Saturday, August 27, 2016

A Time To Reflect - A Time To Select
Annual Review

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Introduction
I started this blog six years ago on the 26th August 2010. It is tilted towards my favorite art passions: prints on cloth, prints on paper and wearable art.

Detail view of my ArtCloth - "Mark Making on Urban Walls".
This Post-Graffiti ArtCloth was exhibited at the ATASDA Facade Exhibition (The Palm House, Sydney) from the 18th to 30th of May, 2016.

The blog spot also provides an art therapy for me. I was determined from the very beginning that its purpose was to inform, aspire and inspire others to get on with their own artwork. At the outset my commitment was simple: I would blog approximately 50 posts a year, including an annual review about the most popular post in the given year within each category. For your convenience I have listed below the other annual reviews that span the life of this blog spot, namely:
Where Did The Year Go? (2010/2011)
It's Been An Exciting Year (2011/2012)
Another Cheer - Another Year (2012/2013)
The Year of the Horse (2013/2014)
Cold and Windy - But on the Dawn of Renewal (2014/2015)

Before I list the categories and the most popular post within each category let me digress and ask - so what is so important about the 26th of August (other than the fact that I started blogging on that day six years ago)? To get a better feel about events that occurred on the 26th of August where else to look except on the internet. Thanks to reference [1] - here are some events that occurred on that day.

580: Chinese invented toilet paper.
1278: Battle of Marshfield: Rudolf van Habsburg defeats Ottar II.
1346: Battle at Crecy-England's longbows defeat France; cannons used for 1st time in battle.
1541: Turkish sultan Suleiman occupies Buda/annexes Hungary.
1545: Pope Paul III names his son Pierluigi Farnese, Duke of Parma.
1629: Cambridge Agreement, Mass Bay Co stockholders agree to emigrate to USA.
1641: West India Company conquerors Sao Paulo de Loanda, Angola.
1648: People's uprising against Anna of Austria and Cardinal Mazarin.
1745: England, Prussia and Hannover sign a treaty.
1791: John Fitch granted a U.S. patent for his steamboat design.
1843: Charles Thurber obtains a patent for his typewriter design.
1873: First kindergarten public school opens in St. Louis.
1883: Krakatoa erupts killing 36,000 people.
1894: Social-Democratic Worker's party (SDAP) forms.
1907: Houdini escapes from chains underwater at Aquatic Park (USA) in 57 seconds.
1914: Russian army attacks Austrian army in Galicia.
1920: 19th amendment passes - women's suffrage granted.
1929: First U.S. roller coaster built.
1937: Franco's troops conquer Santander.
1942: 7,000 Jews are rounded up in Vichy-France.
1944: De Gaulle marches to Champs-Elysées.
1945: Japanese diplomats board Missouri to receive instructions on Japan's surrender at the end of WW II.
1946: George Orwell published "Animal Farm".
1955: First color telecast (NBC) of a tennis match (Davis Cup).
1957: U.S.S.R. announces successful test of intercontinental ballistic missile.
1967: Beatles, Mick Jagger and Marienne Faithful meet Maharishi Mahesh Yogi.
1972: 20th Olympic games open at Munich, West Germany.
1973: University of Texas (Arlington) is 1st accredited school to offer belly dancing.
1978: Cardinal Albino Luciani of Venice becomes Pope John Paul I.
1981: Voyager 2 takes photo's of Saturn's moon Titan.
2010: Israel requests that Germany arrest Klaas Carel Faber, a Nazi war criminal who killed 20 Jews at Westerbork concentration camp.

This Timeline puts this blog spot in a more sober perspective, since its birth on the 26th of August coincides with events that are practical (e.g. 580), that are tragic (e.g. 1883, 1942, 1972, 2010), that are momentous (1920, 1944, 1945), literature milestones (1946), social and educative events (1873, 11894, 1955, 1967), scientific breakthroughs (1791, 1843, 1957, 1981) and with events that were so indispensable they made the list (1907, 1929, 1973).

University of Texas Belly Dancing Class of 1973.


A Time To Reflect - A Time To Select
The number of categories on this blog spot keeps growing. They are as follows: (i) ArtCloth; (ii) Art Essay; (iii) Art Exhibitions/Installations/Talks; (iv) Artist's Profile; (v) Art Resource; (vi) Art Review; (vii) Book Review; (viii) Guest Artist; (ix) Guest Editor; (x) Glossaries; (xi) My Students Outputs (Workshops and Master Classes); (xii) Opinion Pieces; (xiii) Resource Reviews; (xiv) Prints On Paper; (xv) Technical Articles; (xvi) Wearable Art.

Not all of these categories may be present in any given year (e.g. this year - Guest Artist, Guest Editor, Resource Reviews, Technical Articles etc - do not appear - just to name a few!) In fact one of my past category - Musings of a Textile Tragic - no longer exists, since I resigned as co-editor of Textile Fibre Forum magazine due to it being an extremely time-intensive commitment, which severely curtailed my artistic output.

Marie-Therese Wisniowski, former co-editor of Textile Fibre Forum magazine (May 2013 to June 2015).
Photograph courtesy of Elizabeth Spittall.

Having the most visitors clicking on a post is fraught with imponderables. For example, for a given post the bounce rate may be high, the length of stay may be minuscule and then there is the vortex effect - the more popular it becomes the more upwardly mobile it is on the Google search (i.e. most people scan Google's first page and then no further). Popular, in terms of visitors and length of stay, may not mean the post is of value. Often posts grow in value rather than explode on the scene. On my blog spot I often detect a post of many years past, suddenly makes a re-appearance in the stats (e.g. OH&S Procedures in Fiber Studios made a welcome return this season). Nevertheless, a review of a season's work is always enjoyable!

ArtCloth
ArtCloth posts were well visited in the 2015/2016 season. The two most visited posts with a small bounce rate and a sizeable length of stay were: ArtWorks from Remote Aboriginal Communities and Balinese Paintings – Tabing (Part IV). Both are a post that sits within a large array of family posts exploring and detailing ArtCloth that is projected from their mythical perceptions of spiritual existence and meanings. Of the two posts the Balinese Paintings – Tabing (Part IV) had more visitors etc. However, if one summed up all of the visitors for each series and divided this total by the number of posts in each series the Australian Aboriginal ArtCloths come well ahead.

Balinese Paintings – Tabing (Part IV) - Puppet Hanoman (made from cloth). He is a Hindu deity, the White Monkey General, an ardent supporter of the god Rama in his struggle with the demon King Ratana in the Hindu epic Ramayana.

Art Essay
There are a number of Art Essays in the (2015/2016) season. The two stand outs were: The Australian Tapestry Workshop (1986 to 1995) and Amy Clague’s Brocade Collection (Part II). The latter had two visitors more but if you include Part I of the same series, the two posts combined nearly doubled The Australian Tapestry Workshop post.

Amy Clague’s Brocade Collection (Part II).
Detail of a garment of Tibetan chubby type with four-clawed Mang dragons.
Note: It is a detail of the front of the garment.

Art Exhibitions/Installations/Talks
There have been numerous posts highlighting exhibitions in the 2015/2016 season. I have listed them below for your interests:
My Southern Land
The Last Exhibition @ Galerie ’t Haentje the Paart
Paste Modernism
El Anatsui – Five Decades@Carriageworks
Mark Making on Urban Walls – Post Graffiti Art Work
Memory Cloth - Rememberings in Textile

Of these the most viewed was My Southern Land. It was published two months before its nearest rival and so had a head start.

Marie-Therese's Wisniowski's - Gondwana Retraced I (Detail View).

Art Resource
The art resource series is the first post of every month. Hence there are a least 12 posts in this series in any given year. Naturally those that appeared early in the 2015/2016 season have a great time advantage compared to those that appear in July or August. The two most viewed posts (excluding the glossaries) are: Fabric Construction - Nonwoven Fabrics and Textured Filament Yarns. There was only two visitors the difference between these two posts, with the latter being the most popular.

Textured Filament Yarns - Air textured yarn.

Book Review
It is always flattering to be asked by a fellow artistic traveler to write a review about a book they have authored. Of course they realize that such a request may have a down-side, but my view is if I don't like it why review it. I also believe it is important to let the reader know what is your relationship with the artist and whether or not you feature in the book. It is more credible to the reader if you have nothing to gain in giving the review. Hence I really enjoyed reviewing Cas Holmes' book - Stitch Stories. I will just repeat my conclusion for your edification.
"This is a book that deserves to sit on your bookshelf. It not only inspires but is peppered with practical techniques and suggestions and so teaches you a myriad of methodologies, one or many of which will translate your inspiration onto fabric."

Artist and Title of Artwork: Cas Holmes - Bird Song (2014).
Materials: The artwork incorporates cloth given to the artist during her travels in the USA.

Glossaries
There were three glossaries published on this blog spot in 2015/2016 namely:
A Fashion Data Base; Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins; Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns. What is surprising is that, "A Fashion Data Base", is the least viewed of the three. In the developed world, where clothes are so cheap and plentiful we naturally think that we are more fashion conscious than ever before. Nonetheless it is the two technical glossaries that were fighting it out neck-and-neck with the Glossary of Fabrics etc. eventually becoming a runaway success.

Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns - Adire: blue tie dye dress.

My Students Outputs (Workshops and Master Classes)
There were a dozen workshops this year but only three workshops featured in the 2015/2016 season on this blogspot since some participants wanted to remain anonymous. All three that were posted featured Judi Nikoleski. Of the three, the two most popular were Image Dreamings - Part I and In Pursuit of Improvisational Screen Printing, with the latter being the most popular even though it was on the blog spot for fewer days.

Judi Nikoleski - Multi colored/layered prints on a white background employing hand drawn image using semi permanent silk screen media.

Opinion Pieces
There were only two opinion pieces offered this season and both centered on the same subject, namely: Writing About Art (Part I) and its sister article - Writing About Art (Part II). The first concentrated on writing about your own or someone else's art and so concentrated on: (i) Subject matter; (ii) line; (iii) shape and space; light and dark; (iv) color; (v) other elements. The second post concentrated on exploring and recognising the principles of design, rhythm and repetition, balance, proportion, scale, unity and variety and questions on the use of medium and techniques. It was Part I that was more popular (i.e. had a larger number of visitors).

Writing About Art (Part I) - Collaged, layered, torn, worn graffiti poster creating exciting compositions and juxtapositions of colors and fragments that have the power of carefully crafted collages”. David Robinson Soho Walls, Beyond Graffiti, Artist Unknown.

Prints on Paper
My other passion in Art is prints on paper. I have produced a number of Limited Edition Printmakers' Books as well as fine-art prints. However, this year I have concentrated my efforts more on ArtCloths, Wearables and Exhibitions. Hence this category is very sparse this year. Nevertheless, there is one post on Poster Art of the 1890s.

Poster Art of the 1890s - Photograph of Toulese-Lautrec with his poster, Moulin Rouge.

Wearable Art
In the "Wearable" category there were two posts that were well ahead of the pack, namely: Costumes Designed for The Australian Ballet and New Range of Silk Neckties - Karma and Akash. The former had more visitors than the latter.

Costumes Designed for The Australian Ballet - Dance troop of The Australian Ballet in 2002.


Summary of the (2015-2016) Season:
So far this blog has had over 520,000 visitors in its lifetime. I hope you have enjoyed the review of the 2015/2016 season. There are so many posts that get unnoticed compared to the few that reach so many. I love to expose my passions from Glossaries to the small visited posts that just might inform, alter and make an important difference to your art practice. Keep imaginative, keep active and most important of all, keep true to your vision of Art, no matter if you are popular or not. Remember never second guess your audience. Being true about your passion is a reward in itself!

Reference
[1] http://www.brainyhistory.com/days/august_26.html.

Saturday, August 20, 2016

Art Nouveau and Symbolism of the 1890s
Prints on Paper

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Introduction[1]
The poster began making rapid strides in development during the late 19th Century against a background of economic and cultural maturation of European society. From the beginning of the 20th Century poster art became recognized as an independent art form and it was accepted as a separate field in the modern art movement. This unique medium unfolded as a highly visual communication invoking a high level of consciousness. It differed from established art such as oil paintings on canvas, being based on the premise that it should communicate a topic or message creating a strong communication line between the sender and the receiver. That symbiotic relationship necessitated the development of poster art as a composite design, weaving together commonplace elements such as politics, economics, daily life, culture, customs and advertising. In other words, the posters that we now celebrate came together in an era where the messenger and the message flowered into a marvelous design.

Schweppes, Table Waters (1890).
Artist: M. Brown (Unknown).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 298.0 x 151.5 cm.

The era of graphic design was birthed in the poster art of the 19th Century. The modern version no longer resides within analogue techniques. As the digital disruption started to unfold, new dynamics would emerge from the world of computer programming, scripting, photographic and layout software packages. Suddenly what was an individualistic effort with an unlimited imagination would now become more predetermined since the bounds of the imagination were shackled within the limitations imposed by computer programs, scripting languages, photographic and layout packages. Go to the internet and scour through a multitude of websites. So many of them look the same. IT computer processes seem to have placed imaginary limits on our analogue imaginations.

Colman’s Mustard.
Artist: John Hassall (Walmes, 1868 – 1948, London).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 220.5 x 97.6 cm.


Art Nouveau and Symbolism of the 1890s [1]

Photograph of Sarah Bernhardt.

Gismonda, Sarah Bernhardt (1895).
Artist: Alphonse Mucha (Ivancice, Southern Moravia, 1860 – 1939, Prague).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 218.3 x 73.1 cm.

Sarah Bernhardt American Tour (1895).
Artist: Alphonse Mucha (Ivancice, Southern Moravia, 1860 – 1939, Prague).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 199.6 x 76.5 cm.

La dame aux Camélias, Sarah Bernhardt (1896).
Artist: Alphonse Mucha (Ivancice, Southern Moravia, 1860 – 1939, Prague).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 208.7 x 76.7 cm.

Absinthe Robette (1896).
Artist: Henri Privat-Livemont (Schaerbeek 1861 – 1936).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 110.3 x 81.1 cm.

Napolean in Egypt (1895).
Artist: Eugéne Grasset (Lausanne, 1841 – 1917, Sceaux).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 52.5 x 38.0 cm.

Exposition de blanc, a la Place Clichy.
Artist: Henri Thiriet (Unknown).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 130.4 x 91.6 cm.

Rayon d’or (1895).
Artist: Pal Jean de Paléolodgue (Bucharest, 1890 – 1942, Miami).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 119.1 x 81.8 cm.

The Yellow Book (1895).
Artist: Aubrey Beardsley (Brighton, 1872 – 1898, Manton).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 65.0 x 22.8 cm.

L’aurore (1897).
Artist: Eugéne Carriere (Gournay, Seine-Saint-Denis, 1849 – 1906, Paris).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 211.1 x 146.0 cm.


References:
[1] World Poster Museum – Exhibit 1: World Poster Masterpieces (1989) from the Lords Gallery Collection.

Saturday, August 13, 2016

In Pursuit of:
Improvisational Screen Printing Workshop
2016 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program

Tutor: Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Preamble
This blogspot exhibits many of my students outputs from a variety of workshops. There are one, two and five day workshops as well as workshops that have a different focus. Nevertheless, it always surprises me how much I learn from my students and how enthusiastic they are to learn and so for your convenience, I have listed the workshop posts below.

The University of Newcastle Multi-Media Course
The University of Newcastle (Newcastle and Ourimbah Campuses, NSW, Australia) 2008 to 2010.

One and Two Day Disperse Dye Workshops
Various Textile Groups (Australia) 2008 - 2011.

Five Day Workshop - In Pursuit of Complex Cloth
“Wrapt in Rocky” Textile Fibre Forum Conference (Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia) 29th June to 5th July 2008.

Five Day Workshop – In Pursuit of Complex Cloth
Orange Textile Fiber Forum (Orange, NSW, Australia) 19th to 25th April 2009.

5 Day Workshop – In Pursuit of Complex Cloth
Geelong Fiber Forum (Geelong, Victoria, Australia) 27th September to 3rd October 2009.

Two Day Workshop - Deconstructed and Polychromatic Screen Printing
Beautiful Silks (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) 20th to 21st March 2010.

Five Day Workshop – Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
“Wrapt in Rocky” Biennial Textile Forum/Conference Program (Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia) 25th June to 1st July 2010.

Two Day Workshop – Improvisational Screen Printing
ATASDA (Sydney, NSW, Australia) 28th to 29th August 2010.

Two Day Workshop – In Pursuit of Complex Cloth (Day One)
”Stitching and Beyond” Textile Group (Woodbridge, Tasmania, Australia) 2nd to 3rd October 2010.

Two Day Workshop – In Pursuit of Complex Cloth (Day Two)
”Stitching and Beyond” Textile Group (Woodbridge, Tasmania, Australia) 2nd to 3rd October 2010.

Advance Silk Screen Printing
Redcliffe City Art Gallery Redcliffe, Queensland, Australia) 10th April 2011.

One Day Workshop - In Pursuit of Complex Cloth
The Victorian Feltmakers Inc. (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) 14th May 2011.

One Day Workshop - In Pursuit of Complex Cloth (Felted and Silk Fibers)
Victorian Feltmakers Inc (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) 15th May 2011.

Five Day Workshop – Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
SDA (Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA) 13th to 17th June 2011.

Five Day Disperse Dye Master Class – Barbara Scott
Art Quill Studio (Arcadia Vale, NSW, Australia) 15th to 19th August 2011.

Five Day Workshop – Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
Fiber Arts Australia (Sydney, NSW, Australia) 26th September to 1st October 2011.

One Day Workshop – Improvisational Screen Printing
Newcastle Printmakers Workshop Inc. (Newcastle, NSW, Australia) 5th November 2011.

One Day Workshops – Low Relief Screen Printing
Various classes within Australia.

Two Day Workshop – Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
ATASDA (Sydney, NSW, Australia) 23rd to 24th June 2012.

MSDS Demonstration at Zijdelings
(Tilburg, The Netherlands) October, 2012.

Five Day Workshop - Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
Fibre Arts@Ballarat (Ballarat, Victoria, Australia) 6th to 12th April 2013.

Two Day Workshop - Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
EFTAG (Tuross Head, NSW, Australia) 13th to 14th April 2013.

Two Day Workshop - Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
Zijdelings Studio (Tilburg, The Netherlands) 9th to 10th October 2014.

PCA - Celebrating 50 Years in 2016
Art Quill Studio 2016 Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).

Image Dreamings: Basic Silk Screen Printing Workshop - Part I
2016 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).

Image Dreamings: Basic Silk Screen Printing Workshop - Part II
2016 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).

In Pursuit of: Low Relief Screen Printing (LRSP) Workshop
2016 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).

Art Quill Studio 2017 Workshop Program
2017 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).


Introduction
To celebrate the Print Council of Australia’s 50 Years in 2016, Art Quill Studio in Arcadia Vale, NSW, Australia will be holding a series of workshops during 2016 tutored by Marie-Therese Wisniowski. The workshops have been structured so that they can be attended as individual workshops or as an on-going series. The workshop program will start with basic printmaking techniques and advance to mastering complex multiple imaging/overprinting relationships and techniques. The techniques are suitable for printing on fabric and paper substrates.

Today's post highlights participants outcomes from Workshop No. 4 in the 2016 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program - In Pursuit of: Improvisational Screen Printing - and gives links to workshops so that you can view past students outcomes (see above links). For Australian enquiries please email me at Marie-Therese. For overseas enquiries these workshops may be held in overseas venues provided that there are enough participants per workshop (10-15 participants) and that within each country a sufficient number of workshops can be organized in order to make the journey cost-effective (5-10 workshops). Please email me at Marie-Therese to initiate a discussion on the feasibility of such an overseas venture.

In person Master Classes are also available. For more details of these Master Classes email me at Marie-Therese. For Master Class outcomes see - Barbara Scott. On-line classes will be available in 2017.


Two Day Workshop Synopsis - In Pursuit of: Improvisational Screen Printing Workshop
The two day "In Pursuit of: Improvisational Screen Printing Workshop" was held at Art Quill Studio in Arcadia Vale, NSW, Australia on the 4th and 5th July 2016.

In this two day workshop participants learnt to use the silkscreen in a non-traditional, exciting, improvisational manner. Using everyday, easily accessible materials, like interfacing, aquarelle crayons and other mediums, temporary and semi-permanent image creation techniques were explored using the silkscreen. Some prior experience using a silk screen was recommended for this class.

Below are outputs created during the workshop by participant/quilt artist Judi Nikoleski.

Judi Nikoleski getting ready to print her Neo Color II crayon silk screen image.

Judi's silk screen print using Neo Color II crayons on a white background.

Judi's silk screen print using Neo Color II crayons on a dark, multi hue printed background.

Judi with some of her "shibori" printed fabric samples.

Silk screened "Shibori" print technique over-printed with hand drawn image using semi permanent silk screen media.

Multi colored/layered prints on a white background employing hand drawn image using semi permanent silk screen media.

Opaque fabric paint prints over-printed on a dark, multi hue printed background employing hand drawn image using semi permanent silk screen media.

Judi's original "masking tape" silk screened printed fabric (see Image Dreamings: Basic Silk Screen Printing Workshop - Part II) over-printed using multi hue fabric paints in an experimental, improvisational mode.

Judi working on her multi color interfacing stencil design.

One of Judi's multi color interfacing silk screen prints.

Section view of another one of Judi's multi color interfacing silk screen prints.

Detail view of the above multi color interfacing silk screen print.

Saturday, August 6, 2016

Weaving and the Loom[1]
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Preamble
This is the fifty-fifth post in the "Art Resource" series, specifically aimed to construct an appropriate knowledge base in order to develop an artistic voice in ArtCloth.

Other posts in this series are:
Glossary of Terms
Units Used in Dyeing and Printing of Fabrics
Occupational, Health & Safety
A Brief History of Color
The Nature of Color
Psychology of Color
Color Schemes
The Naming of Colors
The Munsell Color Classification System
Methuen Color Index and Classification System
The CIE System
Pantone - A Modern Color Classification System
Optical Properties of Fiber Materials
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part I
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part II
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part III
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part IV
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part V
Protein Fibers - Wool
Protein Fibers - Speciality Hair Fibers
Protein Fibers - Silk
Protein Fibers - Wool versus Silk
Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Cotton
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Linen
Other Natural Cellulosic Fibers
General Overview of Man-Made Fibers
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Viscose
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Esters
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Nylon
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Polyester
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Acrylic and Modacrylic
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Olefins
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Elastomers
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Mineral Fibers
Man Made Fibers - Other Textile Fibers
Fiber Blends
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part I
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part II
Melt-Spun Fibers
Characteristics of Filament Yarn
Yarn Classification
Direct Spun Yarns
Textured Filament Yarns
Fabric Construction - Felt
Fabric Construction - Nonwoven fabrics
A Fashion Data Base
Fabric Construction - Leather
Fabric Construction - Films
Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins
Fabric Construction – Foams and Poromeric Material
Knitting
Hosiery
Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns
Similarities and Differences in Woven Fabrics
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part I)
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part II)
The Three Basic Weaves - Twill Weave
The Three Basic Weaves - Satin Weave
Figured Weaves - Leno Weave
Figured Weaves – Piqué Weave
Figured Fabrics
Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements
Crêpe Fabrics
Crêpe Effect Fabrics

The Glossary of Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns and Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements have been updated in order to better inform your art practice.

If you find any post on this blog site useful, you can save it or copy and paste it into your own "Word" document etc. for your future reference. For example, Safari allows you to save a post (e.g. click on "File", click on "Print" and release, click on "PDF" and then click on "Save As" and release - and a PDF should appear where you have stored it). Safari also allows you to mail a post to a friend (click on "File", and then point cursor to "Mail Contents On This Page" and release). Either way, this or other posts on this site may be a useful Art Resource for you.

The Art Resource series will be the first post in each calendar month. Remember - these Art Resource posts span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist to that required by a final year University Fine-Art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource post may appear far too technical for your needs (skip over those mind boggling parts) and in other parts, it may be too simplistic with respect to your level of knowledge (ditto the skip). The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that Art Resource posts will hopefully be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately may not be satisfying to all!


Introduction
Weaving is the process of interlacing two or more sets of yarn at right angles to each other - one set running in the lengthwise direction called the warp and the other inserted crosswise and is called the filling (or weft). An interlacing is defined as the point at which a yarn changes position from the surface of the fabric to the underside of a fabric or vice versa, by passing over or under one or more yarns. The number of interlacings is important in fabric properties such as firmness, flexibility, resilience, slippage and ravelling. There are fewer interlacings in a fabric when a yarn from one direction floats over two or more yarns from the other direction. A fabric can be identified as a woven fabric if yarns can be ravelled from adjacent sides (see below).

Yarn arrangement in weaving. Warp and filling (weft) arrangements.

Today’s post deals with weaving and loom developments in fabric construction.


Loom Developments
Weaving is done on a machine called a loom. The primitive loom consisted of a frame that held the warp yarns in position as the filling yarn was woven under and over the warp by the use of fingers. A wooden bar was the first device used to separate the warp.

Weaving on a weighted loom.
Photograph courtesy of G. Weinlinger.

The harness of heddles, which was developed later, is still a major part of the modern loom. A heddle is a wire with a hole in the center through which a warp yarn is threaded. A harness is a frame to hold a number of heddles. The simplest plain weave can be made on a loom with only two harnesses.

Simplified diagram of a two-harness loom.

By the use of additional harnesses more intricate patterns can be woven. Notice in the above diagram that, as one harness is raised, the yarns form a shed through which filling yarn can be inserted. A beam at one end of the loom holds the warp yarn and the woven cloth is wound on a beam at the other end of the loom. A shuttle carries the filling yarn through the shed and a reed or batten beats the filling yarn back into the coth to make the weave firm.

Before the warp creel-beam is placed on the loom, the yarns are unwound from it and run through a starch bath to seal the fiber ends and strengthen the yarns so that they will withstand the stresses of weaving. This treatment is called slashing (see diagram below).

Slashing warp yarns to prepare them for weaving.

All weaves that are known today could be made by the primitive weaver. The loom has changed in many ways, but the basic principles and operations are still the same. Weaving consist of three basic steps:
(i) Shedding: the raising of one or more harnesses to separate the warp yarns and form a shed.
(ii) Picking: passing the shuttle through the shed to insert the filling.
(iii) Beating up: the reed pushes the filling yarn back into place in the cloth.

Loom developments over the years have centered on: (i) devices to separate the warp for more intricate weaving patterns; (ii) speedier methods of inserting the filling; (iii) the use of computers and electronic monitoring systems.

The number of harnesses that a loom can operate efficiently is limited. When the repeat of the woven pattern requires more than six harnesses, an attachment is added to the loom to control the raising and lowering of warp yarns. For small-figure patterns requiring not more than 25 interlacing patterns, a dobby-head attachment is used.

Terry towel Rapier loom with electronic Dobby.

The weave pattern is controlled either: (i) by a chain of wooden bars with steel pegs; (ii) by punched paper patterns; (iii) by plastic tapes; (iv) by computer-controlled patterns. Large-figured weaves are made on a Jacquard loom, which was invented in France in 1805. It was one of the first automated looms, since each warp was controlled individually by punch cards (which nowadays are computer controlled).

Each different pattern is loaded into the computer running the loom by means of a diskette. The control of the jacquard is then performed by the computer.

Other attachments used on a loom are the swivel attachment for dotted swiss, the box loom for weaving yarns of different size, color etc., the doup attachment for leno weave, and the lappet attachment for extra-yarn woven figures.

A leno heald consists of two heald frames (lifting frames), one doup frame, and the doup frame drives. Leno weaving can be done using the upper shed, lower shed or upper/lower shed techniques as desired.

In the simplest loom, a “flying” shuttle is “batted” across through the shed of warp yarns by a picker-stick at the sides of the loom. The speed with which it can be sent back and forth is limited – usually less than 200 picks per minute (p.p.m.) (Note: pick is another name for filling yarns). Manufacturers have long sought a way to replace the shuttle and increase the speed of weaving. The different types of shuttle-less looms give higher weaving speeds and reduction in noise level in factories – a factor of significant importance to workers.

6"x75" automatic shuttleless loom for cotton.

The rapier type loom weaves (primarily) spun yarns at 200 to 250 picks per minute (ppm). It has two metal arms about the size of a small pen knife called carriers or “dummy shuttles”; one on the right side and the other on the left side of the loom. A measuring mechanism on the right side of the loom measures and cuts the correct length of the filling yarn to be drawn into the sheds by the carriers. The two carriers enter the warp shed at the same time and meet in the center. The left-side carrier takes the yarn from the right-side carrier and pulls it across the left side of the loom. After each insertion, the filling threads are cut near the edge and protruding ends tucked back into the cloth to reinforce the edge.

The carrier arms of a rapier-type shuttleless loom.

The water-jet loom was developed in Europe. The looms are compact and take up less space than the conventional loom. They can operate at speeds of 440 p.p.m. Hydrophobic (water hating) yarns such as nylon filament are more suitable than hydrophilic (water loving) yarns such as cotton, which require a special drying device. Water-soluble sizings such as starch usually used on cotton yarns would be washed away. The filling yarns comes from a stationary package at the side of the loom, goes to a measuring drum, which controls the length of each pick, then continues through a guide to a water nozzle where a jet of water carries the filling through the shed. After the yarn is beaten back, it is cut off at both sides of the cloth. If thermoplastic fibers are used in the yarns, they are cut by electrically heated wires. Water is then removed by a slanted warp line or by a special suction device. Very little tension can be applied to the filling and for this reason, weaving of stretched fabrics is not yet possible. Also, box looms for weaving colored yarns are not practical.

A water-jet loom.

The air-jet loom or pneumatic method was developed in Sweden by a textile engineer, who thought of the idea whilst sailing. He noticed the short regular puffs that came from the exhaust of a diesel motor. His first loom used a bicycle pump to furnish the compressed air. The first loom was sold in 1955 and by 1960 100 were is use. The filling is premeasured and guided through a nozzle where a blast of air sends it across. The loom can opertate at 320 p.p.m.

Air-jet loom.

Computers and electronic devices now play an important part in weaving and also in other areas of textile manufacture. Computers have been used to develop design tables for setting up weaves of “maximum weavability” for properties such as tightness and compactness in wind-repellent fabrics, ticking etc. of any fiber content. The computer plays a part in textile designing. It can be programmed to prepare a paper from which punch cards can be made to control the operation of the loom. More recently with digital-to-analogue and analogue-to-digital devices, the computer program itself controls the entire weaving operation. Whilst computer assisted design (CAD) programs are all the rage, nevertheless, designers still have carriage of the concept of the design leaving the technical implementation of the design in the hands of computer programs. The computer is also used to control temperature and pressure in dyeing and bleaching.

The TC1 with displayed cloth in progress. The PC controls the pick plan – the foot pedal advances the software and the loom by 1 pick each time. There is no bench – weaving is done standing. It is still a handloom – with a bit of technology added.

Electronic devices also play an important role in the quality control process. Photo-feelers, for example, can sense the amount of yarn on the bobbin and signal for bobbin transfer. Cloth straighteners are photo-electronic devices attached to the tenter frame to keep crosswise yarns at right angles to the lengthwise yarns as the fabric is dried and so eliminate the “off-grain” fabrics that create such a problem to the home sewer as well as to the garment manufacturer.

Weft detectors & Sensors/Dornier photo electronic feeler.


Reference:
[1] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd Edition, MacMillan Company, London (1968).