Saturday, March 4, 2017

Figured Weaves – Piqué Weave[1]
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Preamble
This is the sixty-second post in the "Art Resource" series, specifically aimed to construct an appropriate knowledge base in order to develop an artistic voice in ArtCloth.

Other posts in this series are:
Glossary of Terms
Units Used in Dyeing and Printing of Fabrics
Occupational, Health & Safety
A Brief History of Color
The Nature of Color
Psychology of Color
Color Schemes
The Naming of Colors
The Munsell Color Classification System
Methuen Color Index and Classification System
The CIE System
Pantone - A Modern Color Classification System
Optical Properties of Fiber Materials
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part I
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part II
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part III
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part IV
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part V
Protein Fibers - Wool
Protein Fibers - Speciality Hair Fibers
Protein Fibers - Silk
Protein Fibers - Wool versus Silk
Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Cotton
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Linen
Other Natural Cellulosic Fibers
General Overview of Man-Made Fibers
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Viscose
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Esters
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Nylon
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Polyester
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Acrylic and Modacrylic
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Olefins
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Elastomers
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Mineral Fibers
Man Made Fibers - Other Textile Fibers
Fiber Blends
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part I
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part II
Melt-Spun Fibers
Characteristics of Filament Yarn
Yarn Classification
Direct Spun Yarns
Textured Filament Yarns
Fabric Construction - Felt
Fabric Construction - Nonwoven fabrics
A Fashion Data Base
Fabric Construction - Leather
Fabric Construction - Films
Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins
Fabric Construction – Foams and Poromeric Material
Knitting
Hosiery
Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns
Weaving and the Loom
Similarities and Differences in Woven Fabrics
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part I)
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part II)
The Three Basic Weaves - Twill Weave
The Three Basic Weaves - Satin Weave
Figured Weaves - Leno Weave
Figured Fabrics
Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements

The Glossary of Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns and Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements have been updated in order to better inform your art practice.

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Introduction
There are many basic figured weaves. Today’s post will center on Piqué weave.

Magnification of leno weave.


Piqué Weave
Piqué or cord weave is made on a loom with a dobby attachment that provides for 20 or 30 different interlacing arrangements if the warp yarns. This means that the figure must be completed with the insertion of 20 or 30 filling yarns.

Microscopic picture of piqué weaving.

Piqué weave is characterized by ridges called wales or cords that are held up by floats on the back of the fabric. The wales vary in width.

White piqué blouse.

Widewhale piqué (0.25 inches) is woven with 20 or more warp yarns in the face of the wale and then two warps in between. Pinwale piqué (0.05 inches) is a six-warp wale with two consecutive filling yarns floating across the back of the odd number wales and then woven in the face of the even-numbered wales. The next two consecutive picks alternate with the first two by floating across the back of the even numbered wales.

Six-warp pinwale piqué.

Front: Pinwale piqué (65% polyester and 35% cotton).

Back: Pinwale piqué (65% polyester and 35% cotton).

Light pink pinwale dress.

Stuffer yarns are laid under the ridges in the better quality fabrics to emphasize the roundness of the quilted effect and their presence or absence is one way of determining quality. The stuffer yarns are not woven in the main part of the fabric and may be easily removed when analyzing a swatch of fabric.

In place of warp or weft yarns, an additional third yarn may also be used as a binder. Stuffer yarns, which are straight, can be used to increase fiber volume fraction and in-plane strength. If the binder yarns interlace vertically between fabric layers, the structure is called orthogonal weave.


Characteristics of Cord and Piqué Fabrics
The word “piqué” comes from the French word meaning “quilted” and the raised effect in these fabrics is similar to that in quilts. Cords or wales usually run in the lengthwise direction with the exception of birdseye and bulleye piqués in which the cords run crosswise.

100% lavender cotton birdseye piqué.

100% cotton, Princess bullseye piqué.

Cord fabrics have a definite right and wrong side. The fabric tears more easily in the lengthwise direction. If there are stuffer yarns, it is especially difficult to tear the fabric crosswise. In wear, the floats on the wrong side usually wear out first.

Piqué: A knit fabric with a waffle-weave appearance, piqué has distinct sides. The outside resembles a honeycomb or waffle and the underside is flat and smooth.

Piqué fabrics are more resistant to wrinkling and have more body than flat fabrics, and for these reasons they have less need to be given a resin finish for wash-and-wear. Piqué fabrics should be ironed on the wrong side because the beauty of the fabric is in the roundness of the cord and pressing on the right side will flatten it.

Dress in cotton piqué.


Fabric Description
Fabrics in this group are called piqué with the exception of a wide-wale fabric called Bedford cord. Cord weave may be combined with other weaves to produce such fabrics as seersucker piqué, crepe piqué and novelty piqué.

Vintage 1960s seersucker dress blue white plaid Princess sheath medium - removable white piqué collar snaps on over self-fabric collar.

Piqué crepe colorblock dress.

Bedford cord is a heavy fabric with warp cords. It is used for slacks, trousers, uniforms and upholstery. It is made with carded cotton yarns, woolen or worsted yarns, rayon or acetate or combinations. The wales are wide and stuffer yarns are usually present.

Bedford cord jacket.

Piqué is lighter in weight than Bedford cord and has a narrower wale. The better quality fabrics are made with long-staple, combed, mercerized yarns and have one stuffer yarn. The carded yarn piqués are made without the stuffer and are sometimes printed.

100% Cotton yarn dyed stripe piqué fabric mesh fabric.

Birdseye piqué has a tiny “eye-shaped” design formed by the wavy arrangement of the cords and by use of stuffer yarns. Bullseye piqué is made like birdseye but has a much larger design. Both these fabrics have crosswise rather than lengthwise cords. They are used for collars and cuffs, hats and dresses.

Birdseye piqué cotton golf cap.

Some fabrics that are called piqué such as waffle piqué, embossed piqué and dimity piqué are not made by the piqué weave.

Vintage 60s white cotton sun dress ~ full skirt ~ waffle piqué.

Also the birdseye design in diaper cloth is not made by the piqué weave but is made by satin floats.

Cotton birdseye diaper cloth.


Reference:
[1] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd Edition, MacMillan Company, London (1968).

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