Saturday, April 16, 2016

Poster Art of the 1890s
Prints on Paper

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Preamble
This blogspot is not only devoted to ArtCloth and all things fabric (e.g. art wearables) but also to prints on paper. There are now many posts on this blogspot in this particular genre and so for your convenience I have listed these posts below.
The Journey
Made to Order
Unique State (Partners in Print)
Veiled Curtains
Pop Art
A Letter to a Friend
Beyond the Fear of Freedom
Travelling Solander Project
Print Making in the 1970s
Star Series
Imprint
Cry for the Wilderness
Federation on Hold - Call Waiting
Contemporary Aboriginal Prints on Paper
Japanese Ukiyo-e Prints
Wish You Were Where?
The Art of Erté
The Four Seasons - My Haiku Prints
Mucha
Margaret Preston
Art Nouveau and Symbolism of the 1890s
Sea Scrolls. Celebrating 50 Years of Print
Northern Editions - Aboriginal Prints


Introduction[1]
The evolution and development of poster art was closely linked to technical advances in printmaking and moreover, in lithography. Although the lithographic process was invented by Alois Senefelder (1771-1834) as far back as 1798, it had little impact on posters until the advent of chromolithography later in the 19th Century. Even then, it wasn't until Jules Chéret (1836-1932) invented his the "three stone lithographic process" in the 1860s, which allowed lithographers to produce a wide spectrum of colors from just three stones, that low-cost color posters at last became a reality.

Pastilles Géraudel.
Artist: Jules Chéret (Paris, 1836 – 1932, Nice).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 231.2 x 80.5 cm.

Known as the "father of the fine art poster", Chéret not only developed a cheaper color lithographic process, with richer more expressive colors, he also enhanced the aesthetic nature of the poster, endowing it with graceful designs (some influenced by Ukiyo-e woodblock prints from Japan, by artists like Hokusai and the younger Hiroshige) and transformed it into an independent work of art. Furthermore, he encouraged other painters to explore the genre. He later published his special book - Maîtres de l'Affiche (Masters of the Poster) - to promote the best designers. He also introduced the feminine form into his designs in order to gain an extra viewer appeal. His female subjects became so popular that Parisians dubbed them Cherettes. In total, Chéret produced more than 1,000 posters, beginning with his 1867 advertisement for Sarah Bernardt's performance as Princess Desiree in the comedy La Biche au Bois. Honored in 1928 with the opening of the Chéret Museum in Nice, Jules Chéret's posters are some of the most highly sought-after items from the late 19th Century to this day.


Posters of the 1890s[2]

Saxoleine (1892).
Artist: Jules Chéret (1836 – 1932).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 122.7 x 87.0 cm.

Le tour du monde en 80 jours (1890).
Artist: Alfred Choubrac (1853 – 1902).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 121.8 x 87.7 cm.

Miss Robinson (1890s).
Artist: Alfred Choubrac (1853 – 1902).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 117.8 x 79.3 cm.

Madama Butterfly (1890s).
Artist: Leopoldo Metlicovitz (1868 – 1944).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 141.6 x 100.4 cm.

Le Princess Jaune (1896).
Artist: Charles-Lucien Leandre (1862 – 1930).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 100.8 x 72.3 cm.

Le Reve (1891).
Artist: Théophile Alexandre Steinlen (1859 – 1923).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 89.2 x 63.4 cm.

Lait pur de la Vingeanne Sterilize (1894).
Artist: Théophile Alexandre Steinlen (1859 – 1923).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 135.5 x 98.6 cm.

La Revue Blanche (1894).
Artist: Piere Bonnard (1867 – 1947).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 80.0 x 62.0 cm.

Exposition, les Peintres Graveurs (1896).
Artist: Pierre Bonnard (1867 – 1947).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 64.8 x 47.8 cm.

Photograph of Toulese-Lautrec with his poster – Moulin Rouge.

Slide 12: Moulin Rouge (1891).
Artist: Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864 – 1901).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 170.0 x 121.0 cm.

Sescau Photograph (1894).
Artist: Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864 – 1901).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 60.3 x 80.1 cm.

Reine de joie par Victor Joze (1892).
Artist: Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864 – 1901).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 149.5 x 99.0 cm.
Note: (a) - (c) illustrates the lithographic process.


References:
[1] http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/poster-art-history.htm

[2] World Poster Museum – Exhibit 1: World Poster Masterpieces (1989) from the Lords Gallery Collection.

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