Saturday, May 26, 2018

“Spring & Autumn Flurry” Collection

My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

ArtCloth

Marie-Therese Wisniowski



Preamble
On this blog spot there are posts that center on my “Wearable Art” (e.g. scarves, digital or analogue created fabric lengths etc.) For your convenience I have listed these posts below.

A Selection of My Scarves
Leaves Transformed: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
My New Silk Rayon Velvet Scarves@Purple Noon Art And Sculpture Gallery
My Fabric Lengths@QSDS
My Fabric Collection:"Oh, Oh Marilyn and Mona!"@Spoonflower
2013 Australian Craft Awards – Finalist
My Scarves@2014 Scarf Festival: "Urban Artscape" Pashminas
My New Scarves and Fabric Lengths
New Range of Silk Neckties - Karma and Akash
AIVA: My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
New Colorways For My 'Cultural Graffiti' Fabrics
Byzantine Glow: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Wall Flower: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Ink Fern - A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Celebratory Fireworks
My New Silk ArtCloth Scarves
New ‘Unique State’ Silk ArtCloth Scarves
UBIRR
 - My New Hand Dyed & Printed Fabric Design
Renaissance Man - My New Hand Dyed & Printed Fabric Design
Banksia - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

Ginkgo Love - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

Garden Delights I & II
 - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
Wallflower III - 
My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

Rainforest Beauty - Collection My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

Spring & Autumn Flurry
La Volute Collection - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
Urban Butterfly -
 My New Hand Printed Fabric Design
Acanthus Dream
 - My New Hand Printed Fabric Design

Cascading Acanthus - 
My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed 'Rainforest Beauty' Pashmina Wraps Collection


If you like any of the images below, please email me at - Marie-Therese - to discuss further options.

“Spring & Autumn Flurry” Collection - Introduction, Concept and Processes
I am fortunate to live close to the iconic Australian wine-growing region, the Hunter Valley in New South Wales. Because of the wine produced in this region, each season is important due to the various stages of the process. In summer the region comes alive with the harvest and wine growers are at their peak. In autumn, the abundant foliage of the Hunter Valley turns into beautiful shades of browns, oranges, reds and golds saturating the landscape with spectacular scenery. Winter is a time for rest, with the region being popular as a comfortable, snug getaway. In spring, the landscape is ready to be reborn and the once bare and stark vines spring to life with delicate light green foliage and flowers blooming everywhere.

My new, contemporary fabric design collection, “Spring & Autumn Flurry” stems from a unique series of designs that I created employing various mark making techniques and imagery to give a sense of the flurry of activity that occurs during the spring and autumn grape growing seasons in the Hunter region. With flowers and insects abounding among the vines I have endeavored to capture the ‘flurry’ of activity in a modern, timeless and unique design aesthetic.

The “Spring & Autumn Flurry”” Collection comes in two design formats and a number of color ways – “Spring Flurry” comes in three color ways - green, purple and magenta-red hues whilst “Autumn Flurry” comes in a multi color way.

“Spring Flurry”
As with all of my fabric designs, white fabrics, in this case cotton, were dyed and/or over dyed using time-honored hand dyeing techniques to add visual depth, pattern and contrast to the fabric background/s. To create visual depth using time-honored hand printing processes, the fabrics were then screen printed with multiple layers of hand drawn images, which give a sense of spectacular swirling and vibrant movement over the entire fabric lengths. Colors referenced the base dyed fabric hues which were inspired by the grape varieties grown in the Hunter Valley - chardonnay, semillon and verdelho among the whites, shiraz, cabernet sauvignon and merlot among the reds - with a final layer being printed in black giving contrast to the design. My hand drawn deconstructed flower/butterfly images were screen printed/over printed in a random, floating pattern over the entire fabric length. White pigment was employed to give contrast and visual depth to the richly hued and multi layered design.

“Autumn Flurry”
White cotton fabric was dyed in various ‘autumnal’ colors using time-honored hand dyeing techniques to add visual depth, pattern and contrast to the fabric background. The dye colors were heavily applied to certain sections of the fabric leaving softer hue applications throughout other sections of the piece. This gave the fabric design a rich colored and luminous base giving a sense of changing seasonal hues and varying degrees of light.

To create visual depth using time-honored hand printing processes, the fabric was then screen printed with multiple layers of hand drawn images in various ‘autumnal’ hues, which gives a sense of spectacular swirling and vibrant movement over the entire fabric length. Colors referenced the base dyed fabric hues. Employing opaque and metallic pigments, images of scattered, decaying botanic flora and leaves were screen printed/over printed in a random, floating pattern over the entire fabric length giving contrast and visual depth to the richly hued and multi layered design.

The fabric and patterning in the “Spring & Autumn Flurry” Collection is available in the color ways that are mentioned so that you are able to create a truly unique and individual statement piece. “Spring & Autumn Flurry” Collection fabric lengths and fat quarters can be used for wearable art, accessories, quilts, furnishing, as framed artworks and interior design projects. Please contact me to discuss further options.


“Spring Flurry”

“Spring Flurry” is available in green, purple and magenta-red hues (close view).
Technique and Material: Dyed/over dyed and screen printed employing transparent and opaque pigments on cotton.
Size: 97 cm wide x 110 cm high (each).

“Spring Flurry” in green hues (close up view).

“Spring Flurry” in green hues (detail view).

“Spring Flurry” in purple hues (close up view).

“Spring Flurry” in purple hues (detail view).

“Spring Flurry” in magenta - red hues (close up view).

“Spring Flurry” in magenta - red hues (detail view).


“Autumn Flurry”

“Autumn Flurry” is available in a multi color way employing ‘autumnal’ hues (close view).
Technique and Material: Dyed/hand painted and screen printed employing transparent, opaque and metallic pigments on cotton.
Size: 52 cm wide x 178 cm high / 52 cm wide x 117 cm high.

Autumn Flurry” in a multi color way employing ‘autumnal’ hues (close up view).

“Autumn Flurry” in a multi color way employing ‘autumnal’ hues (detail view 1).

“Autumn Flurry” in a multi color way employing ‘autumnal’ hues (detail view 2).

“Autumn Flurry” in a multi color way employing ‘autumnal’ hues (detail view 3).

Saturday, May 19, 2018

“Rainforest Beauty”
 Collection
My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
 ArtCloth

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Preamble
On this blog spot there are posts that center on my “Wearable Art” (e.g. scarves, digital or analogue created fabric lengths etc.) For your convenience I have listed these posts below.

A Selection of My Scarves
Leaves Transformed: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
My New Silk Rayon Velvet Scarves@Purple Noon Art And Sculpture Gallery
My Fabric Lengths@QSDS
My Fabric Collection:"Oh, Oh Marilyn and Mona!"@Spoonflower
2013 Australian Craft Awards – Finalist
My Scarves@2014 Scarf Festival: "Urban Artscape" Pashminas
My New Scarves and Fabric Lengths
New Range of Silk Neckties - Karma and Akash
AIVA: My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
New Colorways For My 'Cultural Graffiti' Fabrics
Byzantine Glow: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Wall Flower: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Ink Fern - A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Celebratory Fireworks
My New Silk ArtCloth Scarves
New ‘Unique State’ Silk ArtCloth Scarves
UBIRR
 - My New Hand Dyed & Printed Fabric Design
Renaissance Man - My New Hand Dyed & Printed Fabric Design
Banksia - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

Ginkgo Love - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

Garden Delights I & II
 - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
Wallflower III - 
My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

Rainforest Beauty
Spring & Autumn Flurry Collection
 - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

La Volute Collection - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
Urban Butterfly -
 My New Hand Printed Fabric Design
Acanthus Dream
 - My New Hand Printed Fabric Design

Cascading Acanthus - 
My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed 'Rainforest Beauty' Pashmina Wraps Collection


If you like any of the images below, please email me at - Marie-Therese - to discuss further options.

“Rainforest Beauty” Collection - Introduction
Pomaderris apetala, better known as the common Dogwood, is a quick growing shrub or small, slender tree growing to 6 metres. It is found in the wet shaded forests in Tasmania known as the wet sclerophyll forests.

Wet Sclerophyll forest is also known as tall open-forest and is unique to Australia. It is a multi-storyed habitat, characterised by a tall, open tree canopy and an understorey of shrubs, ferns and herbs. Many understorey plants are rainforest species or have close rainforest relatives. Moisture and soil are important characteristics of this habitat to maintain the growth of the tall eucalypts. The wet sclerophyll forest is a complex living system, yet this whole system is a dynamically balanced natural environment if not interrupted[1].

While eucalypts tower over other forest trees, competition is fierce as young gums battle for sunlight with pioneering rainforest species. Tall Eucalypts dominate the canopy and include blue gums, mahoganies, peppermints and green-leaved ashes. Wet sclerophyll forests are highly combustible and susceptible to fire[1].

The pomaderris apetala (common dogwood) is a widespread and beautiful rainforest species. It is one of the main components in the canopy of wet sclerophyll forests. It has large leaves, which have irregular margins and irregularly lumpy surface. The plant bears large clusters of pale yellow flowers in Spring.


“Rainforest Beauty” Collection - Concept and Processes
My new, contemporary fabric design collection, “Rainforest Beauty” is based on one of Australia’s truly unique Tasmanian rainforest native plant species, the pomaderris apetala better known as the common dogwood. Inspired by my visits to the Tasmanian wet forest areas I have created this collection to showcase the beauty of this plant species in a modern, timeless and unique design aesthetic.

The “Rainforest Beauty” Collection comes in a series of design formats and color ways - Rainforest Beauty amidst the Berries, Rainforest Beauty amidst the Stars, Rainforest Beauty amidst the Droplets.

As with all of my fabric designs, white fabrics, in this case cotton, were dyed and/or over dyed using time-honored hand dyeing techniques to add visual depth, pattern and contrast to the fabric background/s. Using time-honored hand printing processes the fabrics were then screen-printed with images of common dogwood over the entire fabric lengths. Additional techniques of stenciling and stamping were employed for some designs in the collection. Using analogous and/or complementary colors (in each specific color way), additional layers of complex images were overprinted in glazes, transparent, opaque and metallic pigments until a richly hued and multi layered surface was created.

“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Berries”
“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Berries” comes in two color ways - one in rich blue and purple hues, the other in a palette of softer green and lilac hues. To create visual depth multiple, complex layers of common dogwood and berry images were screen printed and overprinted in a random, floating pattern over the entire fabric using glazes, transparent, opaque and metallic pigments to create a visually contrasting, richly hued and multi layered surface.

“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Stars”
“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Stars” comes in two color ways - one in soft, pale blue and grey-green hues, the other in a harmonious suite of grey-blue and soft taupe-grey hues. To create visual depth multiple, complex layers of common dogwood and floating ‘star’ images were screen printed, stenciled and overprinted in a random, floating pattern over the entire fabric using transparent, opaque and metallic pigments to create a visually contrasting, richly hued and multi layered surface.

“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Droplets”
“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Droplets” comes in one multi color way - a dynamic, richly patterned, shibori dyed background in hot vivid pink, hot orange/red and deep blue hues. The linear, gradated structure of the dyed pattern gave an interesting formal quality to the background design. Mono printed dot shapes were printed onto the dyed surface layer. To create visual depth multiple, complex layers of common dogwood and paisley images were screen printed, stamped and overprinted in a semi-formal repeat pattern over the entire fabric using transparent and metallic pigments to create a visually deep, richly hued and textured surface.

The fabric and patterning in the “Rainforest Beauty” Collection can be designed using variations of the above color ways and patterning techniques to create a truly unique and individual statement. “Rainforest Beauty” Collection fabric lengths and fat quarters can be used for wearable art, accessories, quilts, furnishing, as framed artworks and interior design projects. Please contact me to discuss further options.


“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Berries”

“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Berries” in rich blue and purple hues (close view).
Technique and Material: Multi-color dyed and screen printed employing transparent, opaque and metallic pigments on cotton.
Size: 110 cm wide x 94 cm high.

“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Berries” in rich blue and purple hues (close-up view).

“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Berries” in rich blue and purple hues (detail view).

“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Berries” in soft green and lilac hues (full view).
Technique and Material: Multi color dyed and screen printed employing glazes, transparent, opaque and metallic pigments on cotton.
Size: 77 cm wide x 109 cm high.

“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Berries” in soft green and lilac hues (close up view).

“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Berries” in soft green and lilac hues (detail view).


“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Stars”

“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Stars” in soft, pale blue and grey-green hues (full view).
Technique and Material: Multi color dyed, screen printed and stenciled employing transparent, opaque and metallic pigments on cotton.
Size: 104 cm wide x 98 cm high.

“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Stars” in soft, pale blue and grey-green hues (close up view).

Rainforest Beauty amidst the Stars” in soft, pale blue and grey-green hues (detail view).

“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Stars” in grey-blue and soft taupe-grey hues (full view).
Technique and Material: Multi color dyed, screen printed and stenciled employing transparent, opaque and metallic pigments on cotton.
Size: 104 cm wide x 98 cm high.

“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Stars” in grey-blue and soft taupe-grey hues (close up view).

“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Stars” in grey-blue and soft taupe-grey hues (detail view).


“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Droplets”

“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Droplets” in hot vivid pink, hot orange/red and deep blue hues (close view).
Technique and Material: Shibori multi color dyed, mono printed, screen printed and stamped employing transparent and metallic pigments on cotton.
Size: 110 cm wide x 110 cm high.

“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Droplets” in hot vivid pink, hot orange/red and deep blue hues (close up view).

“Rainforest Beauty amidst the Droplets” in hot vivid pink, hot orange/red and deep blue hues (detail view).


Reference:
[1] Aussie Ark, Habitat - https://www.aussieark.org.au/our-work/habitat/

Saturday, May 12, 2018

“Wallflower III”

My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

ArtCloth



Marie-Therese Wisniowski


Preamble
On this blog spot there are posts that center on my “Wearable Art” (e.g. scarves, digital or analogue created fabric lengths etc.) For your convenience I have listed these posts below.

A Selection of My Scarves
Leaves Transformed: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
My New Silk Rayon Velvet Scarves@Purple Noon Art And Sculpture Gallery
My Fabric Lengths@QSDS
My Fabric Collection:"Oh, Oh Marilyn and Mona!"@Spoonflower
2013 Australian Craft Awards – Finalist
My Scarves@2014 Scarf Festival: "Urban Artscape" Pashminas
My New Scarves and Fabric Lengths
New Range of Silk Neckties - Karma and Akash
AIVA: My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
New Colorways For My 'Cultural Graffiti' Fabrics
Byzantine Glow: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Wall Flower: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Ink Fern - A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Celebratory Fireworks
My New Silk ArtCloth Scarves
New ‘Unique State’ Silk ArtCloth Scarves
UBIRR
 - My New Hand Dyed & Printed Fabric Design
Renaissance Man - My New Hand Dyed & Printed Fabric Design
Banksia - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

Ginkgo Love - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

Garden Delights I & II
 - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
Wallflower III
Rainforest Beauty
 Collection - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
Spring & Autumn Flurry Collection
 - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

La Volute Collection - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
Urban Butterfly -
 My New Hand Printed Fabric Design
Acanthus Dream
 - My New Hand Printed Fabric Design

Cascading Acanthus - 
My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed 'Rainforest Beauty' Pashmina Wraps Collection


If you like any of the images below, please email me at - Marie-Therese - to discuss further options.

“Wallflower III” – Introduction, Concept and Processes
My new, contemporary fabric design range, “Wallflower III” stems from a unique series of designs based on images of my post-graffiti artwork depicting distressed, worn, aged and organic botanic illustrations originally found in illustrated books and now reinterpreted on contemporary urban walls. Being a little on the ‘funky’ side, “Wallflower III” has also been designed to inspire and celebrate this creative and original art form of present day urban graffiti and in doing so, capturing a modern, timeless and unique post-graffiti design aesthetic of our times.

The “Wallflower III” range comes in two color ways - one on a denim blue dyed background, the second on a warm magenta dyed background.

As with all of my fabric designs, the base fabrics were dyed using time-honored hand dyeing techniques to add visual depth, pattern and contrast to the fabric background/s.

The dyed fabric/s were now ready for printing the complex surface layers using time-honored hand printing processes. Employing one of my post-graffiti images, the base dyed layers were screen printed in various modes over the entire fabric length/s creating randomly printed and deconstructed background imagery. The next layer employed a ‘cracked surface’ image, which was randomly screen printed over the entire fabric length/s creating additional texture and visual depth to the design. The fourth layer employed stenciling leaf designs in metallic pigment over the entire fabric length/s creating a visual juxtaposition to the previous base colors. The fifth layer employed ‘botanical berry’ images, which were screen printed in a half drop repeat mode in metallic pigment. The final layer employed my ‘wallflower botanical’ image which was screen printed in a half drop repeat mode in metallic gold pigment. The completed fabric design consisted of multiple complex layers of imagery creating a richly hued, multi layered, sumptuous and deconstructed, three-dimensional appearance to the surface of the fabrics.

The fabric and patterning in the “Wallflower III” range can be designed using variations of the above color ways and patterning techniques to create a truly unique and individual statement. ““Wallflower III” fabric lengths and fat quarters can be used for wearable art, accessories, quilts, furnishing, as framed artworks and interior design projects. Please contact me to discuss further options.


“Wallflower III”

View of “Wallflower III” design as fabric lengths (close up).
The design comes in two color ways: one on a denim blue dyed background (left),and the second on a warm magenta dyed background (right).

“Wallflower III” (close up view on a denim blue dyed background).
Technique and Material: Dyed, screen printed and stenciled employing transparent and metallic pigments on cotton.
Size: 116 cm wide x 145 cm high.

“Wallflower III” (detail view on a denim blue dyed background).

“Wallflower III” (close up view on a warm magenta dyed background).
Technique and Material: Dyed, screen printed and stenciled employing transparent and metallic pigments on cotton.
Size: 97 cm wide x 110 cm high.

“Wallflower III” (detail view on a warm magenta dyed background).

Saturday, May 5, 2018

Multicomponent Fabrics
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Preamble
This is the seventy-sixth post in the "Art Resource" series, specifically aimed to construct an appropriate knowledge base in order to develop an artistic voice in ArtCloth.

Other posts in this series are:
Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms
Units Used in Dyeing and Printing of Fabrics
Occupational, Health & Safety
A Brief History of Color
The Nature of Color
Psychology of Color
Color Schemes
The Naming of Colors
The Munsell Color Classification System
Methuen Color Index and Classification System
The CIE System
Pantone - A Modern Color Classification System
Optical Properties of Fiber Materials
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part I
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part II
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part III
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part IV
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part V
Protein Fibers - Wool
Protein Fibers - Speciality Hair Fibers
Protein Fibers - Silk
Protein Fibers - Wool versus Silk
Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Cotton
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Linen
Other Natural Cellulosic Fibers
General Overview of Man-Made Fibers
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Viscose
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Esters
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Nylon
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Polyester
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Acrylic and Modacrylic
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Olefins
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Elastomers
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Mineral Fibers
Man Made Fibers - Other Textile Fibers
Fiber Blends
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part I
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part II
Melt-Spun Fibers
Characteristics of Filament Yarn
Yarn Classification
Direct Spun Yarns
Textured Filament Yarns
Fabric Construction - Felt
Fabric Construction - Nonwoven fabrics
A Fashion Data Base
Fabric Construction - Leather
Fabric Construction - Films
Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins
Fabric Construction – Foams and Poromeric Material
Knitting
Hosiery
Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns
Weaving and the Loom
Similarities and Differences in Woven Fabrics
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part I)
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part II)
The Three Basic Weaves - Twill Weave
The Three Basic Weaves - Satin Weave
Figured Weaves - Leno Weave
Figured Weaves – Piqué Weave
Figured Fabrics
Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements
Crêpe Fabrics
Crêpe Effect Fabrics
Pile Fabrics - General
Woven Pile Fabrics
Chenille Yarn and Tufted Pile Fabrics
Knit-Pile Fabrics
Flocked Pile Fabrics and Other Pile Construction Processes
Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms
Napped Fabrics – Part I
Napped Fabrics – Part II
Double Cloth
Multicomponent Fabrics
Knit-Sew or Stitch Through Fabrics
Finishes - Overview
Finishes - Initial Fabric Cleaning
Mechanical Finishes - Part I
Mechanical Finishes - Part II
Additive Finishes
Chemical Finishes - Bleaching
Glossary of Scientific Terms
Chemical Finishes - Acid Finishes
Finishes: Mercerization
Finishes: Waterproof and Water-Repellent Fabrics
Finishes: Flame-Proofed Fabrics
Finishes to Prevent Attack by Insects and Micro-Organisms
Other Finishes
Shrinkage - Part I
Shrinkage - Part II

There are currently eight data bases on this blogspot, namely, the Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, the Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, the Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns, Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements, Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms and the Glossary of Scientific Terms, which has been updated to Version 3.5. All data bases will be updated from time-to-time in the future.

If you find any post on this blog site useful, you can save it or copy and paste it into your own "Word" document etc. for your future reference. For example, Safari allows you to save a post (e.g. click on "File", click on "Print" and release, click on "PDF" and then click on "Save As" and release - and a PDF should appear where you have stored it). Safari also allows you to mail a post to a friend (click on "File", and then point cursor to "Mail Contents On This Page" and release). Either way, this or other posts on this site may be a useful Art Resource for you.

The Art Resource series will be the first post in each calendar month. Remember - these Art Resource posts span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist to that required by a final year University Fine-Art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource post may appear far too technical for your needs (skip over those mind boggling parts) and in other parts, it may be too simplistic with respect to your level of knowledge (ditto the skip). The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that Art Resource posts will hopefully be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately may not be satisfying to all!


Introduction
Multicomponent fabrics differ from double cloths in that already constructed fabrics such as foams or webs are joined together in various ways. It is somewhat similar to a finish rather than a fabric construction.

1968 razzle-dazzle shades of red, pink, green and violet on acetate jersey bonded to acetate tricot. Pullover style with side slits; scooped neckline is squared in back.

Multicomponent fabrics are made from two or more elements stitched or pressed together. The elements can be separated by the consumer.

1967 shift of acetate and rayon crepe bonded to acetate tricot. Dress has large mandarin-type sleeves with white inserts. There is a back neck zipper closing.

Bonded Fabrics
Bonded or laminated fabrics consist of two fabrics made to adhere together by an adhesive or flame-foam process shown below.

Two basic methods for producing bonded fabrics.

In the wet-adhesive method (see above), the adhesive is applied to the underside of the face fabric; and the liner fabric is joined by passing through the rollers. It is heated twice, once to dry out the solvent and to give a preliminary cure, and the second to effect a permanent bond. In the frame-foam process (see diagram above) polyurethane foam acts as an adhesive. The foam is made tacky first on one side and then on the other by passing the foam under a gas flame. The final thickness of the foam is about 15/1000 of an inch. This method gives more body but reduces the drapability of the fabric.

The use of bonded fabric started about 1961 with an inexpensive wool flannel bonded with an adhesive to an acetate jersey. In spite of delamination problems today all kinds of combinations are used. Woven fabrics are bonded to knits, woven fabrics to woven fabrics, knits to knits, knit-sew fabrics to knits and lace to knits. It is even possible to buy companion fabrics, bonded and unbonded in the same fabric.

Lace bonded knit dress.

The advantages of bonded fabric are:
1. Inexpensive fabrics have better appearance and body when bonded and they can be used for outerwear more satisfactorily. For example, a sleazy wool jersey bonded to an inexpensive acetate tricot has the body and weight of a double-knit wool jersey.

2. In mass-production or home sewing of apparel, separate linings usually are not used, which reduces cutting and sewing time. Bonded fabrics are easier to seam together than face and lining fabrics. No seam finishes are necessary. Interfacing usually are not needed.

Bonded lace knit top.

The disadvantage of bonded fabrics are:
1. The backing fabric does not prevent bagging in skirts and slacks, since it is often a knit or cheesecloth, which is quite pliable.

2. Fabrics are often bonded off the grain, which detracts from the beauty of a finished garment. Before purchasing bonded fabric, the home sewer should examine the fabric, particularly along the fold line.

3. Bonded fabric may delaminate during washing or dry cleaning.

Hexagon bonded lace slacks.

If delamination occurs, there usually is shrinkage of one component causing bubbles or a rough appearance to the fabric. Standards have been proposed for bonded fabrics but until these are accepted by various segments of the industry, the consumer must rely on trade names and examination of fabrics and/or garments. The following test has been recommended to determine the durability of the laminate: soak the fabric for ten minutes in perchloroethylene. If the face and back do not separate, the fabric should withstand normal dry cleaning.

Foam Laminates
Foam laminates consist of a layer of foam covered by another fabric or between two fabrics. Foam laminates were first visualised as thermal garments for outdoor workers because they are light in weight but warm. Foams were quilted to lining fabrics as lining, interlining combinations. In 1958, they were introduced in inexpensive fabrics primarily as a way to use up undesired fabric (yardage that did not sell). The first fabric to sell in volume was a dress-weight jersey laminated to foam and made up in spring coats. This was so successful that coats were made for all-purpose uses. This is the only instance in textiles in which a new development was introduced in cheap lines and then adopted and upgraded into expensive merchandize. Foam laminates today are made using all kinds and qualities of fabric with many different thickness of foam.

Adult's life jacket, made of eva foam, laminated with lycra fabric. Ideal for kayaking and swimming.

The advantages of foam laminates are:
1. Fabrics have body and good drapabilty.

2. Unlike stiffened fabric, foams do not hold yarn stiff and rigid. Therefore, durability is good.

3. Foams are weak, but the combination of foam and fabric is quite satisfactory.

4. Foams tend to stabilize fabric.

5.Warmth is directly proportional to the thickness of the foam and independent of fiber or fabric of the outer shell.

Cotton drill foam laminate hat.

Lamination is done primarily in three ways:
1. An adhesive that adheres to the foam was the first method used. It is not too satisfactory because the adhesive adds stiffness and is often not durable to cleaning.

2. The most commonly used method is to run the foam over a gas flame so that it becomes sticky or tacky and then to apply it to the fabric. This technique burns off 1/32 inch of foam but is no more expensive than the cost of the adhesive. It is usually satisfactory in laundry and dry cleaning.

3. Generating the foam at the time it is to be applied, flowing it onto the cloth and cutting on the cloth a more recent method.

Foam laminated fabric. Knitted, woven and non-woven fabrics laminated with PU foam with specified thickness and density are the most common product in the production of shoes and upholstry industries. Colors and designs are entirely dependent on the fashion requirement of the buyer.

Foam laminates have had and still have some disadvantages. Getting the foam and fabric to be firmly welded together depends somewhat on the fabric. Filaments do not stick as well as staple fibers; smooth fabrics are better if napped slightly before laminating. Fabrics are often applied “off grain”, which affects their aesthetic appeal. The character of the fabric somewhat limits styling.

Quilted Fabrics
Quilted fabrics are multicomponent fabrics consisting of two fabrics above and below a layer of wadding or batting held together by machine stitching or by fusion. Any fabric can be used for the shell or covering. A fashion fabric is always used on one side. If the article is reversible or needs to be durable or beautiful on both sides, two fashion fabrics are used. If the fabric is to be lined or used as a chair covering or bedspread, the under layer is often white or black cheesecloth. Beauty of the fabric is all important for all end uses. For ski jackets and snow suits, a closely woven water- and wind repellent fabric is desirable; for comforters, resistance to slipping off the bed is important; for upholstery, durability and resistance to soil are important.

1967 skimmer sparks diamond-patterned quilting. It has shoulder buttons and is made with Acrilan acrylic knit quilted to cotton.

The three layers must be held together both for construction and for care. Quilting is sewing with regular or chain stitch in lines or patterns. The disadvantage of quilting is that threads break when one sits in the garment or on the bed from abrasion. Broken threads are unsightly and with cotton, wool or acetate fiberfills, the loose fiber is no longer held in place.

1940s quilted satin robe. Soft and slightly peachy blush pink satin is quilted in a diamond pattern. Beautifully fitted styling with a wide rounded lapel collar and neat gathered sleeves. The skirt is cut on the bias, as one continuous piece, giving a flattering, slim waist and hip look. Rounded patch pockets with turn back flaps. Wide sash with rounded ends accents the waist. Fully lined in matching satin.

A new technique – stitchless quilting – consists of pressing fabric to polyurethanre foam using an embossing technique. Chem-stitch, a trade name, resembles quilted fabrics both in appearance and purpose.

Nylon taffeta and polyurethane foam; stitchless quilting. Notice the adhesive on the foam.


Reference:
[1] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd Edition, MacMillan Company, London (1968).