Saturday, September 14, 2019

The Art of Arthur Pambegan Jr[1]
Art Essay
Marie-Therese Wisniowski

WARNING: This post contains images of dead aboriginal man - Arthur Pembegn Jr.

Arthur Pambegan Jr is a well-known and respected indigenous artist. He was an Aurukun artist. He was born in 1936 in Aurukun, Cape York Peninsula and lived in the community all his life.

From an early age he was engaged in the ceremonial life of Aurukun, learning from his father Arthur Koo’ekka Pambegan Sr, and later performing, carving and painting. He was a senior member of the Wik-Mungkan people and an elder of the Winchanam ceremonial group. He died in 2010.

Arthur Pambegan Jr.

Pambegan showed his work in 2000 at National Gallery of Australia, Canberra. In 2002 his work made a strong impact in the large exhibition Stories from Australia: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples at the National Museum of Australia, Canberra.

Untitled #18 (2009).
Arthur Koo’ekka Pambegan Jr and son, Alair Pambegan.
Size: 61 × 81 cm.

In 2003 Pambegan made impressive large painted sculptures commissioned for the exhibition Story Place: Indigenous Art of Cape York and the Rainforest at Queensland Art Gallery. In 2007 Pambegan participated in the first National Indigenous Art Triennial Cultural Warriors at the National Gallery of Australia.

He was a feature artist in the exhibition, 'Cultural Wars' at the Australian Museum.

Internationally Pambegan has shown his work at the Guangzhou Museum of Art, Guangzhou China, and at the Hermitage Museum St Petersburg, Russia. His works are in the collections of National Gallery of Australia, Queensland Art Gallery, National Gallery of Victoria, and the Australian National Maritime Museum.

The coastal region north of Aurukun township has an distinctive formation of cliffs, where the area’s dark red bauxite is layered with strata of white clay. These are the very markings of red and white bands of color used in traditional body painting for ceremony and for sculpture decoration and more recently canvas painting of Aurukun.

Anthropologist and linguist Peter Sutton identifies that in traditional Aboriginal cultures, it is the “ritual ceremony” that influences aesthetics bringing to “the spiritual and social frameworks of life … a visual order”. Aesthetic excellence were seen to be those markings emanating “powerful distinct expressions of Wik law”.

Bad memories of a by-gone era.

The Art of Arthur Pambegan Jr[1]

Arthur Pambegan Jr.
Untitled III (Walkan-aw and Kalben designs) 2007.
Materials: Ochres and Charcoal with synthetic polymer binder on linen.
Size: 117 x 183 cm.
Held in a private collection.
Photograph courtesy of Mick Richards.

Arthur Pambegan Jr.
Untitled V (Walkan-aw and Kalben designs) 2007.
Materials: Ochres and Charcoal with synthetic polymer binder on linen.
Size: 102 x 91 cm.
Held in a private collection.
Photograph courtesy of Mick Richards.

Arthur Pambegan Jr and Alair Pambegan.
Untitled #9 (Walkan-aw and Kalben designs) 2009.
Materials: Ochres and Charcoal with synthetic polymer binder on linen.
Size: 61 x 92 cm (diptych).
Collection of the National Gallery of Australia.
Photograph courtesy of Mick Richards.

Arthur Pambegan Jr.
Untitled XXVI (Walkan-aw and Kalben designs) 2008.
Materials: Ochres and Charcoal with synthetic polymer binder on linen.
Size: 76 x 66 cm.
Collection of the National Gallery of Australia.
Photograph courtesy of Mick Richards.

Arthur Pambegan Jr.
Untitled XXIX (Walkan-aw and Kalben designs) 2008.
Materials: Ochres and Charcoal with synthetic polymer binder on linen.
Size: 61 x 46 cm.
Held in a private collection.
Photograph courtesy of Mick Richards.

Arthur Pambegan Jr and Alair Pambegan.
Untitled XVIII (Kalben design) 2007.
Materials: Ochres with synthetic polymer binder on linen.
Size: 46 x 61 cm.
Held in a private collection.
Photograph courtesy of Mick Richards.

Arthur Pambegan Jr and Alair Pambegan.
Note: Only one half of the actual installation.
Kalben (a bone fish story place) ND WALKn-aw (A sacred site in the flying fox story) 2008-2009.
Materials: Ochres and charcoal with synthetic polymer binder.
Size of total installation: 193 x 512 x 23 cm. installed
Collection of The University if Queensland - purchased in 2009.
Photograph courtesy of Mick Richards.

Arthur Pambegan Jr.
Untitled VI (Walikan-aw and Kalben designs) 2007.
Materials: Ochres and charcoal with synthetic polymer binder on linen.
Size: 91 x 102 cm.
Collection of The University if Queensland - purchased in 2008.
Photograph courtesy of Mick Richards.

Editor S. Butler, Before Time Today, National Library of Australia, Canberra (2010).

Saturday, September 7, 2019

Shrinkage - Part II[1-2]
Art Resource
Marie-Therese Wisniowski

This is the ninety-first post in the "Art Resource" series, specifically aimed to construct an appropriate knowledge base in order to develop an artistic voice in ArtCloth.

Other posts in this series are:
Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms
Units Used in Dyeing and Printing of Fabrics
Occupational, Health & Safety
A Brief History of Color
The Nature of Color
Psychology of Color
Color Schemes
The Naming of Colors
The Munsell Color Classification System
Methuen Color Index and Classification System
The CIE System
Pantone - A Modern Color Classification System
Optical Properties of Fiber Materials
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part I
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part II
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part III
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part IV
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part V
Protein Fibers - Wool
Protein Fibers - Speciality Hair Fibers
Protein Fibers - Silk
Protein Fibers - Wool versus Silk
Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Cotton
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Linen
Other Natural Cellulosic Fibers
General Overview of Man-Made Fibers
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Viscose
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Esters
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Nylon
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Polyester
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Acrylic and Modacrylic
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Olefins
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Elastomers
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Mineral Fibers
Man Made Fibers - Other Textile Fibers
Fiber Blends
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part I
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part II
Melt-Spun Fibers
Characteristics of Filament Yarn
Yarn Classification
Direct Spun Yarns
Textured Filament Yarns
Fabric Construction - Felt
Fabric Construction - Nonwoven fabrics
A Fashion Data Base
Fabric Construction - Leather
Fabric Construction - Films
Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins
Fabric Construction – Foams and Poromeric Material
Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns
Weaving and the Loom
Similarities and Differences in Woven Fabrics
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part I)
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part II)
The Three Basic Weaves - Twill Weave
The Three Basic Weaves - Satin Weave
Figured Weaves - Leno Weave
Figured Weaves – Piqué Weave
Figured Fabrics
Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements
Crêpe Fabrics
Crêpe Effect Fabrics
Pile Fabrics - General
Woven Pile Fabrics
Chenille Yarn and Tufted Pile Fabrics
Knit-Pile Fabrics
Flocked Pile Fabrics and Other Pile Construction Processes
Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms
Napped Fabrics – Part I
Napped Fabrics – Part II
Double Cloth
Multicomponent Fabrics
Knit-Sew or Stitch Through Fabrics
Finishes - Overview
Finishes - Initial Fabric Cleaning
Mechanical Finishes - Part I
Mechanical Finishes - Part II
Additive Finishes
Chemical Finishes - Bleaching
Glossary of Scientific Terms
Chemical Finishes - Acid Finishes
Finishes: Mercerization
Finishes: Waterproof and Water-Repellent Fabrics
Finishes: Flame-Proofed Fabrics
Finishes to Prevent Attack by Insects and Micro-Organisms
Other Finishes
Shrinkage - Part I
Shrinkage - Part II

There are currently eight data bases on this blogspot, namely, the Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, the Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, the Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns, Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements, Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms and the Glossary of Scientific Terms, which has been updated to Version 3.5. All data bases will be updated from time-to-time in the future.

If you find any post on this blog site useful, you can save it or copy and paste it into your own "Word" document etc. for your future reference. For example, Safari allows you to save a post (e.g. click on "File", click on "Print" and release, click on "PDF" and then click on "Save As" and release - and a PDF should appear where you have stored it). Safari also allows you to mail a post to a friend (click on "File", and then point cursor to "Mail Contents On This Page" and release). Either way, this or other posts on this site may be a useful Art Resource for you.

The Art Resource series will be the first post in each calendar month. Remember - these Art Resource posts span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist to that required by a final year University Fine-Art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource post may appear far too technical for your needs (skip over those mind boggling parts) and in other parts, it may be too simplistic with respect to your level of knowledge (ditto the skip). The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that Art Resource posts will hopefully be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately may not be satisfying to all!

Relaxation Shrinkage and Methods of Control.

Knit Fabrics
Knit fabrics shrink because the loops are elongated 10 to 35% lengthwise in knitting and in wet finishing, as shown in the figure below, thus making the fabric longer and narrower than it should be.

Knit Stitches. Left, before orientation. Right, after orientation.

During home laundering the stitches will reorient themselves to their normal shape, and the garment will become shorter and wider. Mechanical methods of shrinkage control for knit fabrics consist of using a spreader to stretch the fabric crosswise to reorient the stitches.

The fabrics are then dried on a special tensionless calendar or they may be tumbled dried. Completed garments may also be tumbled dried to give tham a controlled shrinkage. At the present time, mechanical relaxation shrinkage control treatments are usually done in conjunction with a resin finish.

Woven Fabrics
All woven fabrics shrink when the strains of weaving, warp yarn sizing, and wet finishing are released when the fabric gets wet in the laundering. The warp yarn are stitched out straight, while they are on the loom, and the filling is inserted in a straight line. The filling takes on a crimp as it is beaten back into the cloth, but the warp stays straight. When the fabric is thoroughly wet and allowed to relax, the urns re-adjust themselves and the warp yarns move to a trip position also.

Left: position of the fabric on the loom. Right: After the fabric relaxes when it becomes wet.

This crimp shortens the fabric in the warp direction. With the exception of crepe fabric, less change occurs in the filling direction.

Compressive shrinkage processes are used on woven fabrics of cotton, linen and high-wet-modulus rayon. Regular rayons will not hold a compressive shrinkage treatment because of the high swelling and wet elongation of the rayon fibers.

Sanforize and Rigmel are trade names for compressive shrinkage processes used on woven cloth. The principles involved can be demonstrated by placing a rubber band over the cloth. When the fist is opened and the band is released, the cloth will be squeezed or compressed.

Sanforizing Process
Sanforizing is a mechanical finishing process of treating textile fabrics to prevent the normal dimensional alternation of warp and weft. It is also called anti-shrinkage finishing process. It is a process of treatment used for cotton fabrics mainly and also for some other textiles made from natural and synthetic fibres. It is a method of stretching, shrinking and fixing the woven cloth in both length and width, before cutting and producing to reduce the shrinkage which would otherwise occur after wash.

Sanforizing process is based on the principle that when an elastic felt blanket is passed around a metal roller in contact with it, its outer surface is process extended and the inner surface contracted. So the process is called controlled compressive shrinkage process. The process of sanforizing includes the stretching and manipulation of the fabric before it is washed.

During the sanforization process, the fabric is fed into a sanforizing machine where it is treated with water or steam to promote shrinkage, then pressed against a heated rubber band to relax and re-contract the fibers.

The amount of potential wash shrinkage must be determined prior to shrinking. A full width sample is wash-tested according to the test method. After the lengthwise and width wise shrinkage has been determined, the compressive shrinkage machine can be adjusted accordingly.

The cloth is continually fed into the sanforizing machine and therein moistened with either water or steam. A rotating cylinder presses a rubber sleeve against another, heated, rotating cylinder. Thereby the sleeve briefly gets compressed and laterally expanded, afterwards relaxing to its normal thickness. The cloth to be treated is transported between rubber sleeve and heated cylinder and is forced to follow this brief compression and lateral expansion, and relaxation. It thus gets shrunk.

The greater the pressure applied to the rubber sleeve, the bigger the shrinking afterwards. The process may be repeated.

Schematic Process
The process of Sanforizing can be described by the following schematic below:

* Fabric (F) passes through the skyer (S) or other moistening device and is moistened by water and/or steam. This will lubricate the fibers and promote shrink ability within the fabric.
* Fabric is moistened in such a way that every single thread achieves a moisture content of approximately 15%.
* Above step allows compression of the fabric with very little resistance.
* When the fabric passes through the clip expander (C), we obtain the required width. The clip expander also transports the fabric to the most important part of the machine: the rubber belt unit (indicated by arrows in above figure).
* In the close-up of above figure, we see the endless rubber belt (R). By squeezing rubber belt (R) between pressure roll (P) and rubber belt cylinder (RB), we obtain an elastically stretching of the rubber belt surface.
* The more we squeeze the rubber belt, the more the surface is stretched. This point of squeezing is known as the pressure zone, or the nip point.
* Fabric (F) is now fed into the pressure zone.
* When leaving the pressure zone, the rubber belt recovers itself and the surface returns to its original length carrying the fabric with it. The effect of this action is a shorting of the warp yarn which packs the filling yarns closer together. At this actual moment, shrinkage occurs.
* After compaction within the rubber belt unit, the fabric enters the dryer (D). Here the fibers are locked in their shrunken state by removing the moisture from the fabric.
* After the compressive shrinkage process is completed, another sample of the fabric is taken.
* This sample is also wash-tested. The final result of this test must meet the Sanforized Standard, in length and width before it may carry the Sanforized label.
* All Sanforized Licensees are contractually obligated to follow the required test method and meet the standards set forth by The Sanforized Company.

Research has shown that faulty laundering will cause compressively shrunk fabrics to shrink as much as 6%. Tumble-drying may also compress yarns beyond their normal shrinkage.

The trade name "Saforized Plus" may be used on wash-and-wear and durable-press garments that meet specified standards of shrinkage control, wrinkle resistance, smoothness after washing, tensile strength and tear strength.

London shrunk process is a 200-year-old relaxation finish fir wool fabrics, which removes strains caused by spinning, weaving and finishing.

At first the wool was laid out in the fields of the city of London and the dew soothed away the stresses and so improved the hand of the fabric. While techniques have been modernised, there is still much hand labour involved. A wet blanket, wool or cotton, is placed on a long platform, a layer of cloth is then spread on it, and alternate layers of blanket and cloth are then built up. Sufficient weight is placed on top to force the moisture from the blankets into the wool. The cloth is left in in the pile for about 12 hours. The cloth is then dried in natural room air by hanging it over sticks. When dry, the cloth is subjected to hydraulic pressing by building up layers of cloth and specially made press boards with a preheated metal plate inserted at intervals. A preheated plate is also place on the top and bottom of the pile. This set-up of cloth, boards, and plates is kept under 3,000 pounds pressure for 10 to 12 hours. London shrinking is done for men's wear fine worsteds - not for woollens or women's wear.

Today the right to use the label "Genuine London Process" is licensed by the Parrott group of companies. Clothworkers of London, Leeds and Huddersfield to garment makers all over the world. A label from a suit is shown below.

The permanent set finish Siroset, which produces washable, wrinkle free wool fabrics, is now applied to some fabrics during the London Shrunk processing.

Skirt produced using the Siroset process.

A similar method for home use is that of rolling wool cloth in a wet sheet, allowing it to stand for six hours, and then placing it flat on a table or floor to dry. If it is straightened while wet, pressing may be unnecessary. This is the best means for straightening wool which has been tendered or debated "off-grain". It should not be used on wool crepe. Fabrics that have a napped surface, such as wool broadcloth or some wool flannels, may be changed in appearance. Wool fabrics should always be tested for shrinkage prior to cutting. A simple method of testing is to draw a right angle on the ironing board, place the warp edge along one side and the filling edge along the other side, and hold a stream iron over the fabric. If either edge draws away from the pencil line, the fabric will shrink during steam pressing and it should be shrunk.

[1] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd Edition, MacMillan Company, London (1968).


Saturday, August 31, 2019

The History of the Obi [1]
Wearable Art

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

For your convenience I have listed other posts on Japanese clothing on this blogspot:
The Basic Kimono Pattern
The Kimono and Japanese Textile Designs
History of the Kimono
A Textile Tour of Japan - Part I
A Textile Tour of Japan - Part II

The History of the Obi [1]
From modest beginnings the obi has become the focal point of the kimono ensemble of today. Starting as a narrow sash that held up the culotte-like pants called hakama it has evolved into an expensive and elaborate work of art. Whether woven of rich silk brocade, embroidered or dyed it is an essential part of the kimono, not only decoratively but functionally: since the kimono has no buttons or fasteners of any kind, it relies entirely on the obi to keep it closed.

Semiformal yuzen kimono. Note: the waist sash - obi - holds a buttonless kimono closed.

In the Kamakura period (1185 - 1333) the obi was a back-tied bast fiber sash two or three inches wide, but during the Muromachi period (1333 - 1573) it was sometimes made from silk. This slightly wider sash was decorated with plaids and checks in the Momoyama period (1568 - 1600), and its tail ends were tucked in. It was during this time that the so-called Nagoya obi was created, when courtesans in the city of Nagoya copied the manner in which the Chinese artisans working in that city tied a cord around their waist several times.

Woman's obi with woven grass and flower motifs and gold-leaf imprints on hemp.
Momoyama period (1568 - 1600).
Courtesy of Tokyo National Museum.

It was not until the Edo period (1603 – 1868), when the obi's variety reached its height, that it became important in its own right and new ways of tying it were developed. Before that time, the kimono was the center of attention, but as fewer innovations developed in its decoration, the weavers and dyers turned their attention to the obi and began making more elaborate, wider, and longer fabrics for it.

Left: Woman's obi. All-over embroidery of butterflies, iris and anchor motifs on white donsu.
Right: Woman's obi. Embroidery of grass, flower, and puppies on red velvet. Edo period (1603 – 1868).
Courtesy of Tokyo National Museum.

In the 1670s it was six to seven inches in width. The bow was variously placed on the side and at the front, but it moved to its permanent position in the back after an actor, imitating a young girl's fashion, wore an obi tied in the back on stage and so started a new style.

Today, formal and semi-informal kimono are worn with specific types of obi. The double-width, fully pattern maru obi is the most formal and is made of heavy fabrics such as the multi-coloured patterned weave called nishiki, tapestry weave (tsuzure ori or gold brocade (kinran.
Tsuzure ori obi with motifs of cards used in an aristocratic pastime of the Heian-period (794 - 1185), a contest in which participants tried to guess the contents of different kinds of incense that were burned. The auspicious motifs of pine, bamboo, and plum are woven designs.

The formal double-fold fukuro obi, with its plain underside, is decorated over sixty percent of its front surface. The versatile, lightweight Nagoya obi, which can be used for a variety of occasions, is made of silk gauze damask or dyed gauze.

Nishiki obi with many small, intricate motifs within a large wave design.

Casual kimono and underlined cotton kimono called yukata are worn with the underlined hitoe obi or the half-width (hanhaba) obi. Men's informal obi are usually soft silk, tied in a bow, while their formal obi are stiffer and narrower than a woman's obi.

For men, Kainokuchi (shell-shape style). Hakata obi.

For men. Katabasami (one-end fold style) Hakata obi.

While married women limit themselves to lain, flat bows, such as the drum bow (taiko musubi). young girls may choose from a vast array of intricate tying styles.

Everyday. Otaiko (drum style). Pale pink peonies in nishiki ori.

For a young woman's yukata. Bunko musubi (ribbon style) in half-width obi.

The tying of any obi bow is a complex manoeuvre. A brief summary of the steps involved may shed a little light on the process. The kimono is closed with the left side on top. Since the kimono is longer than the person wearing it, a tuck is made at the waist and secured unobtrusively with a silk sash (koshi himo). The obi is then tied around the wearer, with the kimono such in place and visible below it. At the back, two ends of the obi are left, one two feet long, the other four feet long. These ends are tied into a bow which is puffed out by a small pillow, all held together by a narrow silk cord obijime that is tied or fastened with the small obidome clasp. In the end, the obi becomes a functional ornament for not only does it look lovely but layers combine to form a pocket along its top rim in which to carry small objects.

Semi-formal Seigaiha (ocean-wave style). This obi is a combination of kara ori and shush ori.

The formal obi is a work of art that is kept, treasured and handed down from mother to daughter. It compares with expensive jewels in its monetary as well as sentimental value.

Formal. For young women. Tateya (slanted arrow style). The scrolling plant motif called karakusa is executed in nishiki ori.

Formal. Matsuba niju daiko (pine-needle double drum style). The Western-style flower and scrolling plant design is executed in nishiki ori.

Formal. For young women. Fukurasuzume ([uffed sparrow style). The auspicious motif noshi - originally strips of dried abalone, but often artistically rendered, as here, as strips of fabric - depicted in nishiki ori.

Typically obi designs reflect seasonal variations. Below features the spring, summer, autumn and winter palettes.

Spring: This spring obi is the style worn by women of the samurai class in the Edo period (1603 – 1868). Crêpe with cherry blossoms dyed by the yuzen method and gold-leaf imprint.

Summer: Sailboats float on a rippling stream weaving bey=tween summer grasses, all depicted by the yuzen process against the pale background color of this light ro fabric, which contributes to the cool feeling appropriate to the season. Again, an obi for women of the samurai class.

Autumn: Pale blue-grey crêpe fabric with a yellow and white chrysanthemums dyed in the yuzen process.

Winter: Deep pink crêpe dyed with red and white camellias in the yuzen process.

[1] S. Yang, and R.M. Narasin, Textile Art of Japan, Shufunotomo, Tokyo (1989).

Saturday, August 24, 2019

The Night Too Quickly Passes
Annual Review

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

I began blogging on Thursday 26th of August 2010, some nine years ago. Within this time I have published (including today) four hundred and fifty-two posts. It is no wonder that one of Henry Lawson's poems (an Australian poet) has suddenly rushed into my mind.

The night too quickly passes
And we are growing old,
So let us fill our glasses
And toast the Days of Gold;
When finds of wondrous treasure
Sets all the South ablaze,
And you and I were faithful mates
All through the Roaring Days!

To all the followers of this blog, I now give you one year warning! Next year will be my tenth year of blogging and for the first three of my followers to respond to my clarion call in the last week in August of 2020 on my tenth anniversary of this blogspot, each will receive one of my fat quarter ArtCloth textiles. Beware and be prepared!.

This is my four hundred and fifty second post and for your convenience I have listed below the other annual reviews that span the life of this blogspot.

Where Did The Year Go? (2010/2011)
It's Been An Exciting Year (2011/2012)
Another Cheer - Another Year (2012/2013)
The Year of the Horse (2013/2014)
Cold and Windy - But on the Dawn of Renewal (2014/2015)
A Time To Reflect - A Time To Select (2015/2016)
A Time to Remember (2016/2017)
To Be or Not to Be (2017/2018)

The Night Too Quickly Passes
The number of categories on this blogspot keeps growing. They are as follows: (i) ArtCloth Textiles; (ii) Art Essays; (iii) Art Exhibitions/Installations/Talks; (iv) Artist Profiles; (v) Art Resources; (vi) Art Reviews; (vii) Book Reviews/Interviews; (viii) Craft and Quilt Fairs; (ix) Fabric Lengths; (x) Glossaries; (xi) Guest Artists/Authors; (xii) Guest Editors; (xiii) Opinion Pieces; (xiv) Resource Reviews; (xv) Prints On Paper; (xvi) Technical Articles; (xvii) Wearable Art; (xviii) Workshops and Master Classes (i.e. my students outputs).

Not all of these categories are present in any given year (e.g. Artist Profiles, Fabric Lengths and Opinion Pieces etc did not make an appearance this year). Also judging a post by the one criterion - most amount of views - is not necessarily the smartest approach, since the length of stay might mitigate the former statistic. How often have you heard yourself say - oops I really didn't mean to google this hunk of a man when I searched for "loincloth!" Nevertheless, this one statistic makes matters so much easier for me and so it will be used as the final arbitrator and expect when two post differ by less than two views, I will then decree they are both winners!

ArtCloth Textiles
There was only one post in this category in 2018-2019 period and that was Man-Made Fish Kills My New Hand Printed ArtCloth
. My ArtCloth dyptich is my tribute to the fish of the Murray-Darling Basin whose lives were cut short by this man-made ecological disaster in 2019. One species, the Murray cod is the largest exclusively freshwater native fish in Australia, and one of the largest in the world. Many live beyond 40 years of age and yet we managed to destroy them because our management of the river systems is diabolitical.

Title: Man-Made Fish Kills I (Full View).
Artist: Marie-Therese Wisniowski.
Techniques and Material: Multi-layered interfacing silk screen prints employing transparent and opaque pigments on cotton.
Size: 70 x 74 cm.

Art Essays
This was a hotly contested area since there were more posts in this area except for the Art Resources series. The two most popular were - Contemporary Japanese Textile Creations and Western Culture Categorization of Gender - with the latter being a winner by a long margin.

Ben Quilty’s Margaret Olley (2011 Archibald Winner).

Art Exhibitions
There were two posts on exhibitions namely, 2018 CrossXpollinatioN "Journeys" Exhibition and my exhibition at the same venue, namely, Timelines: An Environmental Journey with the latter doubling the number of views of the former. It is clear my fellow ArtCloth artists wanted to know what I was up to and so I hope I did not disappoint them.

View of the installation, Timelines: An Environmental Journey, from the right hand side of the ‘Black Box Theatre’ (Colac, Victoria).

Art Resources
Once a month an Art Resource is published on this blogspot. The Art Resources that are published just after the Annual Review are always the favourites to win, because they normally have a year to gain an audience, whereas the art resource published in the month of the review only has a fortnight and so normally gains a much smaller audience.
The two contenders for this category were: Additive Finishes and Knit-Sew or Stitch Through Fabrics with the latter being a comfortable winner!

Malipol process.

Art Reviews
There were two posts in this category and they were Hawaiian Quilts - Part III and Yuzen Arabesque Patterns (Part IV) with the latter having more views. This was the fourth post in the series and viewers cannot get enough of these intricate and subtle Japanese designs. They just capture the imagination and make you want to go into the studio and do your own stuff!

Pattern number 422.

Book Reviews/Interviews
There was only one book review/interview this year and it was my review of Kalle Gayn's novel, 4 Steps To Freedom

Kalle Gayn, 4 Steps To Freedom (Front Cover).
Recommended retail price: AUD $24.99 (plus shipping).
ISBN 978-0-9873013-2-1

He dedicated his novel to me, which hardly makes me an unbiased interviewer!

Craft and Quilt Fairs
There was only one post in this category and that was Art Quill Studio@2019 Melbourne Craft & Quilt Fair
. These venues are a lot of hard work since prior to them you are producing copious amounts of ArtCloth Textiles (from fat quarters to fabric lengths to wearable art etc.) You are standing on your feet for hours on end, and so at the end of the day you are totally exhausted. Why do it? It's not just for the money or for the exposure but when you have a grandmother buying her granddaughter a scarf you have made that the grandmother knows is expensive because of its uniqueness ($150) but nevertheless will outlay that sum of money to thrill her granddaughter, it makes you feel like you have become a part of a special connection. I say to the purchasers of my ArtCloth textiles: "They started out white but white is not my favourite color and so I changed them! Once you purchase this scarf and you wear it, you will never see the same scarf walking towards you!"

Marie-Therese adding some more hand dyed and hand printed unique one-off ArtCloth scarves to the display rack.

There was only one glossary published on the blogspot this year and it was the Glossary of Scientific Terms

Alum: Name give to certain double salts that crystallise readily as octahedra; e.g. KAl(SO4)2.12H2O, common alum. {Latin alumni meaning "bitter salt".}

Glossaries always attract a lot of interest since they provide a wealth of information and so are often favoured by search engines when internet users are making enquiries within their realm. There are now eight glossaries/data bases on this blogspot for you to explore.

Guest Artists/Authors
There was only one post in this category and that was Irene Manion: My Take On: Western Culture Characterisation of Gender which was a response to my Art Essay - Western Culture Categorization of Gender.

Artist: Irene Manion.
Title: Feathers I 2017 (Detail).
Technique: Monofilament on perspex.

Guest Editors
There was only one post in this category and that was guest editors Judy Newman and Clare Mooney who wrote a post on: ArtCloth Textiles Created by Marie-Therese Wisniowski.

Artist: Marie-Therese Wisniowski.
Title: Ginninderra (Full View).
Technique and Media: The artist's signature MultiSperse Dye Sublimation technique employing disperse dyes, native flora and low relief items on delustered satin.
Size: 60 cm (width) x 120 cm (length).

Prints on Paper
There were two posts that were ahead of the rest in this category and both centered on Japanese prints namely: Japanese Prints (Part II) and Japanese Prints (Part III) with the former receiving the largest audience.

The actor Ishikawa Ebizō (1794) by Tōshūsai Shark (active from 1794 - 1795). The Ishikawa were one of the great acting families of Japan and can frequently be identified by their distinctive red costumes decorated with concentric white squares.

Resource Reviews
There were three posts in this category with A Textile Tour of Japan. Part I - Tokyo and its Surrounds and Tarndwarncoort (Tarndie) with the latter being the most viewed.

A partial view of the coffee shop/wool shop/gallery complex at Tarndwarncoort.

People just love old homesteads that have been converted into galleries/coffee shops.

Technical Articles
There were four posts in this category and the two most popular were: Designing an Art/Craft Project (Part I) and Designing an Art/Craft Project (Part II) with the former being the most popular.

Effective use is made of curved lines to enclose shapes and form design styles.

Wearable Art
There were two posts that dominated this category and they were within such a small margin (one post the difference) that both must be declared equal winners. I love this post Australian Aboriginal Printed Clothing which displays some wonderful designs.

Shirt - Ernabella Trading Company.
Screen-printed Cotton.

The other post featured some of my wearable art, namely My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed: 'Rainforest Beauty' Pashmina Wraps Collection.

ArtCloth Pashmina Wrap in Autumn/Salmon hues (Full View).
Techniques: Multi-colour dyed and silk screened employing dyes, transparent, opaque and metallic pigment on viscose.
Size: 74 cm (width) x 195 cm (length).

The most popular workshop this year was Melding Experiences: New Landscapes Using Disperse Dyes and Transfer Printing (Two Day Workshop), which was organized by the Newcastle Creative Embroiderers and Textile Artists (NCEATA), Newcastle, NSW.

Group photograph.
Standing at the back from left to right: Carolyn Clausen, Judi Nikoleski, Treena McArthur, Tara Mann, Maria Rofe and Narelle Sheahan.
Sitting in the front from left to right: Robyn Brown, Jo Green, Wilma Simmons, Sue Brazier and Helen Tolhurst. Absent Catherine Bremmell.

Go and visit this post and you will experience the wonderful output of these talented artists.