Vacuum (Printing) Frame: Illuminated printing frame used to make process negatives and positives; vacuum provides the best contact between surfaces.

Vajara (Chinese Term): A Buddhist symbol representing a thunderbolt.

van Baarle, Els: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

van der Leck, Bart: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: de Stijl.

van der Waals Forces: These forces are really due to intermolecular forces but on occasion have been named after the Dutch physicist who investigated their effects on the properties of gases. They are weak attractions or repulsions that operate at close range between all types of atoms and molecules and in the cases of attractions are the principal reason that dyes will bond in hydrophobic fibers. See intermolecular forces.

Vandyke Print: A print or photocopy producing the image as a dark brown print, either negative or positive.

van Gogh, Vincent Willem: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Post-Impressionism.

Vanishing Point (abb: VP): In perspective projections, point at which all parallel lines, which are also parallel to the round plane, converge on the horizon.

Vantongerloo, Georges: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: de Stijl, Abstract Creation.

Vapor Diazo: Same as ammonia duplication process.

Vasarley, Victor: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Op Art.

Vault: A masonry, brick or concrete arched structure forming a ceiling or roof over a hall; barrel vault, groin vault, ribbed vault.

Vector: Generally, any quantity having both magnitude and direction and expressed by a straight line of a given length; more specifically, those line increments from which some types of computer-generated graphics displays are formed - see diagram below.


Veduta: (Italian: “view”). Topographical paintings and prints - especially popular in the eighteenth century. Although these were generally of real locations, the term could incorporate imaginative views as well, albeit realistically conceived.

Veining: Specialist technique for painting the veins on simulated marble.

Vellum: The treated skin of a calf, kid or lamb, used as a writing surface.

Venetian (of Typeface): Early form of roman, which retains sloping bar to "e" from calligraphic origin and has less variation between thick and thin strokes - see below.


Venn Diagram: On using circles, ovals or other closed figures to illustrate sets, named after John Venn, who used them from 1880; also known as "Euler Circles" after Leonhard Euler, who used them in 1770 (although they appear to have been invented by Johann Christoph Sturm in 1661 - see diagram below.


Verso: Any left-hand page book; one which is even-numbered.

Verstegen, Clare: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Vertex: Plural - vertices. In geometry, meeting-point of lines that form an angle.

Vertical Dimension: The measurement of an image from top to bottom.

Vexta: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Street Art.

Victorian Style: The style prevalent in architecture and design in Britain during the regain of Queen Victoria (1837-1901). Usually characterized by a profusion of elaborate surface decoration and glittering effects, it was often associated with shoddy materials and industrial processes. The term is sometimes used to designate similar styles of architecture and design current elsewhere (for example in the USA) during this period.

Vide: A Latin term meaning "see", used as a reference in footnotes.

Viewpoint: The direction from which an illustrator represents a particular object to provide the best analytical or aesthetic study.

Vignetted Halftone: One in which edges are gradually shaded off into the background - see figure below.


Villion, Jacques: Art Category: Painter, Engraver. Art Movement: Cubism, Abstract Art.

Vine Black: Made by calcining selected wood and other vegetable products. This pigment and the other blacks referred to it are members of a group of rather impure forms of carbon made by burning selected, but rather second-rate materials of vegetable, animal, and petroleum origins. They all have a bluish undertones and when mixed with whites will produce blue-greys. They are inferior to the lampblack group in intensity and pigment properties. While these materials are probably permanent enough for most practical uses, it is wiser to select one of the purer forms of carbon as listed under Black Pigments. The vine black group should not be used in fresco or to mix with cement, mortar etc. because of efflorescence from water-soluble impurities, which they always contain.

Visual: A mock up of the proposed appearance of a design or layout or presented as a rough drawing, or if more highly finished, as a presentation visual.

Viven, Louis: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

viz: abbr. videlicet, a Latin term meaning "namely" used when citing a reference in footnotes.

Vlaminck, Maurice: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Fauvism.

VOC: abbrev. Volatile organic compound.

Vodou (Voodoo, Vodun, Voudoun): The religion of the majority of the Haitian people, which combines West African and European spiritual practices.

Voge, Marc: Art Category: Photography. Art Movement: Web Art.

Vordemberge-Gildewart: Art Category:Painter, Sculptor. Art Movements: de Stijl, Abstraction-Creation.

Voussoir: A wedge-shaped block used in the construction of a masonry arch.

Vrubel, Michael: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Symbolism.

Vuillard, Edouard: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Post-Impressionism, Intimism.

Waddy: Australian aboriginal term for heavy wooden war club or throwing stick.

Walka: Australian Aboriginal word which translated means meaningful or intentional marks (e.g. sometimes used in the context of mark making on cloth).

Walkabout: Australian aboriginal term for period of wandering in the Australian bush for spiritual renewal.

Wallet Envelope: One with quadrilateral, as distinct from triangular flap.

Wallet Fold: Same as gate fold but may be applied more particularly to wallet-fold cover.

Wan (Chinese Religious Symbol): Ten thousand.


Wandjina: Generic term for a group of Aboriginal ancestral beings in the Kimberly (Australia), who control elements and maintain fertility in human beings and other natural species.

Warhol, Andy: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Pop Art.

Warrigal: An Australian aboriginal term for dingo, or wild horse.

Watercolor Paper: It is expensive but its soaks up dye and paint without cockling. Some watercolour papers have interesting textures, which may add to the designs. Most papers are cotton based and the weights of the paper is usually between 190 and 300g.

Watercolor Printing: Printing process using water-based inks a relatively porous paper so that colors are absorbed and can be mixed by overlapping the layers printed.

Water-Gilding: Technique for applying transfer or loose leaf to a surface.

Watermark: A distinctive design incorporated in paper during manufacture.

Wedge-Serif Typeface with triangular serifs, also known as "latin" - see below.


Weighting: The addition of substances (such as metallic salts) to silk fabrics in order to increase their weight so as to overcome weight losses due to the removal of natural gums from the silk. The latter removal is required to ensure that the luster of the fiber is exposed. However, this often resulted in a lightweight weak fabric with poor durability and so to overcome this flaw the silk fabric is weighted. Note: Any silk fabric labelled – all silk, pure silk, or pure dye silk does not have excessive weighting.

Weight (Of Typeface): Comparative strength of appearance of any typeface.

Well: The interior portion of the screen where the ink is applied.

Wesselman, Tom: Art Category: Collage. Art Movement: Pop Art.

Wet-Dry Sandpaper: Abrasive paper that may be used with water to achieve a really smooth finish.

Wheel of Law (Chinese Religious Symbol): The teaching of Buddha.


Whistler, James Abbot McNeill: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Subjective Realism.

Wiener Wekstatte: Founded in Austria by Otto Wagner, as a follow on from the Vienna Succession at the same time as Art Nouveau. The fabrics were hand-printed for fashion and interiors, and influenced by Gustav Klimt, who reflected the textiles in his paintings.

Wilson, Bret: Art Category: Sculptor – Ready Mades. Art Movement: Street Art.

Winters, Cherie: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Wire-Side: That side of some uncoated papers (such s antiques) which shows a wire-mark - as distinct from felt-side.

Wire-Stitch/Stab: To secure a book by forcing a wire through back of insetted work or side gathered work.

Wisniowski, Marie-Therese: Art Category: Printmaker, Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Primitive Art, Environmental Art, Post Graffiti, Socio-Political Art.

Wobble Board: An Australian term for a fiber-board sheet that booms when shaken and flexed and is used as a musical instrument.

Wols (Wolfgang Schultze): Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Wombat: An Australian furry burrowing marsupial.

Woodcut: A relief printing method using the side grain of a wood block. Areas not intended to print are cut away below the surface of the block leaving a raised image that can be inked - see below.


Woodcut Equipment: Side-grain wood blocks; gouges and V-tools; craft knife for fine-line work on block; push knife and palette knife; block printing inks.

Wood Engraving: A relief technique of printmaking using end grain blocks of wood, sometimes bolted together to produce larger surfaces and a burin to cave them. Usually wood-engravings have a highly detailed, white-on-black appearance that required smooth manufactured papers, which could pick up detail. Wood-engravings were used extensively from the late eighteenth century on for journal and book illustrations - see below.


Wood Engraving Equipment: End-grain wood blocks; engraving tools; mixing slab; block-printing inks; palette knife; roller.

Woodgraining: Technique used to imitate the characteristic markings of a variety of woodgrains.

Woomera: An Australian aboriginal term for hooked stick for launching spears or darts.

Word-Breaking: Splitting words at the end of line of type to avoid "gappy" word spacing:

Word Spacing: In machine composition other than line casting, word spacing conforms to "unit system"; in hand composition, word spaces are provided in the following widths - see below.


Work and Turn: To print forme on one side of the sheet, turn it over from left to right and print same forme on reverse, thus producing two identical half-sheets; some common type of half-sheet work - see below.


Work and Tumble: Similar to work and turn, except that the sheet is turned over from gripper edge to back, instead of from left to right - see below.


Work and Twist: To print forme on one side of sheet, then turn it round (not over) and print again from the same forme (particularly suited to work involving crossed rules - see below.


Working: A single operation performed by a printing machine (e.g. embossing, inking).

Work Up: In letterpress, type space which has been accidentally pushed up.

Wove Paper: Uncoated paper, which has an even, unpatterned look-through.

Wowser: An Australian term for a puritan, killjoy, prude.

Wrap Around: Small printing section (4pp or 8pp) wrapped around another section in gathered work.

Wright, Wendy: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Wurley: An Australian aboriginal terms for shelter or hut, typically made of branches,leaves and grass matting.

Wyeth, Andrew: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Figurative Realism.

x-axis: horizontal axis in a coordinate graph.

Xerography: A photocopying process in which the image is formed by an electrostatic charge that allows adhesion of powder ink. The ink was sealed by heat processing.


x-height: Mean height of lower case characters, which have neither ascenders nor descenders - see below.


Xerography: Printing process in which image is projected onto late, causing electrostatic charge already imparted to be discharged where light falls, thus allowing applied coating of resinous powder to adhere only to uncharged areas and then transfer to paper; also known as photostatic or dry copying process - see diagrams below.

Yapp Binding: Binding form in which limp cover overlaps leaves of book (after William Yapp, who devised it for his pocket bibles).

y-axis: Vertical axis in co-ordinate graph.

Yawulyu: Aboriginal women's designs and ceremonies (in the Walpiri language).

Yirrjta: Name for one of the two Aboriginal complementary social and religious categories (moieties) in Central and Eastern Arnhem land (Australia) - see also Dhuwa.

Yolngu: Generic term for the Aboriginal peoples of Central and Eastern Arnhem land (Australia).

Zakine, Ossip: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Surrealism.

Zhang, Yan: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Ziggurat: The almost pyramid-shaped monument of the ancient Babylonians and Assyrians, consisting of four or five stages or stories stepped back to form terraces; outside stairways lead to temples and a shrine on top.

Zig-Zag Book: One made as continuous, concertina fold, usually printed one side only; may be stitched at the back or left unstitched so that it may be opened up, either for display or to reveal printed reverse - see below.


Zinco, Zincograph: A zinc plate used in letterpress line printing.

Zip-A-Tone: Mechanical tints printed off cellophane and used in the preparation of original artwork.

Zoning: Partitioning a city or town by ordinance into specific areas or zones for manufacturing, recreation, and residence.

Zoomorphic: Pertaining to animal art; ascribing animal forms or attributes to humans, especially to gods and goddesses.

Zschech, Michael: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Expressionism.


References:
[1] A. Fritz and J. Cant, Consumer Textiles, Oxford University Press, Melbourne (1986).

[2] P. Lambert, B. Staepelaere and M. G. Fry, Color and Fiber, Schiffer Publishing Ltd., Pennsylvania (1986).

[3] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd edition, Collier-Macmillan Ltd, London (1968).

[4] Ed. L.W.C. Miles, Textile Printing, Dyers Company Publication Trust, West Yorkshire (1981).

[5] E.N. Abrahart, Dyes and Their Intermediates, Pergamon Press, Sydney (1968).

[6] A. Kosloff, Textile Screen Printing, The Signs of the Times Publishing Company, Cincinnati (1966).

[7] D.W.A. Sharp, The Penguin Dictionary of Chemistry, Penguin Books Ltd, New York (1983).

[8] A. Stromquist, Simple Screenprinting, Larks Books, New york (2005).

[9] R. Adam and C. Robertson, Screenprinting, Thames & Hudson, London (2003).

[10] A. Campbell, The Designer's Handbook, MacDonald & Co., Sydney (1983).

[11] K.L. Casselman, Craft of the Dyer, University of Toronto Press, Toronto (1980).

[12] E.P.G. Gohl and L.D. Vilensky, Textile Science, Longman Cheshire, Melbourne (1989).

[13] G.H. Aylward and T.J.V. Findlay, SI Chemical Data, John Wiley and Sons, Elwood (1983).

[14] R. Mayer, The Artist's Handbook, 4th Edition, Faber and Faber, Norfolk (1982).

[15] K. Wells, Fabric Dyeing And Printing, Conrn Octopus Ltd., London (2000).

[16] A. Kornerup and J.H. Wanscher, Methuen Handbook of Colour, 3rd Edition, Eyre Methuen Ltd, London (1983).

[17] C. E. Kicklighter and R.J. Baird, Crafts - Illustrated Designs And Techniques, The Goodheart-Willcox, Company, Inc. South Holland (1986).

[18] K. Skinner, The Paint Effects Bible, Gary Allen Pty Ltd, Smithfield, Australia (2003).

[19] E.J. Gawne, Fabrics For Clothing, 3rd Edition, Chas. A. Bennett Co. Inc., Peoria, USA (1973).

[20] M.E. Ratcliffe, Fabric Painting, Salamandar Books Ltd, New York (1988).

[21] Editors A. Jeffs, W. Martensson and and P. North , Creative Crafts Encyclopedia, Octopus Books, London (1984).

[22] L. Wauchope, Silk Painting, Simon and Schuster, Sydney (1992).

[23] E.B. Feldman, Varieties Of Visual Experience, 2nd Edition, Prentice-Hall, New York (1982).

[24] J. Fish, Designing and Printing Textiles, The Crowood Press Ltd., Ramsbury (2005).

[25] A.H. Barr, Cubism and Abstract Art, Arno Press, New York (1966).

[26] D. Piper, The Illustrated History Of Art, Bounty Books (2000).

[27] N. Dyrenforth, The Technique of Batik, B.T. Batsford Ltd., London (1988).

[28] W. Caruana, Aboriginal Art, 3rd Edition, Thames & Hudson, London (2012).

[29] M-T Wisniowski, personal communication (2013).