Saturday, November 25, 2017

Dadaism of Hannah Höch - Part I
Works on Paper

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Dadaism (Dada) is a post World War I style, stressing accidental images and events, the logic of the absurdity, irrationality in art, literature and morality - it is related to Surrealism (see Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements).

Hannah Höch was a German Dada artist. She is best known for her work of the Weimar period, when she was one of the originators of photomontage and collage. The only woman amongst the Berlin Dadaists, her collages and photomontages at a very early stage established a large variety of works on paper that were consistent in style and concept. What is not appreciated is how these media informed and inspired her paintings.

Her father, Johanne Höch, was born on 1st November 1889, the eldest of five brothers and sisters in Gotha, Germany. He was a senior employee in an insurance company.

Hannah Höch (ca. 1905)[1].

She began her art's training in 1912 at the School of Applied Arts in Berlin Charlottenburg under Harold Bengen, who took the class on glass design.

Hannah Höch (on the left, number 15) with Bengen's class at Art School (1912)[1].

The outbreak of World War I collapsed Hannah's previously well-tempered image of the world and made her acutely aware of political events and trends. In Gotha she served for a short time with the Red Cross and other charitable organizations. After the war she returned to Berlin and continued studying at the State Museum of Applied Arts in Emil Orlik's drawing class. The Director of the School was the architect Bruno Paul, who also used to draw for the satirical periodical - Simplicissimus.

It was in 1915 when her friendship with Raoul Hausmann (1886 - 1971) began. He was a Viennese artist, who had been living in Berlin since 1901. They were both enthralled with almost everything that Herwarth Walden showed in his gallery - 'Der Sturm' (The Storm). Up to 1916 Hausmann was a figurative Expressionist. However, since 1915 both Hausmann and Höch had been creating abstract watercolours and drawings.

Raoul Hausmann (1915)[1].

In 1916 Hannah was learning woodcut at the Museum of Applied Arts under Oskar Bangemann and in this year she made her first abstract collage ('White Cloud') from the stencils that are used in woodcut. In 1917 the writer and psycho-analyst Richard Huelsenbeck (1892-1974) who had studied medicine in Paris and Berlin, arrived in Berlin January 1917 from Zurich. Huelsenbeck observed that Expressionism was beginning to be fashionable, since all its energies were directed to furthering the retreat and exhaustion of the German spirit.

On 23rd of February 1918 Huelsenbeck gave the first Dada speech in Germany in the New Secession Room, which art dealer J.B. Neumann (1187-1961) made available. Although Hannah Höch did not participate directly in many Dada activities since her personal relation to the Berlin Dadaist was limited by her interaction with Hausmann, nevertheless she was one of the main protagonists of Dada in Berlin; it was Hausmann and her who invented photomontage. She herself viewed it as the most original and important contributions of the Berlin Dadaists. She recalled, 'I knew the technique as a child. There were, for instance, joke postcards with funny situations created by sticking different bits of photographs together. Some showed a bride and bridegroom confronted with problems and joys of their future married life and so on...We regarded ourselves as engineers, we maintained that we were building things, we said we put the work together like fitters'.

In 1919 the first Berlin Dada exhibition was held in J.B. Neumann's "Graphisches Kabinett" (Graphical Cabinet). The group who exhibited were: Hausmann, Höch, Grosz, Baader, Walter Mehring, Golychev, Stuckenberg and Deetjen. In June of that year the first issue of the periodical 'Der Dada' edited by Hausmann and Baader appeared. The Dada movement was well underway.

Dadaism of Hannah Höch

Heads of State (1918-20)[1].
Size: 16.2 x 23.3 cm.

Money (ca. 1922)[1].
Size: 10 x 17.5 cm.

The Coquette 1 (1923-25)[1].
Size: 18.5 x 20.5 cm.

Half-Caste (1924)[1].
Size: 11 x 8.2 cm.

Balance (1925)[1].
Size: 30.5 x 20.3 cm.

Children (1925)[1].
Size: 19.5 x 13.3 cm.

Children (1925)[1].
Size: 19.5 x 13.3 cm.

Love (ca. 1926)[1].
Size: 13 x 27 cm.

English Dancer (1928)[1].
Size: 23.7 x 18 cm.

The Works (ca. 1930)[1].
Size: 25.2 x 35.5 cm.

[1] Götz Adriani, Hannah Höch, Institute for Foreign Cultural Relations, autors and VG Bild-Kunst (1985).

Saturday, November 18, 2017

Interpreting Themes in Textile Art[1]
Book Review

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Els van Baarle and Cherilyn Martin have written an excellent book on textile and fibre art entitled: "Interpreting Themes in Textile Art" [1]. Els and Cherilyn are friends who I have known for many years.

Els is a textile artist specialising in contemporary batik, surface design and mixed media. You can view more of her work at -

"Duet", Els van Baarle.
Batik on Cotton.
Courtesy of reference[1].

On the other hand, Cherilyn specialises in mixed media, experimental quilting and embroidery. You can view more of her work at -

"Memory Cloth #5", Cherilyn Martin.
Rusting, Machine Stitching and Screen Printing.
Courtesy of reference[1].

Prior to the book being published by Batsford[1], I was honoured to be asked to provide a "Foreword" for the book. The "Foreword" below is a teaser as it only gives you a glimpse of what the book contains. You need to purchase the book in order that you can immerse yourself in their artwork and moreover, take advantage of their knowledge that they are gifting to you, dear reader, so to teach you techniques that will transform the art in your mind onto a textile and so make your fiber art more meaningful.

Marie-Therese's Foreword to "Interpreting Themes in Textile Art"
Authors: Els van Baarle and Cherilyn Martin

The fibre art of Els van Baarle (NL) and Cherilyn Martin (UK/NL) spans more than two and a half decades and it represents a love affair with colour, images and textures on cloth, paper and other mixed media. Both have their own signature styles, but when they co-exhibit, there is a natural synergy between their works that is evident - each individual fibre artwork visions on a theme that energizes the other.

I had known of Els and Cherilyn’s art practice for many years. In 2009 I met Els when she was a participating artist in the exhibition that I curated, ‘ArtCloth: Engaging New Visions’, which toured Australia until 2011 and included her work 'Nothing is the Same I & II'. In September of 2011 I was delighted to meet both Els and Cherilyn who, along with myself, were workshop tutors at a five day textile/fibre conference, ‘Cloth Arts@Hunters Hill, Sydney’, which was organized by Glenys Mann of Fibre Arts Australia. Our paths crossed once again in October 2014 when I opened the exhibition, ‘Memory Cloth. Rememberings in Textile’ by four internationally renowned textile artists - Els van Baarle, Cherilyn Martin, Cas Holmes and Glenys Mann at the Museum de Kantfabriek in Horst, The Netherlands.

Els and Cherilyn have exhibited and given workshops in Europe, North America and Australasia and so they are well known across a myriad of artistic landscapes. Art making as well as informing and teaching the current and next generation of artistic practitioners ensures that the techniques they have mastered and the concepts that they have explored will linger beyond their own generation.

Art can be created out of ignorance and by chance, but this book aims far higher. It aims to link your life experiences, your knowledge, your exploration of language, myths, cultures, symbols and motifs to your ability using fibre, and by fibre, I am using the broadest definition possible - from cloth to paper to thread. Of course in the process, colour and texture are an integral part of the development of a concept.

You need to be aware of all the rules and so the Chapter One gives you a comprehensive compositional and optical road map, not to inhibit your creative processes but rather to make you conscious of which one(s) you choose to break. To get the effect you have to know the cause!

"Trees" (detail), Els van Baarle.
Wool, silk, wax dye and print.
The artwork was developed by using a "mind map".
Courtesy of reference[1].

Imagery on fibre can be made incredibly smooth and flat as were the painted and printed images created by Pop Artists such as Roy Lichtenstein - ‘Drowning Girl’ (1963). On the other hand, fibre art can have texture, which gives it an extra dimensionality. Chapter Two is inspired by inscriptions and gravestone imagery and explores this dimensionality from the rubbing process, to embroidery, to the use of crayons and transfer paints.

"Graven Images", Cherilyn Martin.
"This ArtCloth was made in response to details on the headstone of a family grave."
Courtesy of reference[1].

The fascination with images, typography and the texture that exposed walls offer has been with us since the dawn of time, from the huntsman’s marks made on cave walls, to drawings and obscenities carved on clay found in the excavations of Pompeii, to modern day graffiti and the urban, architectural landscapes that surround us. Both artists give valuable insights into their own personal interpretations and working methodologies, which incorporate these themes in Chapter Three.

"Nothing is the Same 1 & II", Els van Baarle.
Batik on Cotton.
Courtesy of reference[1].

Chapter Three’s fascination is continued with the walls of Pompeii in Chapter Four, where it is placed in a historical and cultural setting. Although the voices of the dead can no longer be heard, their endeavours - such as their architecture, the way they lived, how they decorated, their cultural mores - enables a themed artistic exploration in today’s world using techniques and ideas in fibre art.

"Parete #6" (detail), Cherilyn Martin.
Made from batik cotton baptist (cambric).
Inspired by the ruins of Pompeii.
Courtesy of reference[1].

Life experiences play an important part in pursuing artistic endeavours. Can you project artistically ‘grief’ because of a loss, or wondrous excitement because of a birth. Memory plays a part in interpreting these emotional responses as we all accumulate personalized, unique imagery, experiences and sensations during our life times. Preserving memory when it comes to artistic translation can be difficult. Chapter Five gives two in-depth perspectives on how our sensory track can be mastered to create rich visual stories about personal memories.

"EMA", Els van Baarle.
Batik on recycled cotton towels, wood.
Courtesy of reference[1].

Books are becoming electronic but their soul lies within fibre and not in a projected computer language. The smell of the binder, the texture of the paper and the visual concept that unfolds before us, makes us want to see, feel and read and so know the art form. Chapter Six gives practical insights with respect to technique in order to make a three-dimensional, readable and viewable art form.

"Pages #1", Cherilyn Martin.
Fused sheets of plastic, with Spunfab, Angelina fibres and oil paint trapped in the layers and with fusible film laminated on the surface.
Courtesy of reference[1].

Art can be made from found objects and every day materials. For example, El Anatsui is an African artist who works with repurposed materials including wood, aluminium printing plates, tin boxes and liquor bottle tops. Chapter Seven explores the use of common found objects and how they can be incorporated into fibre artworks employing numerous surface design techniques and concepts.

"Souvenir de ma Jeunesse", Els van Baarle.
Handwoven cotton, collage, hand-stitched and partially printed with a wooden block with glued-on matches.
Courtesy of reference[1].

This book is special since it gives practical insights into creating complex imagery and texture using a large range of fibre material. I have purposely omitted in this post any of the authors "how to do" tips and technique descriptions. The author’s want to arouse your curiosity, and engage you in an artistic conversation where you, the reader, will understand what concepts and techniques in fibre art will work for your artistic expression. Sure you need to know the fundamentals, but in learning and exploring your art using this book you have fun as well!

I know you will enjoy this book as much as I have.

Marie-Therese Wisniowski.
Studio Artist and Founder of Art Quill Studio and Art Quill & Co. Pty. Ltd.
Former Co-Editor Textile Fibre Forum art magazine.
Casual lecturer, Faculty of Education and Arts, The University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

[1] Els van Baarle and Cherilyn Martin, Interpreting Themes in Textile Art, Batsford, London (2017). ISBN: 9781849944366.

Saturday, November 11, 2017

My New Silk ArtCloth Scarves
Wearable Art

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

On this blog spot there are posts that center on my “Wearable Art” (e.g. scarves, digital or analogue created fabric lengths etc.) For your convenience I have listed these posts below.

A Selection of My Scarves
Leaves Transformed: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
My New Silk Rayon Velvet Scarves@Purple Noon Art And Sculpture Gallery
My Fabric Lengths@QSDS
My Fabric Collection:"Oh, Oh Marilyn and Mona!"@Spoonflower
2013 Australian Craft Awards – Finalist
My Scarves@2014 Scarf Festival: "Urban Artscape" Pashminas
My New Scarves and Fabric Lengths
New Range of Silk Neckties - Karma and Akash
AIVA: My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
New Colorways For My 'Cultural Graffiti' Fabrics
Byzantine Glow: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Wall Flower: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Ink Fern - A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Celebratory Fireworks
My New Silk ArtCloth Scarves
New ‘Unique State’ Silk ArtCloth Scarves
 - My New Hand Dyed & Printed Fabric Design
Renaissance Man - My New Hand Dyed & Printed Fabric Design
Banksia - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

Ginkgo Love - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

“Garden Delights I & II”
 - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
Wallflower III - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
Rainforest Beauty
 Collection - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
Spring & Autumn Flurry Collection
 - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

La Volute Collection - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
Urban Butterfly -
 My New Hand Printed Fabric Design
Acanthus Dream
 - My New Hand Printed Fabric Design

Cascading Acanthus - 
My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed 'Rainforest Beauty' Pashmina Wraps Collection

There are three basic ingredients (as opposed to definitions) that all artworks possess: (i) they need to be “engaged”; (ii) they are non-functional; (iii) they are aesthetic. Wearable Art is “Art” when placed in an art context but when it is not placed in an art context, its functionality obscures the act of engagement. 
My ArtCloth scarves are wearable art. 

My scarves have been created using a range of fabrics and various hand dyeing and hand printing techniques. I am particularly fond of silk due to its ability to impart rich, luscious, intense colors and yet retain its lustre and luxurious handle when dyed and printed using various media. 
My scarves are a unique creation, never to be repeated in color, tone or overall design. Some of the design elements may re-appear in other scarves, but the overall colors, printing/overprinting and design features is what ensures their uniqueness as a one-off specialty wearable art item to covet.

My ArtCloth scarves are unique, are imbued with color, texture and multi layers. They are comfortable to wear and are thoughtfully designed, dyed, printed and finished. Special care instructions are included with each scarf.

The first Prime Minister of India - Nehru - said to his daughter Indira Gandhi: “Be Brave - the rest will follow!” Underlying all of my work is this drive to take risks - to create bold, edgy, contemporary designs and so let my adrenaline drive my artwork. Nonetheless, discarding mainstream design elements is not in itself inspirational, but rather it is an important part of my inner core - to drive my work to create edgy design elements.

 Urban and landscape environments inform my images and works. My contemporary urban landscape themes include my interpretation of post-graffiti work. I operate my artistic skill set on these thoughts to project rich and vibrant landscapes on the cloth medium. The ArtCloth scarves I create rely heavily on researching design elements consistent with my worldview to create images from the “utten welt” and/or from life-forms threatened with respect to survival. 

I employ various surface design techniques to create the imagery for my scarves. These techniques include the initial image/mark making processes of drawing and designing which are followed by dyeing, discharging, hand painting, stenciling, stamping, screen printing, foiling and other processes on natural fibres. I have been honoured to receive numerous international awards for my printed ArtCloth textiles.

My scarves are available in various galleries and art & craft outlets throughout Australia. For example, in the Hunter Valley (Australia) they are available from Cessnock Regional Art Gallery. They are also available via specialty artisan Hand Made Art and Design Markets and via my Art Quill Studio. Please email me at - Marie-Therese - for further information.

My New Silk ArtCloth Scarves

Overview of my new silk habotai scarves.

Technique and Media: Dyed, silk screened, deconstructed silk screened imagery employing dyes, transparent and opaque pigments on silk habotai (full view).
Size: 28.5 (wide) x 142 (length) cm.

Detail view.

Technique and Media: Dyed, shibori overdyed, discharged, lino blocked and silk screened employing dyes, discharge media, glazes, transparent and opaque pigments on silk habotai (full view).
Size: 28.5 (wide) x 142 (length) cm.

Detail view.

Technique and Media: Dyed, shibori overdyed, discharged, lino blocked and silk screened employing dyes, discharge media, glazes, transparent and opaque pigments on silk habotai (full view).
Size: 28.5 (wide) x 142 (length) cm.

Detail view.

Technique and Media: Dyed, shibori overdyed, discharged, stamped and silk screened employing dyes, discharge media, glazes, transparent, opaque and metallic pigments on silk habotai (full view).
Size: 28.5 (wide) x 142 (length) cm.

Detail view.

Technique and Media: Shibori multi dyed, discharged and silk screened employing dyes, discharge media and pigment paint on silk habotai (full view).
Size: 28.5 (wide) x 142 (length) cm.

Detail view.

Technique and Media: Shibori multi dyed, stamped and silk screened employing dyes and opaque pigments on silk habotai (full view).
Size: 28.5 (wide) x 142 (length) cm.

Detail view.

Technique and Media: Shibori dyed, shibori overdyed, multiple discharge and silk screened employing dyes and discharge media on silk habotai (full view).
Size: 24 (wide) x 182 (length) cm.

Detail view.

Saturday, November 4, 2017

Knit-Pile Fabrics [1]
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

This is the seventieth post in the "Art Resource" series, specifically aimed to construct an appropriate knowledge base in order to develop an artistic voice in ArtCloth.

Other posts in this series are:
Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms
Units Used in Dyeing and Printing of Fabrics
Occupational, Health & Safety
A Brief History of Color
The Nature of Color
Psychology of Color
Color Schemes
The Naming of Colors
The Munsell Color Classification System
Methuen Color Index and Classification System
The CIE System
Pantone - A Modern Color Classification System
Optical Properties of Fiber Materials
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part I
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part II
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part III
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part IV
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part V
Protein Fibers - Wool
Protein Fibers - Speciality Hair Fibers
Protein Fibers - Silk
Protein Fibers - Wool versus Silk
Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Cotton
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Linen
Other Natural Cellulosic Fibers
General Overview of Man-Made Fibers
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Viscose
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Esters
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Nylon
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Polyester
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Acrylic and Modacrylic
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Olefins
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Elastomers
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Mineral Fibers
Man Made Fibers - Other Textile Fibers
Fiber Blends
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part I
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part II
Melt-Spun Fibers
Characteristics of Filament Yarn
Yarn Classification
Direct Spun Yarns
Textured Filament Yarns
Fabric Construction - Felt
Fabric Construction - Nonwoven fabrics
A Fashion Data Base
Fabric Construction - Leather
Fabric Construction - Films
Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins
Fabric Construction – Foams and Poromeric Material
Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns
Weaving and the Loom
Similarities and Differences in Woven Fabrics
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part I)
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part II)
The Three Basic Weaves - Twill Weave
The Three Basic Weaves - Satin Weave
Figured Weaves - Leno Weave
Figured Weaves – Piqué Weave
Figured Fabrics
Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements
Crêpe Fabrics
Crêpe Effect Fabrics
Pile Fabrics - General
Woven Pile Fabrics
Chenille Yarn and Tufted Pile Fabrics
Knit-Pile Fabrics
Flocked Pile Fabrics and Other Pile Construction Processes
Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms
Napped Fabrics – Part I
Napped Fabrics – Part II
Double Cloth
Multicomponent Fabrics
Knit-Sew or Stitch Through Fabrics
Finishes - Overview
Finishes - Initial Fabric Cleaning
Mechanical Finishes - Part I
Mechanical Finishes - Part II
Additive Finishes
Chemical Finishes - Bleaching
Glossary of Scientific Terms
Chemical Finishes - Acid Finishes
Finishes: Mercerization
Finishes: Waterproof and Water-Repellent Fabrics
Finishes: Flame-Proofed Fabrics
Finishes to Prevent Attack by Insects and Micro-Organisms
Other Finishes
Shrinkage - Part I
Shrinkage - Part II

There are currently eight data bases on this blogspot, namely, the Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, the Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, the Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns, Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements, Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms and the Glossary of Scientific Terms, which has been updated to Version 3.5. All data bases will be updated from time-to-time in the future.

If you find any post on this blog site useful, you can save it or copy and paste it into your own "Word" document etc. for your future reference. For example, Safari allows you to save a post (e.g. click on "File", click on "Print" and release, click on "PDF" and then click on "Save As" and release - and a PDF should appear where you have stored it). Safari also allows you to mail a post to a friend (click on "File", and then point cursor to "Mail Contents On This Page" and release). Either way, this or other posts on this site may be a useful Art Resource for you.

The Art Resource series will be the first post in each calendar month. Remember - these Art Resource posts span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist to that required by a final year University Fine-Art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource post may appear far too technical for your needs (skip over those mind boggling parts) and in other parts, it may be too simplistic with respect to your level of knowledge (ditto the skip). The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that Art Resource posts will hopefully be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately may not be satisfying to all!

Today’s post continues to explore pile fabrics namely knit-pile fabrics.

Pile loop-knit cardigan.

Knit-Pile Fabrics
Pile knits look like woven pile fabrics, but they are more pliable and stretchy. Knitted pile fabrics are classified as circular knit or sliver knit.

Loop-pile cable-knit jumper.

Circular Knits
Circular knits usually have cotton-backing yarns comparable in size to those used in medium weight fabrics and low twist, larger-sized, face yarns. The fabrics are terry cloth and velour.

Knitted terry cloth is often used for baby towels and wash cloths because it is absorbent but softer than woven terry. Because it does not conform to shape as well and thus does not look good on the rack, towels and washcloths for adults are seldom made of knitted terry.

100% Cotton knitted terry Infant saliva towels baby pinafore.

Velour, a fashion fabric used in men’s apparel in the 1960s, is a cut-pile knit.

Hugo Boss men’s black label basic velour sweat-suit in medium grey.

Sliver Knits
Sliver knits are used to produce imitation fur fabrics. The knitted back makes the fabric more pliable with better draping characteristics. It has only been since 1955 that fabrics with true fur-like appearance and texture have been available. They have a luxurious hand and dense face of the furs but are much lighter in weight and require no special storage. Until recently, special care in cleaning was necessary because the heat sensitivity of the fibers caused shrinkage and fabric distortions when fabrics were cleaned in the normal manner. By using a cold tumble dryer and combing the pile rather than steam pressing, the fabrics can be successfully cleaned.

Sliver knit fox fur suit jacket.

High pile knits are made from acrylic, mod-acrylic or olefin fibers or blends of combinations of these fibers. The back is knit from fibers (Dynel) that will shrink during the finishing operation to make the pile surface more compact. There is a trend to use cotton for the back to reduce the cost.

Fashion designed acrylic faux fur fabrics.

The background is knit with yarns but the pile is made from a sliver. Fibers from the sliver are picked up by the needles along with the ground yarn and are locked into place as the stitch is formed.

Grey mod-acrylic Cossack hats.

The steps used in finishing these fabrics are: (i) heat-setting, which shrinks the ground fabric and shrinks and expands the diameter of the individual face fibers; (ii) tigaring – a brushing operation which removes surplus fiber from the face of the fabric; (iii) shearing; and (iv) electrifying, a process that combs the fibers first in one direction and then in another by grooved heated cylinders that rotate at high speed. This process imparts high luster to the pile. The electrifying process may be repeated many times to develop the required finish.

Oleg Cassini vintage olefin faux fur coat.

Fur like fabrics are used for shells (the outer surface) or liners (the inner surface) of coats and jackets. The table below shows the difference between shells and liners that are made by sliver knitting, weaving and tufting.

Comparison of fur like fabrics.

Notice in the above table that the difference is mainly one of weight, the shells being heavier than the liners. In actual use the dividing line is less distinct since because shell fabrics are used as liners in expensive garments and liners are used as shells in low-priced items.

In sliver knits, the fibers from the sliver are already loose on the surface, while in the tufted and woven constructions the fibers must be opened or teased from the yarns. A denser pile can be obtained because the amount of face fiber is not limited by yarn size or distance between the yarns as it is in tufting and weaving.

46% Mod-acrylic, 37% acrylic, 17% polyester faux fur.

In tufting 5/64-gauge machines are used for apparel pile fabrics. This gauge is the distance in inches between tufting needles. Normal tufting specifications on this gauge call for 10 to 11 stitches per inch and a pile height of one eighth of an inch.

Woven fabrics are usually a half an inch or less in pile height. They are less pliable than knits or tufted fabrics and rows of tufts sometimes cause the fabric to “grin” (i.e. the back shows) when the fabric is folded at the edges.

[1] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd Edition, MacMillan Company, London (1968).