Saturday, February 4, 2017

Figured Weaves - Leno Weave[1]
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Preamble
This is the sixty-first post in the "Art Resource" series, specifically aimed to construct an appropriate knowledge base in order to develop an artistic voice in ArtCloth.

Other posts in this series are:
Glossary of Terms
Units Used in Dyeing and Printing of Fabrics
Occupational, Health & Safety
A Brief History of Color
The Nature of Color
Psychology of Color
Color Schemes
The Naming of Colors
The Munsell Color Classification System
Methuen Color Index and Classification System
The CIE System
Pantone - A Modern Color Classification System
Optical Properties of Fiber Materials
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part I
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part II
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part III
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part IV
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part V
Protein Fibers - Wool
Protein Fibers - Speciality Hair Fibers
Protein Fibers - Silk
Protein Fibers - Wool versus Silk
Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Cotton
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Linen
Other Natural Cellulosic Fibers
General Overview of Man-Made Fibers
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Viscose
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Esters
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Nylon
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Polyester
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Acrylic and Modacrylic
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Olefins
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Elastomers
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Mineral Fibers
Man Made Fibers - Other Textile Fibers
Fiber Blends
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part I
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part II
Melt-Spun Fibers
Characteristics of Filament Yarn
Yarn Classification
Direct Spun Yarns
Textured Filament Yarns
Fabric Construction - Felt
Fabric Construction - Nonwoven fabrics
A Fashion Data Base
Fabric Construction - Leather
Fabric Construction - Films
Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins
Fabric Construction – Foams and Poromeric Material
Knitting
Hosiery
Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns
Weaving and the Loom
Similarities and Differences in Woven Fabrics
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part I)
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part II)
The Three Basic Weaves - Twill Weave
The Three Basic Weaves - Satin Weave
Figured Weaves - Leno Weave
Figured Weaves – Piqué Weave
Figured Fabrics
Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements
Crêpe Fabrics
Crêpe Effect Fabrics
Pile Fabrics - General
Woven Pile Fabrics

The Glossary of Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns and Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements have been updated in order to better inform your art practice.

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Introduction
There are many basic figured weaves. Today’s post will center on Leno weave.

Leno weave.


Leno Weave
Leno weave is a weave in which the warp yarns do not lie parallel to each other, but one yarn of each pair is crossed over the other before the filling yarn is inserted (see diagram above).

Leno is made with a doup attachment, which may be used with a plain or a dobby loom. The attachment consists of a thin hairpin-like needle supported by two heddles. One yarn of each pair is threaded through an eye at the upper end of the needle, and the other yarn is drawn between two heddles. Both yarns are drawn through the same dent in the read.

Negatively controlled leno system. A leno heald consists of two heald frames (lifting frames), one doup frame, and the doup frame drives. Leno weaving can be done using the upper shed, lower shed or upper/lower shed techniques as desired.

During weaving when one of the two heddles is raised, the doup warp yarn that is threaded through the doup needle is drawn across the left. When the other heddle is raised the same doup warp yarn is drawn across to the right.

Available in tempered and non-tempered stainless steel with C and O-shaped end loops, the Steel Heddle leno has performance-proven design features such as interlaced connection (instead of welded) and more warp yarn clearance. Allowing you to weave over 270 rpm, with less filamentation and adding value to your quality fabric.

By glancing at a leno fabric, one might think that the yarns are twisted fully around each other, but this is not the case. Careful examination shows that they are crossed and that one yarn of the pair is always above the other. The fabrics made with leno weave are lace like in character.

A leno woven blouse.

The word “leno” comes from the French word linon, which means flax. At one time this weave was called “gauze” weave, meaning fine peculiar weave originating in Gaza, Asia. Today the word gauze refers to a low count plain weave used for bandages, while leno refers to the lace-like weave.

Leno-weave tissue-brocade dupatta.

Fabrics made from leno weave are marquisette, mosquito netting, and bags for laundry, fruit and vegetables. (Note: Marquisette is a sheer, lightweight mesh or net fabric made using a leno weave. It can be made from almost any fibre: silk, cotton, wool, rayon, nylon, polyester and a blend of any of the above.)

Marquisette weave.

Acetate and polyester marquisette are widely used for glass curtains. Thermal blankets are sometimes made of leno weave. All these fabrics are characterized by sheerness or open spaces between yarns. The crossed yarn arrangement gives greater firmness and strength than plain weave fabrics of the same low thread count. The weave also gives resistance to slippage of yarns. Care is determined by fiber content.

A 1950s dress described as being of marquisette (vintageous.com).


Reference:
[1] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd Edition, MacMillan Company, London (1968).

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