Saturday, March 5, 2016

Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins
Edition 4.0[1-31]
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Introduction
There are currently six data bases on this blogspot, namely: Glossary of Terms; Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff; A Fashion Data Base; Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins; the Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns and lastly, the Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements.

The Glossary of Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, the Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns and the Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements have been updated. These Glossaries will be updated in the future to incorporate more definitions that we should be aware of in our art practice.

The Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins is highly focussed, containing definitions and terms pertinent to the specific categories in the title. If you find any post on this blog site useful, you can save it or copy and paste it into your own "Word" document etc. for your future reference. For example, Safari allows you to save a post (e.g. click on "File", click on "Print" and release, click on "PDF" and then click on "Save As" and release - and a PDF should appear where you have stored it). Safari also allows you to mail a post to a friend (click on "File", and then point cursor to "Mail Contents On This Page" and release). Either way, this or other posts on this site may be a useful Art Resource for you.

The Art Resource series will be the first post in each calendar month. Remember - these Art Resource posts span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist to that required by a final year University Fine-Art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource post may appear far too technical for your needs (skip over those mind boggling parts) and in other parts, it may be too simplistic with respect to your level of knowledge (ditto the skip). The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that Art Resource posts will hopefully be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately may not be satisfying to all! The references - that were invaluable in this compilation - are given at the end of the glossary.


Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins
All "color" entries are identified using the Methuen Color Index (CI) and Classification system. For further information - see Methuen Color Index and Classification System.

As the layout of this blogspot uses white as its background color, the hues in the color swatches will appear lighter to the eye than the actual color designation. Against a black background, the hues of the color will appear darker than the actual color designation. To view the hue closer to its actual designation, place the cursor on the color swatch, hold and then release the swatch onto your computer and re-view the hue using photoshop.

Absinthe Green (CI - 30D5): The color of green absinthe liqueur; from the Greek word for wormwood plant: apsinthion; French: absinthe. (1892)


Absinthe (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Weed - Artemisia absinthium; (ii) Parts Used: Whole plant; (iii) Processing: As for whole plant; (iv) Colors Obtained: Yellow-green (alum); gold (chrome); soft green (blue vitriol); khaki (iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent for all shades but yellow-green with alum may fade in strong sunlight.

Absinthe Yellow (CI - 3C5): The color of yellow absinthe liqueur. (1926)


Academy Blue (Pigment): A mixed color made of ultramarine and viridian.

Acetylene Black (Pigment): See carbon black.

Achromatic: Without chroma. For example, black, white and greys are without chroma.


Acid Dyes: Dyes that are dissolvable in an acid solution. Acid dyes are negatively charged molecules and so the "dyes" are positively charged molecules such as protein and polyamides. The bonding is ionic in nature. The fixation and fiber penetration characteristics are governed by molecular size and the degree of polarity of the dyes. Usually used in the dyeing of wools and silks.

Acid Leveling Dyes: Leveling or equalizing dyes penetrate the fiber easily and work particularly well on wool and nylon. They dye the fabric more evenly, and are the easiest to control, but do not have a high degree of wash-fastness.

Acid Milling Dyes: An acid dye that remains fast during the rigorous milling of woolens. Milling dyes have a better degree of wash fastness, but do not dye as evenly as leveling dyes.

Acorn (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Nuts from oak from various species - Quercus; (ii) Parts Used: Whole nuts; (iii) Processing: As for nuts; (iv) Colors Obtained: Tan to medium brown (chrome); dark brown (iron - strong bath); golden brown (chrome and tin); (v) Fastness: Excellent but colors may darken with time.

Acra Red (Pigment): A proprietary name for quinacridone red.

Acrylic Resin: Artificial resin used in synthetic rubber, paints, plastics and the like.

Acrylic Paint: Quick drying semi-gloss paint based on a synthetic resin.

Additive Colors: The primary colors of light - red, green, and blue - that may be mixed to form all other colors.

Additive Mixing: Color mixing using different wavelengths of light.

Additive Primary: One of the three primary colors of light (red, blue, green) when added yields the color white. Also called light primaries.

Additive Secondaries: The products of mixing two additive primaries (e.g. yellow generated from red plus green etc.)

Adjective Dyes: Natural dyes that require a mordant for any degree of permanency.

Advancing Colors: Planes of color in a design that appear to move toward the viewer (e.g. warm colors have this aspect if used judiciously).

Affinity: Affinity usually denotes the attractiveness or drawing power that exists between a dyestuff and fiber.

After-Chroming: The process of treating a textile with a solution of a chromium compound (e.g. dichromate) immediately after dyeing.

After-Treatment: Any process that follows the dyeing process.

Agate (CI - 7E8): A color that is the same as henna. Resembles the color of a precious stone, the agate, although the stone may also appear in reddish and greenish colors. Greek: aches, the name of a Sicilian river. (1598)


Air Fixing: Air hanging is one of the easiest methods of fixation. Most resist techniques using vat dyes require air fixing for up to 24 hours to ensure full oxidation. Highly reactive dyes (Procion MX) can be fixed by air hanging or by wrapping the fabric in polythene and leaving for about 12 hours in a warm damp place. The results may not be as good as those produced by steaming or thermofixation.

Alabaster (CI - 5B2): Same as marble white; the color of mineral alabaster, a kind of plaster (calcium sulfate), which may sometimes appear as almost pure white. Name probably derived from an ancient Egyptian village. Latin: alabaster; Greek: alabaster's. (1573)


Alder (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Small clumped weed, tree or shrub - Alnus rugosa; (ii) Parts Used: Leaves, bark (twigs), roots; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Leaves give - yellow (alum); yellow-green (alum and blue vitriol); olive green (blue vitriol); tan (iron); yellow-orange (tin). Bark and twigs give – tan to rosy brown (chrome and baking soda); dark brown (iron). Roots gives – greyish-brown (chrome and iron); variations of greyish-charcoal shade (iron or iron mordant in an iron pot – strong bath); (v) Fastness: Excellent for all dyes from leaves, bark, and roots. Browns may darken with time.

Alexandrian Blue (Pigment): Egyptian blue.

Alginates: The principal carbohydrate component of brown seaweed is alginic acid. Neutralizing the acid with sodium hydroxide gives sodium alginate, which is important for pastes of reactive dyes, because the extent of the interaction with the dye is very small.

Alizarin: It is a mordant dye originally obtained from natural sources such as madder root, morinda root and later produced synthetically from coal tar chemicals such as naphthalene and anthracene. It is a polygenetic mordant dye because of its ability to develop a variety of colors on different mordants. For example, on aluminum it produces red, on tin - pink, on iron - brown, on chromium - puce brown, and on copper - yellowish brown.

Alizarin Blue, Alizarin Green (Pigments): Clear, transparent, brilliant lakes ranging from indigo blue to emerald green. They are employed in printing inks and for other semi-permanent uses. They are similar to alizarin red and violet in composition and will not fade readily, but they turn very dark, almost black, on continued exposure to light.

Alizarin Brown (Pigment): A rather dull but transparent brown. Its properties are identical with those of alizarin red. It is also called madder brown or brown madder. Permanent. See Alizarin Crimson etc.

Alizarin Crimson, Alizarin Lake, Alizarin Red, Alizarin Scarlet (Pigments): Made by developing alizarin, an organic product made from anthracene - a coal tar derivative. It is permanent, being the only synthetic organic pigment universally approved for artists' use from its introduction in 1868 to the late 1930s. Made in a limited range of shades from a rosy scarlet to maroon, alizarins have a characteristic bluish undertone and are clear and transparent. They absorb much oil and are slow driers. They will not fade on long exposure to normal daylight, but some samples show a tendency to become a deeper shade. Unlike madders, the modern high-grade alizarins may be mixed indiscriminately with all other permanent colors. See Madder Lakes and Red Pigments.

Alizarin Crimson, Alizarin Golden (Pigments): A variant in which the bluish undertone is absent. In canvass paintings, preferred by some painters as flesh tones.

Alizarin Violet (Pigment): A clear transparent purple lake made from purpurin, which along with alizarin is one of the ingredients of madder lake. Not sufficiently permanent for artists' use.

Alizarin Yellow (Pigment): A dull, rather brownish, but transparent yellow. Its pigment properties are the same as those as alizarin red, except that it is not so reliably permanent because of grades of highest quality are rarely on the market.

Almond Green (CI - 28E3): The color of the under side of the leaves of the almond tree. The French amande is a fashion name. (1899)


Alkanet: Alkanet, alkanna tinctorial or dyer’s alkanes is a very attractive purple colorant that is found in the roots of plants belonging to the borage family. It grows uncultivated throughout central Europe and extends to central Asia and North Africa. The extracted pigment is often used in cosmetics, soaps and pigments. The violet colorant from alkanes is not soluble in water. Before a dyebath is made the alkanet root must be soaked in a solution of alcohol and hot water – colorless rubbing alcohol or methylated spirits can be used (some dyers who do not like the smell of either of these solvents use vodka!) The colors produced on mordanted fabric and yarns are shades of grey, lavender and purple when used at 75-100% WOF. The colors achieved are beautiful but have moderate light fastness. Mordanting: use alum mordant at 15% WOF for protein fibers. Mordant with tannin at 8% WOF and then alum at 15% for cellulose fibres; Dyeing: Use dried alkanes at approximately 75-100% WOF for rich colors. First, soak the shavings in alcohol (or methylated spirits) for several days to extract the color. When the liquid has developed a strong color, strain off the liquid then add enough water to this liquid for the fibres to move freely in the solution. Add the mordanted fibres and heat this dye bath up gently - but no higher than 60oC (140oF) - until all the color has been taken up. Adding iron to the dye bath at 2% WOF creates a range of greys and grey-violets.

Alkanet.

Alum (Mordant): (i) Household Mordant – The household variety of alum is aluminium ammonium sulfate, a non-poisonous powder often used in first aid treatments. Although this drugstore variety does not produce the same shades as the other poisonous alum, it can be a useful mordant. This mordant is recommended for use in classrooms and for demonstrations; (ii) Aluminium potassium sulfate, sometimes called potash alum, is the alum used by dyers. A poison it can be purchased in limited amounts in special outlets. The use of cream of tartar with alum is recommended, as it softens the effects of alum. Using too much of it, will result in the dyed fibers to feel gummy and harsh. This form of alum, causes yellow baths to take on a greater intensity and so brightens most light colors.

Alumina Hydrate (Pigment): Aluminium hydroxide, artificially produced. A white, fluffy, lightweight powder, which becomes virtually colorless and transparent when it is ground in oil. It is widely used as an inert base for lakes, particularly those unused in printing inks, and with certain pigments in artists' colors. Permanent. Objection to its indiscriminate use in oil colors is based on its high oil absorption and the fact that because of its transparency it does not mask or hide the color of the oil or the subsequent changes such as darkening of oil. It is often considered by manufacturers to be a necessary addition to some heavy oil pigments because it imparts desirable brushing consistency and stability to tube colors. Note: Alumina is the commonly used as a name for aluminium oxide - not used as a pigment.

Aluminium (CI - (4)C1): A metal that is not found in nature but can be extracted from bauxite. The color of a metal from which it derives its name; from the Latin alumni, the mineral, which contains this metal. (1916)


Amaranth (CI - 14E7): The color of the leaves of the amaranth plant; it was believed that these leaves retain their color even when the plant itself had withered; from the Greek amaranths or unfading. Variations of this name are amaranth rose (CI - 14A5) and amaranth purple (CI - 12D8). French amarante. (1690)


Amaranth (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Weed, annual - Amaranthus retroflexus; (ii) Parts Used: Whole plant; (iii) Processing: As for whole plant, alone or mixed with similar weeds; (iv) Colors Obtained: Soft yellow-green (alum); strong chartreuse (tin); brown (chrome and iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent with alum and tin mordants; fair to good with chrome.

Amaranth Rose (CI - 14A5): The color of the leaves of the amaranth plant. See above. French amarante. (1690)


Amaranth Purple (CI - 12D8): The color of the leaves of the amaranth plant. See above. French amarante. (1690)


Amber Yellow (CI - 4B6): The color of amber, a fossil resin, which varies from light yellow to golden brown (see CI - 6D8). The English amber and the French name amber are derived from the Arabic anbar. The Greek name for amber, electron, refers to its capacity for generating electricity when rubbed - which is also the source of the word electricity itself (1500).


American Vermilion (Pigment): A heavy, opaque lake pigment, usually made from eosine or scarlet dye on a red lead, orange mineral or chrome base. Not permanent. There is great variation of behavior in different specimens.

Amethyst (Violet) (CI - 15C6): The color of amethyst, a semi-precious stone, which may at times appear bluer than the color shown here. From the Greek amethysts, meaning "without intoxication", since the stone was considered protective against drunkenness. (1572)


Ammonia: Ammonia is a colorless gas. However, the public has incorrectly associated the name with ammonium hydroxide (which is the aqueous solution of ammonia). Hence in the latter form, it is often used as a cleaning agent and also in natural dyes as an additive when fermenting orchil-yielding umbilicate lichens. An alkali, it used sparingly in dye baths, otherwise copious use of it will impair the quality of the fiber. A small amount added to a yellow bath (such as goldenrod) will result in a yellow-green color.

Analogous Colors: Those colors with a common hue that are adjacent on the twelve part color wheel. For example, blue-violet, violet and red-violet.


Analogous Color Scheme: The analogous color scheme uses colors that are adjacent to each other on the color wheel. For example, blue-violet, violet and red-violet.


One color is used as a dominant color while others are used to enrich the scheme. The analogous color scheme is similar to the monochromatic scheme, but offers more nuances.

Each row yields "Analogous Colors". For further information see post on - Color Schemes.

Analogous Hues: Hues that lie adjacent to each other on the hue circle.

Anil (Natural Dye): A West Indian shrub, Indigofera suffruticosa, of the legume family, having elongated clusters of small, reddish-yellow flowers and yielding indigo (a purple color).

Aniline: Oily liquid from a nitro-benzene base used in preparing dyes and aniline ink, a volatile, quick drying printing ink.

Aniline Colors: This term, as well as the term coal tar colors, was used in the past to denote all synthetic organic pigments. Aniline is but one of a large number of intermediates from which synthetic organic compounds are made, but it was used in many Basic and other dyes. It became a symbol for impermanent pigments.

Aniline Dyes: The first synthetic dyes made with aniline as the basis. Aniline unites with acids to form color salts.

Anionic Dyes: Dyes that dissociate in an aqueous solution to give negatively charged colored dyes.

Annato: A tropical American evergreen shrub or small tree (Bixa orellana), having heart-shaped leaves and showy, rose-pink or sometimes white flowers. The seed of this plant, used as a coloring and sometimes as a flavouring, especially in Latin American cuisine. A yellowish-red dyestuff obtained from the arils of this plant's seeds, used especially to dye fabric and to color food products such as margarine and cheese. Also called achiote.

Anomalous Trichromacy: Anomalous trichromacy is a common type of inherited color vision deficiency, occurring when one of the three cone pigments is altered in its spectral sensitivity.

Anthracite: The color of anthracite coal; coal black (see black). From the Greek, anthracites, a coal like precious stone, and anthrax coal.

Anthraquinonoid Dyes: A dye class that is a sub-set of vat dyes. See vat dyes.

Antifusant: It is most commonly made from 10% gutta mixed with white spirit or Shellite. When this is painted all over silk and allowed to dry, any paint place on it will not bleed, conditioning the silk so that painting on it is as simple as painting on paper.

Antimony Orange, Antimony Vermilion, Antimony White (Pigments): Antimony trisulfide. Bright colors, permanent to light and other conditions, but flawed due to the blackening of the lead pigments because of the presence of free sulfur. They are now obsolete being replaced by cadmium based pigments.

Antimony White (Pigment): Antimony oxide plus about 70% blanc fixe. Preparation and properties similar to those of titanium white. British trade mark: Timonox. Permanent but slightly affected and darkened by sulfur fumes. Rarely used by artists.

Antimony Yellow (Pigment): Naples yellow.

Antwerp Blue (Pigment): A pale variety of Prussian blue made by reducing pure Prussian blue with 75% of an inert pigment, usually alumina hydrate or sometimes with zinc salts. Inferior to Prussian blue. Not permanent for painting.

Antwerp Red (Pigment): Light red.

Apple Green (CI - 29C7): The color of unripened apples. When ripe, apples may appear in many colors as for example, yellow, orange or red. (1648)


Apple (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Fruit tree - Malus (various species); (ii) Parts Used: Fresh leaves, bark, roots, trimmings from the fruit; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Leaves – pale yellow (alum); gold (chrome); rust (chrome and tin); strong yellow-orange (tin); soft grey (iron). From bark and roots – yellow-tan (alum); medium rose tan (chrome); dark brown (chrome and iron); grey brown (blue vitriol). From skins and trimmings of fruit in a strong bath – pale yellow (alum); soft tan (chrome); (v) Fastness: Fair.

Apricot Yellow (CI - 5B6): The color of ripe fruit, Prunus armeniaca. The dried fruit has more tinges of brown and red as for example (CI - 6D7). French: apricot; Portuguese: albricoque; Latin: praecox, meaning an early ripener; Arabic: al-burquq. (1850)


Aquamarine (CI - 24B3): The color of aquamarine, a semi-precious stone. Latin: aqua marina or sea water; see sea blue (CI - 24E8) and water blue (CI - 24C5). (1598)


Argent (CI - (4)D1): Same as a new silver. (1562)


Armenian Bole (Pigment): A native red earth; See Venetian Red.

Arnaudon's Green (Pigment): A variety of chromium oxide green.

Aromatic Ink: These inks can be added into a pigment binder and when scratched, release a variety of aromatic odors.

Arriccio: In fresco practice, the plaster coat which underlies the final painting coat; traditionally composed of lime and sand. In English, brown coat.

Arrowhead (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Aquatic wildflower - Sagittaria latifolia; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh leaves, tubers; (iii) Processing: Leaves as for fresh leaves. The tubers are scrubbed and sun dried; (iv) Colors Obtained: Leaves – a soft yellow (alum); gold (chrome); orange-rust (tin); Tubers – old gold (chrome); rusty orange (tin); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Arsenic Orange, Arsenic Yellow (Pigments): See realgar and King's yellow.

Artificial Ultramarine: See ultramarine.

Asafoetida: Gum resin with onion like smell used in Eastern cooking and formerly in medicine.

Asbestine: A species of talc (hydrated magnesium silicate) mined in northern New York and used as inert pigment in certain mixed paints. Its physical structure causes it to float or remain in suspension unusually long, and when mixed with heavy pigments it tends to prevent rapid settling and caking in liquid paints. Note: it is not the same as asbestos, a silicate of a different structure.

Ash (CI - 1B2): Same as ash grey and cendré.


Ash Blonde (CI - 3C3): Describes hair color; blonde with greyish or ashen tinge. Compare to the French: cendré or ash grey and blonde cendré; see ash grey (CI - 1B2) and blonde (CI - 4C4).


Ash Grey (CI - 1B2): Same as ash, cendré. Like grey or slightly yellow ashes. The ashes from cigars and cigarettes are almost colorless and more closely correspond to (CI - (1)B1). When referring to hair color, the reference would be (CI - 1B2); when referring to facial complexion, it would be closer to (CI - 30B2). French: gris cendré or cendré. This is one of the most ancient color names; its origin is probably related to the use of fire, as are the origins of two other color names, fire red and brown. (1374)


Ash (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Tree, hardwood - Fraxinus americana and F. nigra; (ii) Parts Used: Leaves; bark (collected from deadfalls, pruned branches or firewood); (iii) Processing: As for each part; (iv) Colors Obtained: Leaves – soft yellow (alum); bright yellow (tin) medium dull grey (chrome and iron); beige (blue vitriol). Bark – rose tan (alum and chrome); brown (chrome and iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Aspen (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: tree, hardwood - Populus tremuloides, Populus grandidentata; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh leaves, twigs; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Leaves – clear yellow (alum); bright yellow-orange (tin); beige (blue vitriol); gold (chrome); Twigs – soft grey (blue vitriol and iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Asphaltum: Not a true pigment color. A blackish-brown solution of asphalt in oil or turpentine. At one time it was extensively used as a glazing color. Used for scumbling decorative work to simulate age. They have been used as protective coatings since prehistoric times; their use in artistic painting began with the rise of oil painting in the 17th century.

Assistant: Chemical dye recipe that aids the bond between dye and fiber.

Aster (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Flower, annual and perennial - Aster frikartii, Aster novi-belgii, Aster memoralis; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh blooms, separated by color or used in a combined bath; (iii) Processing: As for fresh flowers; (iv) Colors Obtained: From domestic varieties, all blooms in the blue-violet range: yellow (alum); yellow-green (blue vitriol and iron); grey (chrome); bright yellow (tin). From wild varieties, all blooms pink to mauve, no stem or leaves – yellow-beige (alum); tan (chrome); greyish-green (blue vitriol and iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent for domestic varieties; good for wild species.

Atramentum: Roman name for blacks and black inks made from carbon.

Aubergine (CI - 14F3): Same as eggplant; like the edible fruit of eggplant. French: aubergine, which is a diminutive of the French word for inn: auberge. (1794)


Auburn: Auburn is closely associated with hair coloring; that is, it is a variety of red hair, most commonly described as reddish-brown in color. Auburn hair ranges in shades from light to dark. Like brown hair, and it is common with a wide array of skin-tones and eye-colors, but as is the case with most red hair, it is commonly associated with light skin features. The chemical pigments that cause the coloration of auburn hair are frequently pheomelanin with high levels of eumelanin. The word "auburn" comes from the Old French word alborne, which meant blonde, coming from Latin word alburnus ("off-white"). The first recorded use of auburn in English was in 1430. The word was sometimes corrupted into abram, for example in early (pre-1685) folios of Coriolanus, Thomas Kyd's Soliman and Perseda (1588) and Thomas Middleton's Blurt, Master Constable (1601).


Aureolin: Cobalt yellow.

Auripigmentum: King's yellow.

Aurora (CI - 10B4): The color of the sky at sunrise. As this color depends on the hour, atmospheric conditions and other factors, it is subject to many variations. The sample designated above may be considered typical of the following common variations: aurora red (1714) corresponds to (CI - 8C6); aurora orange (1766) corresponds to (CI - 9A6); dawn (1920) corresponds to (CI - 12A3); rose dawn (1928) corresponds to (CI - 7C4). From the Latin word for drawn: aurora, which is related from the Latin word for East.


Aurora Red (CI - 8C6): See above. (1714)


Aurora Orange (CI - 9A6): See Aurora. (1766)


Aurora Yellow (Pigment): A variety of cadmium yellow.

Auxiliary Product: A chemical or formulated chemical product that is used in dyeing, printing or finishing – or if a given effect is desired – and enables these processes to be carried out more effectively.

Auxochrome: A polar group or a negative atom, which intensifies the absorption of light by a dye. In some cases it will alter the hue of the dye.

Azine Dyes: These are of the oldest synthetic dyes with Mauveine - the most famous member of the group - is now obsolete.

Azoic Dyes: A dye that is characterized by a nitrogen-nitrogen double bond (-N=N-), which is formed within the fiber due to a chemical reaction.

Azure: Term used for the color of a light blue.

Azure Blue (CI - 23A7 or ~24A7): Smalt. Used here as synonymous with cyan (blue) (new). The word azure, which in the Romance languages appears as azzurro, lazurius and lazulus, which are in turn derived from the Arabic allazaward, lazuwerd, or the Persian lazhuward or lajward, meaning the blue stone, lapis lazuli, from the mineral lazurite. It was from this mineral that the genuine ultramarine pigment was produced (see ultramarine). The word azure was originally synonymous with blue and was also a general color name directly connected with the lapis stone as its etymological development indicates. See lapis lazuli (blue). Heraldic azure was probably close to (CI - 20A8). The name azure blue has been used in the literature as synonymous with sky blue (CI - 22A5). The names azure blue and azurite blue have often been used as if derived from the mineral azurite, a blue carbonate of copper, which is related to malachite but very close to lapis lazuli blue in color. The two minerals, lazurite and azurite, have very likely been confused, in modern as we'll as in early times. The printing industry today uses the name azure blue to represent a much lighter, clearer and more greenish color. This use of the name, synonymous with modern cyan blue, has been applied in this post. The azure blue of the mediterranean also approximates to this color. Note the color has been placed between plates 23 and 24, but closest to Plate 23. The reference (CI - 23A7) will often suffice in locating this color.


Azure Cobalt: A variety of cobalt blue.

Azure (Heraldic) (CI - 20A8): See Azure Blue.


Azurite (Pigment): Native basic copper carbonate. Rare. Replaced by ultramarine, cobalt, and cerulean blues. Clear deep blue. Permanent, but often contains malachite as an impurity. It is a pigment, which dates back from Roman times. Works poorly with oil; was used primarily in aqueous mediums.

Azuro Oltremarino (Pigment): (Beyond from the sea). Ultramarine blue.

Azzuro Della (Pigment): Azurite.

Baby Blue (CI - 23B3): Most often used in connection to clothes of infant boys. (1892)


Bachelor’s Button (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Flower, perennial: domestic and wild - Centaurea cyanus; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh flowers. With wild species, the whole plant may be used; (iii) Processing: Blooms as for flowers (can be mixed with similarly colored flowers of other genera); whole plant as for whole plant; (iv) Colors Obtained: Flowers – yellow (alum) to beige; bright yellow (tin); gold to tan (chrome). From whole plant – chartreuse (alum and tin); grey-green (blue vitriol and iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent. Chartreuse from the whole plant bath may change to dull yellow-green upon exposure to light over prolong period of time.

Bake: See thermofixation.

Baking Soda (Mordant): Bicarbonate of soda is also an alkali which is useful in changing yellow dye baths to yellow-green. The most effervescent of all mordants, baking soda must be used with care so that the dye bath does not bubble over. Add soda to the dye pot only when the liquid in the pot is less than halfway up the side, and never cover the pot after addition. Used in this way, and always at the temperature that is below the simmering point, baking soda can be an interesting mordant to use in classroom and at demonstrations.

Balm: Same as balsam and tolu. Fragrant oily resin from various trees used in lotion, perfumes and the like.

Bamboo (CI - 4C4): Blonde or the color of dried bamboo sticks. Similar to flaxen (CI - 4C3); corn CICI - 4B5); straw yellow (CI - 3B4). From Malayan bambu. (1921)


Banana (CI - 4B7): Same as Chinese yellow; the color of the peel of a ripe banana. Portuguese and Spanish: banana. (1924)


Banana (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Fruit - Musa; (ii) Parts Used: Skins from mature plant; (iii) Processing: Chopped skins covered in water and place in a warm spot; (iv) Colors Obtained: Beige (alum); dark brown (blue vitriol); tan (chrome); warm gold (tin); grey-brown (iron); (v) Fastness: Good.

Barberry (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Ornamental and wild shrub - Berberis various species; (ii) Parts Used: Leaves or bark; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Strong yellow dye is obtained without the use of mordants; (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Barium Yellow (Pigment): Barium chromate. A very pale sulfur-colored yellow with a greenish tone. Insoluble in water. Compared to zinc and strontium yellow, the average barium yellow is very low in tinctorial power and in appearance is like zinc yellow reduced with about 75% of white pigment.


Baryta Green (Pigment): The term baryta is an obsolete term for barium. Similar to manganese green.

Baryta White (Pigment): Blanc fixe.

Barytes (Pigments): Native barite or heavy spar (barium sulfate), is finely washed and bleached. A white powder with no coloring power and practically transparent in oil where it tends to impart muddy tones. Used as an adulterant and inert pigment in cheap paints and colors. Very heavy. See blanc fixe.

Base: The inert pigment used in the manufacture of lakes.

Base Coat: First coat of paint for most decorative paint finishes, applied before the glaze or ground coat.

Basic Dyes (Cationic Dyes): A dye that carries a positive charge in solution and is often used to dye acrylics. These dyes are usually applied under mildly acidic conditions. They are also known as cationic dyes.

Basswood (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Shade tree - Tilia various species; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh leaves; (iii) Processing: Leaves as for leaves; (iv) Colors Obtained: Leaves – strong yellow (alum); brilliant yellow (tin); gold (chrome); taupe (iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Battleship Grey: Battleship grey was selected to color battleships for the following reason: (i) that the ship be as invisible as possible to an observer on a surface ship and on a surface submarine; (ii) the weather be mostly overcast, or hazy or foggy, as in the North Sea area; (iii) that the chosen grey was the best color under the above weather conditions. Hence, "The grey color reduces the contrast of the ships with the horizon, and reduces the vertical patterns in the ship's appearance. It is the color of USN combatant and auxiliary surface ships, as opposed to the dark grey or black color of submarines, the bright colors of ceremonial vessels and aircraft, or the white of hospital ships."


Bay: Bay is a hair coat color of horses, characterized by a reddish-brown body color with a black mane, tail, ear edges, and lower legs. Bay is one of the most common coat colors in many horse breeds. From Middle English baye, baie, from Old English beġ ‎(“berry”), as in beġbēam ‎(“berry-tree”), conflated with Old French baie, from Latin bāca ‎(“berry”).


Bayberry (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Ornamental shrub - Myrica pennsylvanica; (ii) Parts Used: Leaves; (iii) Processing: Leaves as for fresh leaves; (iv) Colors Obtained: Strong yellow (alum); gold (chrome); brilliant yellow (tin); greyish-green (iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent for all but grey-green (iron) which faded in the light after several weeks exposure.

Beam Dyeing: A dyeing process in which a fabric is loosely wrapped around a perforated beam through which dye is pumped.

Bean (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Garden vegetable - Phaseolus; (ii) Parts Used: Bean vines of any species; (iii) Processing: Chop the vine and leaves as finely as possible and cover with water, leaving in a warm location for several days; (iv) Colors Obtained: Beige to yellow-beige (alum); tan (blue vitriol) brownish-grey (chrome); bright gold (tin); greyish-brown (iron); grey-green (blue vitriol and iron processed at low temperature); (v) Fastness: Fair to good for all shades. The gold (tin) was the most fade resistant of colors tested.

Beaver (CI - 5F4): Beaver-colored as the fur of the animal, Castor fiber. The name beaver is derived from the word brown. The Anglo-Saxon word beofor (beaver). The name castor is used synonymously with beaver (1705).
is related to the German briber, derived from the Latin fiber, the old Norse boor and the Sanskrit babhru (brown). See brown. The name castor is used synonymously with beaver. Compare nutria (CI - 5F3). (1705)


Bedstraw (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Wildflower, weed - Galium boreale and other species; (ii) Parts Used: Flowers, leaves and roots; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Flowers and leaves – yellow; roots - red; (v) Fastness: Good.

Beech (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Hardwood tree - Fagus grandifolia; (ii) Parts Used: Leaves, nuts, bark from firewood or felled trees; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Leaves – yellow (alum); rust (in a strong bath, tin); gold (chrome); tan (blue vitriol); greyish-tan (iron); Bark – yellow tan (chrome and alum); brown (chrome and tin); (v) Fastness: Excellent for leaves, good for bark colors.

Beet (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Vegetable - Beta vulgaris; (ii) Parts Used: Leaves, root of the vegetable, canned, pickled, or fresh; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Leaves – in a strong bath, yellow (alum and tin); tan (chrome and vinegar); Roots of fresh beets – tan (alum) and red; (v) Fastness: The shades from the leaves were moderately wash fast and light fast. The tan (alum) from the root was quite fast.

Beetroot Purple (CI - 13D8): Typical of deep magenta. The color of the root of the plant from the same name - genus. Beta vulgarise cruenta. (1934)


Begonia (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Flowering bulb - Begonia various species; (ii) Parts Used: Faded, wilted or frost bitten blooms; (iii) Processing: Collect by color range or mix shades, cover with water and allow to soak for several days. Strain cooked out blooms; (iv) Colors Obtained: Green (iron) using mixed orange, red and rust blooms; yellow-orange (tin and alum) from frost bitten blooms mixed in color; gold (chrome); greenish-grey (iron); (v) Fastness: Good – especially the yellows and gold.

Beige (CI - 4C3): Same as ecru, flaxen, light blonde. A general name limited to sample indicated. Similar to unbleached, uncoloured wool - see natural (CI - 4B3). The French beige corresponds to a yellowish grey and is derived from the old forms bis, begs and the Italian bigio(grey) and bambagia (cotton). (1887)


Benzol Black: See carbon black.

Berlin Blue (Pigment) (CI - 21F7): An early name for the inorganic pigment ferric ferrocyanide, now commonly called Prussian blue. Other names for this substance are bronze blue, Milori blue, Paris blue, steel blue. It was discovered concurrently in 1704 by Diesbach in Berlin and the French chemist Milori in Paris. In concentrate, the pigment is almost black or a very dark blue (CI - 21F7), but it produces a series of lighter, greenish blue nuances when mixed with white. See also China blue. German: berlinderblau, preussischblau, miloriblau; French: bleu de Paris and Milori. The English Prussian blue and Berlin blue date from 1724; Milori blue and Paris blue from about 1800.


Biacca: White lead.

Bianco Sangiovanni (Pigment): Calcium hydroxide plus calcium carbonate. A fresco white.

Bice (Pigment): See Bremen blue.

Bile Yellow (CI - 30C5): The yellow green color of bile, which may vary in its green content and is stored in the gall bladder. The words gall and yellow appear to have the same roots (e.g. Greek chose), the Old Norse gall, the German Galle - all meaning gall. Refers to the color name, oxgall (1600), a fairly pure orange yellow (CI - 4B7).


Binder: An adhesive to glue in colorants that holds paints to a surface.

Bioluminescence: Light produce by living creatures: usually cool as a temperature in color.

Birch Bark (CI - 6B2): Like the "white" bark of the birch tree; the tinge of color in the bark is attributed to the strong orange color of the underlying wood. (1943)


Birch Grey (CI - 5C2): A darker variation of birch bark.


Birch (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Hardwood tree, ornamental - Betula various species; (ii) Parts Used: Leaves, bark; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Leaves – yellows (alum); golds (tin); tans (chrome); Outer bark – pale yellow to soft tans (blue vitriol and chrome); inner bark – orange (tin); purplish brown (iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent for all leaves shades, good for bark colors.

Biscuit:: A pale-brown color, having the color of a kind of bread in small, soft cakes, raised with baking powder or soda, or sometimes with yeast; scone. Middle English bysquyte from Middle French biscuit (Medieval Latin biscoctus), variant of biscuit seamen's bread, literally, twice cooked, equivalent to bes, bis + suit, past participle of cuire derived from Latin coquere (to cook).


Bismuth White (Pigment): Bismuth nitrate. Obsolete since the introduction of zinc white.

Bisque: Named after a thick cream soup, especially of puréed shellfish or vegetables. A pinkish tan color. Soup, 1640s, bisk, from French bisque ("crayfish soup"), said to be an altered form of Biscaye "Biscay." Modern form in English from 1731.


Bistre (Pigment): Yellowish-brown soot containing wood tar, made by charring beech wood. Used only as a water color wash. See Brown Pigments.

Bitumen (Pigment): Asphaltum.

Black: A general name for the neutral or achromatic pigments, which are the darkest of all tones and represent the end of the grey scale. The opposite of white. The old English word for black, swart, Swedish start, the Danish sort, the Dutch, swart, the Old German scharz, the Old Norse starter are related to the Latin sores (dirty, sordid). The modern English word black, in turn belongs to the same family as the Old Norse word for dark or black, blakker, to the Swedish and Danish word for ink, blåck and blaek, respectively and to the Old German blah. The word for black in the Romance languages are: Spanish negro; Italian, nero; French, noire (related to negro).

Blackberry (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Wild and cultivated fruit - Rubus allegheniensis; (ii) Parts Used: New shoots with leaves; mature canes, cut up; fall blackberry leaves; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Fruit (very ripe, strong bath) – pink-tan, orchid, and purple, using sugar and flour in dye bath; Fresh leaves – yellow (alum); bright gold (chrome); soft orange (tin); Purple autumn leaves – grey (iron); brown (chrome); Mature canes – same as for fall leaves; New shoots – yellow-green (alum and blue vitriol); warm golden brown (chrome); bright yellow green (alum and blue vitriol); warm golden brown (chrome); bright yellow-green (tin); greyish-green (iron). (v) Fastness: Excellent for all shades.

Black-eyed Susan (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Wild and cultivated flower, perennial - Rudbeckia various species; (ii) Parts Used: Flowers or flowers and leaves; (iii) Processing: As for fresh flowers; (iv) Colors Obtained: From wild species, flower heads and some leaves in a moderate dye bath – deep olive-green (iron); avocado green (blue vitriol); light greenish yellow (alum and blue vitriol); (v) Fastness: Excellent – perhaps the most fast of all greens obtained from common flowers.

Blackish Blue (CI - 20F8): A general color name, typified by the sample indicated. Colors darker than dark blue.


Blackish Brown: A general name which corresponds to an area that is darker than yellowish brown, dark brown and violet brown.

Blackish Green: A general name which corresponds to an area that is darker than dark green or olive.

Blackish Grey: A general name for the neutral greys, which are darker than dark grey. (1789)

Blackish Olive: A general name applied to part of the area of blackish green.

Blackish Red: A general name which corresponds to an area darker than blackish brown and dark ruby.

Blackish Violet: Same as reddish black. A general name which corresponds to an area darker than dark purple and dark violet.

Black Lead: Graphite.

Black Oxide of Cobalt (Pigment): A rather coarse black powder; properties are similar to those of black oxide of iron, but it is not now in use as a paint pigment. Used in ceramic glazes, where it imparts a deep blue color on being fired.

Black Oxide of Iron (Pigment): Mars black. Ferroso-ferric oxide, approximately 1 part FeO (ferroso oxide) plus 3 parts Fe2O3 (ferric oxide). A dense, opaque, heavy color, absolutely permanent for all uses. It has brownish undertones, wets easily and is non greasy. Useful to replace carbon blacks when these qualities are required. See Mars colors.

Black Oxide of Manganese: Native manganese dioxide. Seldom produced in a finely ground form suitable for pigment use. Its properties are somewhat like those of black iron oxide except it is still more brownish and is a powerful drier in oil; its principal use in paints and varnishes is as a raw material to prepare driers and drying oils. Artificial manganese oxide is described under manganese black.

Black (Psychology): Black is all colors - totally absorbed. The psychological implications of that are considerable. It creates protective barriers, as it absorbs all the energy coming towards you, and it enshrouds the personality. Positively, it communicates absolute clarity, with no fine nuances. It works particularly well with white. It communicates sophistication and uncompromising excellence. It creates a perception of weight and seriousness (it is a myth that black clothes are slimming). Black is essentially an absence of light, since no wavelengths are reflected and it can, therefore be menacing; many people are afraid of the dark - and modern day Goths (joking!) Moreover, it is the symbol of mourning. For further information see post - Psychology of Color.

Note black is also associated with intelligence, rebellion, mystery, modernity, power, sophistication, formality, elegance, evil, death, occult and slimming quality (see above).

Bladder Green (Pigment): Sap green.

Blanc Fixe: Artificial barium sulfate. Very much finer and fluffier than native barytes; they have the same chemical composition, but are entirely different in pigment qualities. Used as a base for the more opaque lakes and as an inert pigment in house paints etc., where if added in proper proportions (generally 10%) it is not considered an adulterant, as it imparts good weathering qualities. Almost transparent in oil, it is of no use in permanent oil painting, but has been recommended as a water-color and fresco white, in which media it retains its white color and is permanent.

Bleach: Generally it is sodium or calcium hypochlorite. To bleach a fiber is to remove its natural color. A bleached wool yarn appears "snow white" compared with the ivory or greyish-white of a similar but unbleached fiber.

Bleaching Agents: Chemicals, usually oxidants that remove color from fabrics.

Bleach Out: An underdeveloped bromide print used as a basis for line drawing. The bromide is later bleached away.

Bleeding: (i) The staining of adjacent white material or the coloration of the surrounding liquor by the diffusion of dye during wet treatment of the dye or printed fabrics; (ii) The coloration of a solvent or vehicle in contact with a pigment.

Bleu Celeste (Pigment): Cerulean blue.

Bleu-ciel (CI - 22A5): Same as sky blue.


Blonde (CI - 4C4): Same as bamboo and flax. A general color name used to describe hair color. The word blonde dates back to pre-Germanic word bhlundo, the Germanic blonde, which corresponds to the Old Indian bhradna (reddish yellow, light yellow or light). The Romance languages borrowed the German word: the Italians adopted it as biondo, the Spanish as blondo, the French as blond. (1481)


Blood Red (CI - 10C8): Same as bronze red, Orient red, Turkish red; a typical designation for brownish red. It is the color of venous blood. Arterial blood is normally fighter and less brownish. Blood red is one of the oldest color names and is probably the basis for the formation of the concept of "red". In Chinese, char, the word for blood red is older than hung, the word for red. In several other languages the oldest words for blood and red were identical. Fresh blood is the hue of primary red (CI - 10A8), which is the reddest red, without a trace of blue or yellow. The color of blood is due to the presence of pigment, haemoglobin. French rouge (de) sang; German: blutrot. (1297)


Bloodroot (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Woodland flower - Sanguinary canadensis; (ii) Parts Used: Root; (iii) Processing: Root is dried and finely chopped place in a dye bath of water for two days. Dye bath raised to a simmer for two hours; (iv) Colors Obtained: tan-orange (alum); tan-pink (vinegar); red (tin) – but various from rose to barn red; (v) Fastness: Fairly fast.

Blue (CI - 21A8): Primary blue and vivid blue. Blue was frequently the last of the primary colors to be named; some primitive languages of today still do not have a word for blue and so use the term for dark to cover this color concept. The Greek kyaneos meaning dark or black, and later blue, was derived either from the Sanskrit cjana's (dark) or the Assyrian uknu (crystal or lapis lazuli). The Latin word for sky, caeruleus lead directly yo the name cerulean blue (CI - 23C7). The Chinese chin (blue) and chin tien (sky blue) are represented Plate 23. Blue also seems related to words such as pale and lead (see led grey). The Southern European languages follow the "azure" line; for example, the Italian azzurro, the Spanish azul which corresponds to our azure blue (CI - 23A7) and derived from lapis lazuli. Names included in the blue area are: ultramarine blue (CI - 20A8), cornflower blue (CI - 20B7) and cobalt blue (CI - 22B7). (1300)


Blue Ashes: See Bremen blue.

Blue Bice: See Bremen Blue.

Blue Black: See vine black.

Blue (Psychology): Blue is the color of the mind and is essentially soothing; it affects us mentally, rather than gives the physical reaction we have to red. It is the symbolic color of heaven in the Christian religion. It symbolises prudence, peace, contemplation. Politically it has associations with the status quo or with conservatism. For further information see post - Psychology of Color.

Note: Blue is associated with water, oceans, peace, unity, calmness, coolness, confidence, conservatism, loyalty, dependability, idealism, depression and sadness.

Blue Vitriol (Mordant): Traditionally called “blue stone”, blue vitriol is useful in obtaining greens from yellow baths. Copper sulfate in solution is a weak form of sulfuric acid and is poisonous. Once a yellow bath is removed from heat, often the addition of blue vitriol and iron will turn the bath into a good green without further processing. It is also useful in obtaining greens by top-dyeing.

Bluish Black: A black with a tinge of blue.

Bluish Green (CI - 25A8): Strong colors which lie between blue and green, but closer to the latter.


Bluish Grey (CI - 21D2): Generally, those colors which lie along the two horizontal rows nearest to the grey scale on the blue plates.


Bluish Red (CI - 12A8): A general name indicative of the sample presented.


Bluish Violet (CI - 18A8): Strong colors between blue and violet, but closer to the latter.


Bluish White (CI - 21A2): Blue with a tinge of white - the same as light blue.


Blush or Bloom: The term is usually applied to bloom on cellulose lacquers, and more often implies a basic or internal defect than as surface condition.

Body Tone: The color effect of pigment or dye without any adulteration – that is, before mixing with white, black or some other modifying color.

Bohemian Earth (Pigment): Green earth.

Bole: (i) Pigment - various native oxides of iron or clays colored with iron; (ii) Colored clay mixed with animal-skin glue, sometimes applied over gesso before gliding.

Bologna Chalk: Slaked plaster of Paris.

Bologna Stone: Barytes.

Bone Black (Pigment): It is made by charring of bones. Contains only 15 to 20% carbon, about 60% calcium phosphate and about 20% calcium sulfate and other impurities. It is used in a fresco or for mortar or cement coloring, as it causes efflorescence. Rather fine, light and fluffy, but somewhat heavier and more compact than lampblack. Has a brownish undertones as compared to vine black. Probably dates from the Roman times.

Bone Brown (Pigment): Similar to bone black. Made by partially charring bones, it contains incompletely carbonized animal matter. Not permanent.

Bordeaux (Red) (CI - 11D8): Same as wine red, claret.


Bottle Green (CI - 26F4): The color of dark green bottles. German: flaschengrün. (1789)


Bougival White: Bismuth white.

Bracken Green (CI - 29E7): The color of the topside of the fern leaf.


Brass: Metal. An alloy of copper and zinc of varying proportions.

Brass (CI - 4C7): Same as brazen yellow. (1654) Note: Brazen yellow has the same color as brass (an alloy of copper and zinc).


Brazen Yellow (CI - 4C7): Same as brass. (1590) Note: Brass may vary in color from yellow to orange depending on it composition.

Brazilin: Brazilian is a red pigment obtained from the wood of the brazil wood family (Caesalpinia sp), and is also known as Natural Red 24. Brazilin has been used since at least the Middle Ages to dye fabric, and has been used to make paints and inks as well. The specific color produced by the pigment depends on its manner of preparation: in an acidic solution brazilin will appear yellow, but in an alkaline preparation it will appear red. Brazilin is closely related to the blue-black dye hematoxylin, having one fewer hydroxyl group. Brazilian is the name for the oxidised pigment. See Brazilwood Lake (pigment).

Brazilian: Brazilian is the name for the oxidised pigment of Brazilin. See Brazilwood Lake (pigment).

Brazilwood Lake (Pigment): Brazilwood yields a blood-red extract which has been used to make dyes and lakes from very early times. It is less permanent than the synthetic pigments.

Caesalpinia gilliesii (a species of Brazilwood known as the bird of paradise) found in Uruguay, Argentina, and Chile. Photographed at the natural dye garden in Lauris, France.
Courtesy of Maiwa.

Bremen Blue (Pigment): Copper hydroxide plus copper carbonate. Produced in a number of shades of blue and greenish blue; some delicate and pale; some fairly deep, all semi-opaque. Poisonous. They have been superseded by the cheaper grades of ultramarine for most industrial uses.

Bremen Green (Pigment): Greenish varieties and green shades of Bremen blue.

Brick Red (CI - 7D7): Same as tile red, terra-cotta. The color of bricks. (1667)


Brightness: A synonym for the intensity of color.

Brilliance: A synonym for the intensity of color.

Brilliant Green (CI - 28A8): A strong, clear, brilliant green; has been used as the name of certain organic pigments.


Brilliant Scarlet: See iodine scarlet.

Brilliant Yellow: See Naples yellow.

British Gum: It is also known as Dextrin and is often employed as a resist under other prints; it will produce some interesting cracked print effects when used as a resist paste under some dyes.

Broken Color: Painting technique typical of Impressionism; short touches of bright color, often complementaries, place side-by-side to create a vibrating effect.

Bronze (CI - 5E5): Same as bronze brown. Bronze colored. Varies according to the proportions of copper and tin in this alloy, its age and the amount of oxidation or formation of copper rust which it has undergone. The word bronze is borrowed from the French bronze, the Italian bronzo, bronzino, which are in turn derived from the Latin aes brundisium (copper) from Brundisium in Southern Italy. In the printing industry, the term bronze brown refers to certain inks, produced through the use of various red pigments which give off a bronze luster. For example, a bronze brown ink of the color (CI - 9F8) may produce a deep yellow bronze luster, resembling the color in (CI - 4C8). (1753)


Bronze Blue (Pigment) (CI - 21F7): Same as Berlin blue, cyan blue, Milori blue, Paris blue, Prussian blue, steel blue. Several varieties of this pigment have a bronze luster through selective reflection. The reflection from bronze blue is reddish, a color similar to (CI - 12D8). The colors of pure metals are also due to this type of reflection. See bronze brown, bronze green and bronze red. (1800)


Bronze Brown (CI - 5E5): Bronze colored. Varies according to the proportions of copper and tin in this alloy, its age and the amount of oxidation or formation of copper rust, which it has undergone. From the French: bronze. (1800)


Bronze Green (CI - 30F3): The color of oxidised or tarnished bronze. (1887)


Bronze Red (CI - 10C8): Same as blood red, Orient red, Turkish red; typical of brown red. Used in reference to printing inks with a bronze luster. See bronze blue and bronze brown. The reflection, for example, may be orange like (CI - 5A8). (1892)


Bronzing: Producing a gold or metallic effect by applying powder to a sheet treated with special printing ink.

Brown (CI - 6E8): A name typified by the sample below. This color also represents hazel, rust (brown) and rust red. Brown is one of the oldest color names and is related to the words bear, beaver and burned. The Anglo-axon word for burned was burnen. The Old Norse word for bear was biorn (the brown one). (Here the animal received its name from the color rather than the color from the animal). Related to the Lithuanian word for brown, beras the Anglo-Saxon name for bear, bera. See also beaver. The brown colors may be divided according to hue into the following groups: olive brown, yellowish brown, orange brown, reddish brown and violet brown. Of these orange brown is equivalent to brown. German: braun; Dutch bruin; French: brun; Italian:bruno Spanish: pardo. (1000 AD)


Brownish Beige (CI - 6E3): Same as Saruk. Between brown and beige but closer to beige.


Brownish Black: Black with a tinge of brown.

Brownish Grey (CI - 6E2): Covers area oranges and reds along the horizontal row next to the grey scale.


Brownish Orange (CI - 6C8): Covers the area between brown and orange.


Brownish Red (CI - 10C8): Covers the area between reddish brown and red.


Brownish Violet (CI - 11D8): Covers the area between brownish red and violet brown. This also represents Bordeaux (red).


Brownish Yellow (CI - 5C8): Covers the area between yellowish brown and orange.


Brown Lampblack: Bistre.

Brown Madder (Pigment): Alizarin brown.

Brown Ochre (Pigment): A dull variety of ochre.

Brown Pink (Pigment): A brownish yellow lake of vegetable origin, similar to Dutch pink.

Brown (Psychology): Brown usually consists of red and yellow, with a large percentage of black. Consequently, it has much of the same seriousness as black, but is warmer and softer. It has elements of the red and yellow properties. Brown has associations with the earth and the natural world. It is a solid, reliable color and most people find it quietly supportive - more positively than the ever-popular black, which is suppressive, rather than supportive. For further information see post - Psychology of Color.

Note brown is also associated with nature, richness, rustics, tradition, boorishness, dirt, dullness, fifth, heaviness, poverty, roughness, earth and comfort.

Brunswick Blue (Pigment): A let-down variety of Prussian blue. Large amounts of barytes are added during manufacture. Sometimes contains a little ultramarine. Not permanent for painting.

Brunswick Green (Pigment): Chrome green made from Brunswick blue and reduce chrome yellow.

Brushes: The usual tools for applying paints. They comprise three parts: the handle, the ferrule and the head. The head consists of animal bristle, usually hog's hair or in cheaper ones, nylon fibers. They come in two shapes: (i) flat heads; (ii) round heads.

Burdock (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Prickly weed, biennial - Arctium minus; (ii) Parts Used: Large leaves from first years growth; (iii) Processing: Shed, tear and chop and cover with boiling water, allowing to sit a day or so in a warm spot and the proceed as for leaves or for whole plant; (iv) Colors Obtained: Yellow (alum); tan (vinegar); yellow-green (alum and iron); strong yellow (tin) (v) Fastness: Good.

Burgundy (CI - 12F5): The color of wine from the French district of Burgundy. (1915)


Burgundy Violet (Pigment): Manganese violet.

Burningbush (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Ornamental shrub - Euonymus atropurpurea; (ii) Parts Used: Bark in the form of twigs; (iii) Processing: As for bark; (iv) Colors Obtained: Orange-tan (alum and tin); pink-tan (vinegar in a strong dye bath using wild species); (v) Fastness: Good.

Burnt Carmine (Pigment): Roasted carmine, deep and dark. Fugitive.

Burnt Green Earth (Pigment): Deep, transparent brown, permanent and useful. Supplies of the heavy pigment vary in shade.

Burnt Ochre (Pigment): Ochre which has been heated in a furnace until it has become brick-red. Permanent, but weak in color compared with red oxides. See red light.

Burnt Sienna (Pigment) (CI - 7D8): Raw sienna, which has been calcined or roasted in furnaces. Compared to other earth colors, native or artificial, it has the most brilliant, clear, fiery, transparent undertone and its red-brown top tone is least chalky in mixtures. Permanent. One of the most useful pigments in all techniques. (1760)


Burnt Umber (Pigment; CI - 6F6): Made by calcining raw umber. Compared with raw umber it is much warmer, being reddish rather than greenish in tone, darker, and somewhat more transparent. Otherwise the remarks under raw umber apply to it. Same as Vandyke brown. See raw umber. (1650)


Butter-And-Eggs (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Wild flower, perennial - Linaria vulgaris; (ii) Parts Used: Flowers or whole plant except the perennial root; (iii) Processing: As for whole plant; (iv) Colors Obtained: Flowers – yellow; Whole Plant – yellow-green (alum and blue vitriol); chartreuse (tin); greenish-grey (iron); (v) Fastness: Good.

Buttercup Yellow (CI - 4A7): Same as sunflower (yellow). The color of the flower of the same name. Similar to butter yellow (see below). (1883)


Butterfly Blue (CI - 22A3): The blue color of certain species of butterflies.


Butternut (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Hardwood tree - Juglans cinerea; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh leaves; husks and bark; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Fresh leaves – yellows, tans, and yellow-greens; Husks alone – strong yellow (alum); yellow-orange (chrome and tin); orange (tin); brown (iron); grey-brown (blue vitriol); Bark alone – similar shades but paler and slightly less fast than colors obtained from husks; (v) Fastness: Excellent for shades of husk; good for shades of bark.

Butter Yellow (CI - 4A5): The color of butter. (About 1600)


Byzantium Purple: See Tyrian purple.

Cactus (Green) (CI - 28E4): The color of various kinds of cacti. This color name is also used to refer to a brown color. (1922)


Cadet Blue (CI - 21C5): The color worn by Scandinavian cadets in officer training schools. From the French word: cadet. Also known as Royal Airforce blue. (1892)


Cadmium Colors: Cadmium orange and yellows are cadmium sulfide; cadmium red is 3 parts cadmium sulfide plus 2 parts of cadmium selenide. These pigments are made in a variety of shades, all bright, very opaque, and permanent. Most modern cadmiums are made by a method similar to that used for making lithopone and contain barium sulfate. These cadmium-barium colors or cadmium lithopones are superior in most pigment qualities to the older straight cadmium sulfides and all the shades are permanent to light. Typical examples of the palest yellow shades contain 62% and the deepest maroon 52% blanc fixe (not as an adulterant). The cadmium - barium reds are deep maroon. Cadmium red is one of the more recent of the inorganic colors.

Cadmium Orange (CI - 5A8): Same as chrome yellow (deep). Like pigment cadmium orange. See cadmium yellow (light) (CI - 2A8) and cadmium yellow (deep) (CI - 4A8). (1862)


Cadmium Yellow (Deep) (CI - 4A8) Same as flame yellow, deep yellow, saffron yellow; typical of yellowish orange and orange yellow or reddish yellow. Like the pigment cadmium yellow(deep). In this name, deep has the connotation of reddish. Related to chrome yellow (deep) (CI - 5A8). See cadmium yellow (light) (CI - 2A8) and cadmium orange (CI - 5A8). (About 1850)


Cadmium Yellow (Light) (CI - 2A8): Same as chrome yellow (primrose) and primary yellow. Typical of yellow and vivid yellow. Typical of yellow and vivid yellow. Like the pigment, cadmium yellow. Although pigments cadmium yellow and chrome yellow seem identical in color, their chemical compositions differ. Also related to cadmium yellow (deep) (CI - 4A8); cadmium orange (CI - 5A8). (About 1850).


Caeruleum: See cerulean blue.

Café Au Last (CI - 6D3): The color of coffee with milk added. From the French term for this combination. See coffee (CI - 5F7).


Calcium Formaldehyde Sulfoxylate (Reducing Agent): It is often used in mixtures with reducing agent sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate (Formosul or Rongalite C) to produce reducing agents Rongalit H and Rodanil. These are now manufactured in paste form to overcome blockage problems and are often used in silk discharge to provide halo-free prints.

Caledonian Brown (Pigment): A native earth, resembling burnt sienna but inferior.

Caledonian White (Pigment): Lead chloro-sulfide. It is now obsolete.

Calendula (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Annual, garden flower - Calendula officinalis; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh or frost bitten blooms; (iii) Processing: As for flowers; (iv) Colors Obtained: Fresh flowers – yellow (alum); yellow-tan (vinegar); gold (salt); From frost bitten blooms – brilliant yellow-orange (tin); brown drab (iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Calgon: Water softening agent.

Calypso (Pink) (CI - 13A2): See calypso (red). (1945)


Calypso (Red) (CI - 9A8): Same as cinnabar, vermilion, China (or Chinese) red (or rouge), scarlet. A name used for cosmetics and textiles etc. probably derived from the West Indian music. Also, a botanical name for an orchid whose color varies from white, purple, pink or rose to yellow. A variation is calypso pink (1945) (CI - 13A2).


Camaieu: A technique of painting in monochrome, using two or three tints of the same pigment without regard to local or realistic color.

Camel (CI - 6D4) The color of camel hair. From the Greek camels, the Arabic jamal, the Hebrew and Phoenician gamal. (1916)


Cameo: A jewel or semi-precious stone, often with layers of different color, which has an image cut in a raised relief.

Campanula Blue (CI - 20B5): The blue color of various bell-flowers. See campanula violet (CI - 17C7). (1886)


Campanula Violet (CI - 17C7): The violet color of various bell-flowers. See campanula blue (CI - 20B5). (1814)


Canary Yellow (CI - 2B7): The color of the canary, named after the Carnary Islands. (1789)


Cappagh Brown (Pigment): Obsolete name for a very bluish red oxide of iron. Permanent.

Capri Blue (CI - 24B7): The color of the pigment, which resembles the tones seen in the famous Blue Grotto on the Island of Capri near Naples. Compare the aquamarine (CI - 24B3), water blue (CI - 24C5) and sea blue (CI - 24E8). (1890)


Capsicum Red (CI - 8B8): Same as paprica (red).


Caput Mortuum (Pigment) (CI - 8F7): A prepared board with simulated canvas texture, suitable for oil or acrylic painting. An iron oxide pigment used by artists for hundreds of years. From the Latin: death's head. (1641)


Caramel (Brown) (CI - 6C6): The color of caramel or melted brown sugar. Spanish: caramelo. (1921)


Carotenoids: Carotenoids are one of the most important groups of natural pigments. They are responsible for many of the yellow and orange colors of fruit and vegetables. Beta-carotene is most abundant in carrots, of course, but is also found in pumpkins, apricots and nectarines. Dark green vegetables such as spinach and broccoli are another good source. In these the orange color is masked by the green color of chlorophyll. This can be seen in leaves; in autumn, when the leaves die, the chlorophyll breaks down, and the yellow/red colors of the more stable carotenoids can be seen. Natural extracts containing carotenoids, for example carrot extracts and red palm oil, have been used to color foods for centuries. Synthetic beta-carotene was first marketed as a food coloring by Roche in 1954. It is mainly used for coloring margarine and butter; its vitamin A activity is an added benefit. Other applications include ice-cream, fruit juice and the coatings of tablets. Beta-carotene has an advantage over other artificial colors, for example ago dyes, because it occurs naturally in food and is so known to be safe. Note: carotene belongs to this family.

Coloration of leaves in autumn.

Carbazole Dioxazine Violet (Pigment): A modern synthetic organic pigment of good permanence.

Carbon Arc Lamp: A strong light source used in some forms of photomechanical platemaking.

Carbon Black: Pure carbon made by burning natural gas. An intense, velvety, black pigment, blacker than most of the other forms of carbon such as lampblack, ivory black etc. A permanent pigment used in industrial black coatings. It is not in general used by artists or used as a tinting color because it tends to show in black streaks even after considerable mixing or rubbing with other colors. Acetylene and benzol blacks are more intense, softer, bluer varieties than can be made by burning natural gas. Lampblack, ivory black, and all the other varieties of carbon are sometimes grouped and refer to as carbon blacks.

Carbro: A color printing process using sensitized gelatin matrices carrying the printing colors separately and transferred by impression.

Cardinal (Red) (CI - 10D8): Same as strawberry, fez. The color of the hat worn by cardinals. (1698)


Carmine (CI - 11A8): Same as crimson. (1523)


Carmine (Pigment): A fugitive lake made from cochineal, a dyestuff extracted from a Central American insect. See Red Pigments.

Carrier: An auxillary product that is a type of accelerant commonly used in the printing of hydrophobic fibers with disperse dyes.

Carrot (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Wildflower, vegetable - Daucus carrota var. sativa; (ii) Parts Used: Domestic garden tops; Wild Queen Anne’s lace blooms or the whole plant; (iii) Processing: Chop and tear up tops and process as leaves; process Queen Anne’s lace as for whole plants; (iv) Colors Obtained: From tops – green (blue vitriol, strong bath); green shade (tin); Medium bath of tops – bright yellow (alum); dark gold (blue vitriol); orange gold (chrome); brown (iron); bright chartreuse (tin); From Queen Anne’s lace, the whole plant – yellow green (alum and tin); beige (blue vitriol); yellow-grey (iron); tin (chrome); (v) Fastness: The shades from domestic carrot tops are very fast but the greens may become altered after prolonged exposure to light – some turn greyer, and some darker, more like avocado.

Carrot Red (CI - 6B7): The color of carrots. (1684)


Carthame: Safflower.

Casali's Green (Pigment): A variety of viridian.

Cashew Lake (Pigment): Mahogany lake.

Cassava Paste: The paste resists indigo. The copper sulfate used is optional, but acts as a preservative and gives the paste a pale blue color that enables it to be seen when used on a white cloth.

Cassel Earth (Pigment): A native earth containing organic matter, similar to Vandyke brown. Not permanent.

Cassel Green (Pigment): Manganese green.

Cassel Yellow (Pigment): See Turner's yellow.

Catechu: Also known as cachou or cutch. A water-soluble astringent resinous substance obtained from any of certain tropical plants, especially the leguminous tree Acacia catechu of South Asia, and used in medicine, tanning, and dyeing. See also gambier. Probably from Malay kachu of Dravidian origin.

Cationic Dyes: See basic dyes.

Cattail (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Marsh and swamp plant, perennial - Typha latifolia; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh leaves, roots, flower spikes; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: New shoots – yellow (alum); yellow-green (alum and blue vitriol); bright yellow-gold (chrome); bright yellow (tin); Roots – tin (vinegar); yellow (alum and salt); Flower spikes – beige (alum); gold (chrome); brown (iron); (v) Fastness: Leaves, excellent; roots, good; flower spikes, good.

Causticize: The treatment of cellulose fabrics with sodium hydroxide solution under such conditions that a full mercerizing effect is not obtained, but the color yield in dyeing and printing is significantly enhanced.

Caustic Soda: Sodium hydroxide. It is the effective agent for mercerizing cotton. It is used in naphthol as an alkali.

Cedar (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Evergreen shrub or tree - Thuja occidentalis; (ii) Parts Used: Foliage of wild or ornamental varieties; (iii) Processing: Collect foliage tips cover with water and soak for two days – strain off foliage, proceed with dyeing; (iv) Colors Obtained: Foliage – bright yellow (alum); yellow-orange (tin); gold (chrome); tan to brown (iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Celadon Green (Pigment) (CI - 30D3): Green earth. Same as lavender green. Sea green (CI - 27C5) is more bluish. This pigment contains mineral celadonite, an iron silicate. Celadon means a pale or greyish green color. From the French celadon, related to the Greek keladon meaning to roar as the sea or the wind. There is also a Chinese porcelain color which lies between grass green and sea green. (1600)


Celestial Blue (Pigment): A variety of Prussian blue, similar to Brunswick blue.

Cellulose Ethers: Cellulose is not soluble in water but by modifying their chemical properties they can become useful thickeners. Cellulose is treated by etherification, a process that enables it to dissolve in water or in other solvents. The thickener – Celacol - is a cellulose ether. It is very stable in acidic conditions. It tends to be used as a component in pigment print resist pastes and as thickener with acid resists.

Cement (CI - 4D2): The color of cement. (1922)


Cendré (CI - 1B2): Same as ash and ash grey. (1700)


Cerise (CI - 12C8): Originally the color of cherry; currently used to indicate a more bluish color. Compare with cherry (red) (CI - 10B8). Derive from the Greek: kerasion; the Latin: cerasus; French: cerise. (1858)


Cerulean Blue (Pigment) (CI - 23C7): Originally the same as sky blue (CI - 22A5). Now usually refers to the color of a pigment produced from cobalt and tin (in contrast to cobalt blue, which is made from cobalt and aluminium). Cobaltous stagnate, a compound of cobalt and tin oxides. A bright sky blue, quite opaque. Permanent for all uses. From the Latin word for sky: caeruleum. (1859)


Ceruse (Pigment): Obsolete name for white lead. From the Latin: cerussa.

Chalk: Artificially prepared calcium carbonate in its whitest, finest, and purest form, usually called precipitated chalk. It is used in glues and other aqueous media as a ground for oil and tempera paintings - it retains its brilliant color. It is the basis of most pastels. It has the same chemical composition as limestone, whiting, and marble, but contains no impurities, and is much whiter, being one of the whitest substances in use. Older reference to chalk are to native chalk (whiting).

Chalky: Same as white, lily white, snow white. The color of calcium carbonate mineral - chalk. Related to marble white (CI - 5B2). See white.

Chamois (CI - 4C5): Obsolete name for ochre. Same as chamois yellow. Originally referred to the hide of the chamois antelope; now refers to cleaning leathers in general. From the French word for antelope, chamois; Italian: camozza. (1766).


Chamomile (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Annual or perennial weed - Matricaria maritime, Matricaria chamomilla, Anthemis cotula, Anthemis arvensis; (ii) Parts Used: For smaller species use the whole plant; just flowers or leaves may be used for larger species (e.g. M. maritime; (iii) Processing: As applicable for flowers, leaves or whole plants; (iv) Colors Obtained: Whole plant – strong yellow (alum); brilliant yellow (tin); rich gold (chrome); yellow-green (iron); Leaves – colors are more green than yellow for each mordant; Flowers colors are mostly yellow and gold with each mordant; (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Champagne (CI - 4B4): The color of champagne from the French region - Champagne. See wine yellow (CI - 3B3). (1915)


Charcoal: Charred wood used for drawing. Its powdery quality means a fixative needs to be applied to the drawn line to make it permanent. See vine black.

Charcoal Grey: Obsolete grey-black powder made from charcoal.

Chard (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Garden vegetable - Beta; (ii) Parts Used: Green leaves; (iii) Processing: As for fresh leaves in a strong dye bath; (iv) Colors Obtained: Beige to soft yellow (vinegar); tan (iron); soft yellow-green (blue vitriol); (v) Fastness: Good.

Chartreuse (CI - 2C6): The color of the yellow liqueur of the same name. (1884)


Chemical Fixatives: Chemical fixatives are often used in silk paintings in order to fix the color into the silk. Those brands of silk paints that can be set by a chemical often have their own particular type of fixative to set the color. Most of these fixatives are a mixture of acetic acid, or vinegar and water, but because the acid or alkaline balance varies in different brands of paints, it is wise to use the fixative that is recommended by the paint manufacturer.

Chemical Resist: The use of a wide range of chemical compounds (e.g. alkalis, acids, salts, reducing and oxidizing agents etc.) in order to prevent the fixation or development of a ground color.

Chemical Water (Calgon): Chemically known as sodium hexametaphosphate, it acts as a sequestering agent, neutralizing any interference in water to the normal reaction of dyes.

Cherry (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Fruit and ornamental tree - Prunus various species; (ii) Parts Used: fruit of wild or domestic varieties; leaves of wild or domestic varieties; barks and roots of wild, pruned or diseased ornamentals; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Fresh leaves, chokecherry – yellow-green (alum); beige (blue vitriol); gold (chrome); grey (iron); light gold (tin); Fruit, chokecherry – tan to grey (vinegar and salt); pinkish cast to taupe (alum and tin); Bark, chokecherry – medium grey (iron); purplish grey (alum); (v) Fastness: Leaves, excellent; Bark, excellent; Fruit, good to fair.

Cherry (Red) (CI - 10B8): Same as currant red; very similar to post office red. The color of ripe cherries from the tree: prunus creases. Cherries vary in color from yellow to blackish red; (Ci - 10B8) represents a typical color. The French name cerise was once synonymous with cherry (red) but now represents the bluer (CI - 12C8). (1447)


Chessylite (Pigment): Azurite.

Chestnut Brown (Pigment) (CI - 6F7): Umber. The color of the shelled fruit of the horse-chestnut tree. Derived from Italian: castagna, possibly from the Armenian kaskeni, the Old French chastaigne, the Latin castanea, the Greek kastanea. See maroon (CI - 11F8). (1555)


Chestnut (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Deciduous tree, ornamental - Castanea, Aeculus hippocastanum; (ii) Parts Used: Leaves, bark, green nut husks, nuts; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Horse chest nut leaves – yellow (alum); gold (chrome); grey-tan (iron); Green nut husks – yellow-green (tin); grey (iron); brown (chrome); Nuts – light tan (vinegar and alum); (v) Fastness: Excellent for leaves; good for husks and nuts.

Chiaroscuro: In painting, the modeling of form with light and dark; any artistic treatment that stresses the contrast between light areas and shadows. Alternatively, a technique for pictorial representation, wherein objects are brought out strongly by the use of black or any dark color and white, generally in bold contrast; the entire picture is usually dark, relieved by white accents. Also an element of this effect in any picture.

Chicory (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Perennial wildflower - Cichorium intybus; (ii) Parts Used: Flowers, leaves, whole plant, roasted root; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Whole plant – yellow-green (blue vitriol); yellow-tan (alum); green (iron); tan (chrome); Roots – light brown (alum); medium dark brown (chrome in medium bath); deep brown (iron); khaki (blue vitriol bloomed in tin); (v) Fastness: Excellent for whole plant shade and all root colors.

China Blue (CI - 23D5): A Chinese porcelain color. See Delft blue (CI - 20E4). Formerly used to designate Berlin blue (CI - 21F7). It has also been used in reference to textiles dyed with indigo (about 1700).


China Clay: Native hydrated aluminium silicate. So called because it is used to make chinaware. As an inert pigment it has a variety of uses: in colors it serves chiefly as an adulterant. Lakes made on a clay base tend to be muddy. Kaolin is a very pure China clay.

China Red (CI - 9A8): Same as Chinese red, Chinese rouge, calypso red, cinnabar, vermilion, scarlet. Synonymous with cinnabar. Less frequently used in reference to pigments, chrome red and oxide red.


Chinese Blue (Pigment): A variety of Prussian blue. Highest quality.

Chinese Ink: Indian ink.

Chinese Red (Pigment): Also named Chinese rouge and the same as chrome red and China red. (1924)

Chinese Vermilion (Pigment): Genuine vermilion made in China.

Chinese White (Pigment): Zinc white prepared for water color use.

Chinese Yellow (Pigment) (CI - 4B7): Same as King's yellow and banana. The name has also been applied to bright ochres. The color of Chinese gowns of all periods. Less frequently used in reference to yellow ochre and lemon yellow. (1835)


Chive (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Perennial herb - Allium shoenoprasm; (ii) Parts Used: The green foliage; (iii) Processing: Chop fine and soak in water to cover for a day or so and then cook out; (iv) Colors Obtained: Pale yellow to medium yellow (alum); soft yellow-green (blue vitriol); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Chocolate (Brown) (CI - 6F4): The color of pure chocolate made from cocoa without addition of milk. See cocoa (brown) (CI - 6E6). Chocolate made from milk varies in color from (CI - 5E5) to (CI - 5F6), depending upon the cocoa content. (1737).


Chokecherry (Natural Dye): Classification: Prunus virginiana - see cherry.

Chroma: A synonym for the intensity of color. See figure below.


Chromatic: Pertaining to color, especially hue. See figure below.


Chromatic Neutral: A low-intensity color produced by modulations of complementary hues; also any low-intensity color that approaches grey but possesses a warm/cool character.

Chromatic Pigments: Colors that are distinguished from black, white or grey are referred to achromatic pigments.

Chromatic Reflection: The reflection of specific wavelengths of light, producing a color sensation. A red surface reflects only wavelengths of red etc.

Chromatic Transition: The transmission of a specific wavelength of light, thereby producing a color sensation. For example, red glass only allows red light to pass through it, since the glass absorbs all other visible wavelenths of light.

Chrome Green (Pigment) (CI - 26D8): Intimate mixture of Prussian blue and chrome yellow. The color of the pigment chromium oxide green. As there are many varieties of each of these two pigments, a variety of greens may be produced. Their properties are the same as those of chrome yellows, plus the defects of Prussian blue. Never used for permanent painting. The color of chromium oxide. The name of the metal chromium is derived from the Greek chroma meaning color, since it can form a series of vividly colored compounds. See chrome yellow. A related compound, hydrated chromium oxide, is called vert emeraude or emerald green, but this name should be reserved for the color of emerald, which has been determined as (CI - 27B8). (1815)


Chrome Red (CI - 9A8): Same as China red.


Chrome (Mordant): Potassium dichromate is a bright orange chemical often thought to be light-sensitive when in solution with water, a fact that some references refute. Generally, chrome-mordanted and dyed fibers when processed away from direct sunlight are somewhat darker and deeper in hue than if processed in light. Chrome added to a yellow bath produces startling results, turning it to orange or rust. A poison, chrome is no more difficult to use than other mordants. The addition of chrome to a bath makes the fiber feel soft and silky, and imparts as well a very attractive ouster. Note: Hexavalent chromium causes cancer if indigested.

Chrome Orange, Chrome Red, Chrome Yellow (Pigments): Lead chromates. A large variety of shades, from pale primrose yellow to deep orange-scarlet, are produced by variations of the process of manufacture. They are opaque, work well with oil, and are used in large quantities in cheap paints. Even the best grades are not permanent turning dark or greenish. They may react with other colors.

Chrome Orange (CI - 6A8): Typical of dark orange and orange. See chrome yellow (primrose). Related to cadmium orange (CI - 5A3). (1818)


Chrome Yellow (Deep) (CI - 5A8): Same as cadmium orange. See chrome yellow (primrose). The color may descent to cadmium yellow (deep) (CI - 4A8). In this name the word deep implies reddish. (1818)


Chrome Yellow (Light or Lemon) (CI - 3A8): Same as signal yellow. See chrome yellow (primrose). This color may extend to cadmium yellow (deep) (CI - 4A8). Related to cadmium yellow (light) (CI - 2A8) and cadmium yellow (deep) (CI - 4A8). (1818)


Chrome Yellow (Primrose) (CI - 2A8): Same as cadmium yellow (light) but less permanent; typical of vivd yellow and of yellow. The color of the pigment chrome yellow, which contains the metals lead and chromium; see chrome green. The pigment is produced in variations ranging from greenish yellow(primrose) to orange. The following four have been selected as typical: chrome yellow (primrose) (CI - 2A8); chrome yellow (light or lemon) (CI - 3A8); chrome yellow (deep) (CI - 5A8); chrome orange (CI - 6A8). Although the pigments, cadmium yellow and chrome yellow seem identical in color, they are of different composition. (1875)


Chromium Oxide Green (Pigment): Chromium oxide. An opaque cool, rather pale willow green. Not very strong in tinting power. A very heavy powder. Absolutely permanent for all purposes and conditions, including high temperatures.

Chromolithography: Lithographic printing in several colors by traditional techniques. A color lithograph made for commercial or reproductive purposes. Chromolithography was especially important in the nineteenth century in Europe and America.

Chromophore: The basic skeleton system of conjugated bonds in a dye molecule that is responsible for the absorption of light.

Chrysaniline: A yellow substance obtained as a by-product in the manufacture of rosaniline. It dyes silk a fine golden-yellow color.

Chrysocolla (Pigment): A native green copper silicate. Like malachite, it is used as a pigment in early civilisations.

CIE System: The CIE system is named after the Commission Internationale de L’Eclairage (the International Commission of Illumination), which developed it. The Commission was set up by a number of European countries in order to arrive at an objective (rather than subjective) means of specifying color. The CIE system specifies color according to the proportion of primary additive colors (blue, green and red) that is required to produce a particular hue. For further information see post - CIE System.

Cinnabar (CI - 9A8): An archaic name for scarlet or vermilion. The color of the mineral cinnabar (red sulfide of mercury) or red resin, dragon's blood. Cinnabar was known even in prehistoric China, India and Egypt. The word is of Oriental origin: from the Arabic zinjafr, the Persian zinjifrah or shangraf, which may have meant Chinese red; Greek kinnabari, Latin cinnabaris and vermiculus. In modern languages these words appear as cinabro, vermillon and vermeil in French; cinabro in Italian; zinnober in German; cinabrio and bermelon in Spanish. The pigment, cinnabar, whether derived from the original mineral or artificially produced varies in color from hue 7 to 10 and in degree of shading from A to B. The sample reference given represents an average of this range. (1289). Note: Native vermilion is much inferior to the manufactured product. It is now obsolete.


Cinnamon (Brown) (CI - 6D6): The color of the spice in powdered form or in sticks. The inner bark of tree Cinnamomum. Hebrew: cinnamon (of Malay origin); French: canelle; Latin: canna. (1679)


Cinquefoil (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Shrub, perennial flower - Potentilla; (ii) Parts Used: Blooms for shrubs or wildflowers, whole plant (wild), root of P. palustris; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Flowers and domestic shrub - soft yellow (alum); Root – red; (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Cissing: Running streaks and bare spots in color that should lie smoothly, usually due to poor wetting of the surface.

Citrine: Citrine is a color, the most common reference for which is certain colored varieties of quartz which are a medium deep shade of golden yellow. Citrine has been summarized at various times as yellow, greenish-yellow, brownish yellow or orange. The original reference point for the citrine color was the citron fruit. The first recorded use of citrine as a color in English was in 1386. It was borrowed from a medieval Latin and classical Latin word with the same meaning. In late medieval and early modern English the citrine color-name was applied in a wider variety of contexts than it is today and could be "reddish or brownish yellow; or orange; or amber (distinguished from yellow)". In today's English citrine as a color is mostly confined to the contexts of: (1) gemstones, including quartz; (2) some animal and plant names (e.g. the citrine wagtail Motacilla citreola, an Asian bird species with golden-yellow plumage.


Citron Yellow (Pigment): Zinc yellow. This term is also applied to any pale greenish yellow. See remarks under primrose yellow and lemon.

Claret (CI - 11D8): Same as red wine, Bordeaux (red). From French clair, claret, meaning clear. (1547)


Classification of Dyes: Dyes are classified according to their structure or alternately according to the process by which they are applied to the substrate (i.e. in dyeing and printing of fabrics etc.) The azo and azoic dyes are classified according to their structure, whereas mordant and disperse dyes are classified according to their application to the substrate.

Clay (CI - 5D5): The average color of clay. (1594)


Clematis Blue (CI - 17D8): Typical deep violet. The color of the blossoms of the clematis plant. From Greek clematis (little twig). (1899)


Clematis (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Flowering vine, wildflower - Clematis; (ii) Parts Used: Flowers, leaves and vines; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: From domestic vine, faded blooms – yellow-green (alum); green (iron); chartreuse (tin); Vines and leaves – grey-green (iron); brown (chrome); tan (blue vitriol); (v) Fastness: Excellent for vines and leaves; good for blooms.

Clover (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Wild flower, perennial - Trifolium pratense, Melilotus alba; (ii) Parts Used: Either species – blooms, blooms and leaves, whole plant; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: White sweet clover (flowers and leaves) – medium yellow (alum); gold (chrome); orange (tin); tan (iron); soft green (blue vitriol); Red clover (flower heads) – strong yellow-green (alum); brilliant chartreuse (tin); soft green (blue vitriol); Clovers processed after frost give olive-green and khaki shades if whole plant is used; (v) Fastness: Excellent for both species.

Clump Tying (Dye Pattern): A very attractive pattern can be made by tying small stones into the fabric at intervals The fabric is dyed then rinsed. The string is removed and the fabric and stones are washed. Note: The effect on the fabric is shown in the background.


Coal (CI - 3F1): The color of coal after it has been heated and released gas and tar. The coal becomes porous and its original black color becomes greyer.


Cobalt Black (Pigment): See black oxide of cobalt.

Cobalt Blue (Pigment) (CI - 22B7): Compound of cobalt oxide, aluminium oxide, and phosphoric acid - first produced in 1777. Bright, clear, nearly transparent, somewhat similar to ultramarine, but never so deep or intense, and with a comparatively greenish undertone. The name comes from the German word: kobold, a mythical gnome who was believed to harass mining communities. See Delft blue (CI - 20E4); enamel blue (CI - 21C7). (1777)


Cobalt Green (Pigment): Compound of cobalt zincate and zinc oxide. A fairly bright green, not very powerful, but quite opaque. It has a bluish undertone and is permanent for all uses. It is made in a limited edition of shades. Not in wide use.

Cobalt Ultramarine (Pigment): Gahn's blue. It is an outmoded variety of true cobalt blue made without phosphoric acid and is generally considered inferior to Thenard's blue. Appears violet under artificial light. Permanent, clear and transparent.

Cobalt Violet (Pigment): Cobalt arsenite or cobalt phosphate, the latter variety being preferred as it is non-poisonous. A clear, semi-opaque pigment made in a variety of shades, bluish and reddish. Some of the cobalt violets contain arsenic and so should be used with caution. Permanent.

Cobalt Yellow (Pigment): Also called Aureolin. It is cobalt-potassium nitrite. A bright, transparent yellow, permanent for water color, tempera, and oil, especially in glazes and for tinting; as a body color, its top tone is rather dull, muddy, and greenish. Supersedes gamboge.

Cochineal: The Aztec Indians discovered cochineal, a red dye made by crushing the bodies of tiny insects that fed on cactus plants.

Cock's Comb (Red) (CI - 10B7): Same as madder red (medium). The color of cock's comb.


Cocoa (Brown) (CI - 6E6): Also called cacao (brown). Same as leather (brown) or tan. The color of ground seeds from the cacao tree. Related to chocolate (brown). The name is derived from the Aztec word cacahuatl. (1887)


Coelin (Pigment): Cerulean blue.

Coeruleum (Pigment): English trade name for cerulean blue.

Coffee (CI - 5F7): The color of ground coffee. The color of coffee with cream is somewhat lighter (CI - 5E4). Café-au-lait is the color of coffee with milk (CI - 6D3). The special kinds of coffee, the Italian expresso and the Arabic mocha are used as color names when referring to a black brown shade which is the color of very strong coffee. Arabic qahwah. (1695)


Coffee (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Ground bean - Coffea arabica; (ii) Parts Used: Coffee grounds used in a drip pot; (iii) Processing: As for coffee grounds; (iv) Colors Obtained: Warm tan (vinegar); medium brown (chrome); grey tan (iron); Using twice as much coffee or half as much fiber will result in darker shades; (v) Fastness: No method gives light fastness. However, fiber left to soak two days in a strong bath gives wash fastness.

Cognac (CI - 6E7): The color of French brandy produced at Cognac. (1928)


Coke Black: See vine black.

Colcothar: Pure red oxide; obsolete term.

Colloid: Paint, mist or other dispersion of very fine particles in a consistent medium.

Cologne Earth: Cassel earth.

Color: See also Hue. Any wavelength of visible light or mixtures of light - other than black (absence of light), white (combination of all visible wavelengths) and grey (black and white shades). It depends on three measurable qualities: hue; degree of lightness or darkness; and intensity. See figure below.


Color Absorbed Verus Color Seen: Wavelength of Light: 4000 to 4350 Å; Color Absorbed: Violet; Color Seen: Yellow-Green. Wavelength of Light: 4350 to 4800 Å; Color Absorbed: Blue; Color Seen: Yellow. Wavelength of Light: 4800 to 4900 Å; Color Absorbed: Green-Blue; Color Seen: Orange. Wavelength of Light: 4900 to 5000 Å; Color Absorbed: blue-Green; Color Seen: Red. Wavelength of Light: 5000 to 5600 Å; Color Absorbed: Green; Color Seen: Purple. Wavelength of Light: 5600 to 5800 Å; Color Absorbed: Yellow-green; Color Seen: Violet. Wavelength of Light: 5800 to 5950 Å; Color Absorbed: Yellow; Color Seen: Blue. Wavelength of Light: 5950 to 6050 Å; Color Absorbed: Orange; Color Seen: Green-Blue. Wavelength of Light: 6050 to 7500 Å; Color Absorbed: Red; Color Seen: Blue-Green.

Colorant: Any substance that produces a color change in or on another substance such as a dye, paint, or stain.

Color Bars: In four-color processing, proofs should contain standard sets of bars devised to show stength of ink across plate, register, etc.

Color Break: The edge between two areas of color in an image.

Color Burnout: Deterioration in the color of printing ink caused by chemical reactions in mixing or drying.

Color Chart: Chart used in color printing to standardize and select or match color inks or tints used.

Color Circle: Graphic representation of the relationship of primary and secondary colors and successive color mixtures and tonal values.

Color Coder: An instrument capable of comparing the intensity of printed colors, ensuring correct reproductions.

Color Correction: The adjustment of color values used in reproduction to obtain a correct image.

Colored or Chromatic: Strictly speaking these terms should apply to every color, but in practice, they often apply only to effects which contain a hue, such as red, blue, green, yellow, and not to neutrals, white, grey, or black. The English word color is derived from the Latin: color. The word chromatic from the Greek: chroma. Italian: cooler; Spanish: color; Portuguese: colorado; French: cooler; Dutch: kleur. See figure below.


Color Effects on Devoré: Color and resist effects can be produced by printing with an alkaline pigment, reactive or vat dye before blotch printing the devoré paste over the design.

Color Fastness: The resistance of a colored cloth to various stressed situations such as washing, light degradation, rubbing etc. These are measured using standard protocols yielding a scale range from 1 to 5, where 5 signifies no visible change and 1 signifies a substantial change. For light degradation 8 represents the most resistance (highest fastness) to alteration.

Color Index (abbrevation: CI): An authoritative, descriptive catalogue of natural and synthetic dyes and dye auxiliaries published by the Society of Dyers and Colorists, England.

Color Interaction: Colors when placed in a close vicinity interact. In the example below note the changes in hue, value and saturation as the colors in these palettes intermix. For further information see post - Psychology of Color.


Colorist: A colonist is a skilled dye or pigment technologies whose function is to test the products of the dye-maker under the same or closely similar conditions to those employed by the dyer, printer or other user.

Color Key: The dominant color in a work, or a group of colors that appears to be dominant. For example, red-violet, red-orange and red-yellow are all centered on red – a color common to all.

Colorless or Achromatic: Same as neutral, without color. A general, but paradoxical color term, which refers to white, grey, and black. Also called neutral colors. The opposite of colored.

Color Positives: Set of screened four-color separations with positibve image, used for deep-etched litho platemaking.

Color Scheme: A plan using color that has purposely designed built-in restrictions. For further information see post on - Color Schemes.

Color Separation: The process of creating a stencil for each color of an image.

Color System: A specific means of obtaining color effects. Complementary and analogous systems, for example, produce different effects.

Color Temperature: Color temperatures affect us both psychologically and perceptually. This property of color also determines how objects appear positioned in space. Warm colors are said to advance - they appear closer to the observer. Cool colors are said to recede - they appear farther from the observer. For further information see post - Psychology of Color.


Color Temperature (of light): The color quality of light, measured in degree Kelvin.

Color Value: The tonal value of a color as compared to a light-to-dark scale of pure greys.

Colorwashing: Simple water-based technique used to produce a softly textured, patchy finish achieved by applying several layers of thin paint.

Color Wheel: See also color circle. A systematic arrangement of color formed on a circumference of a circle, illustrating a sequence of colors arranged in an orderly hue progression.


Coltsfoot (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Perennial, wildflower - Tussilago farfara; (ii) Parts Used: flowers and leaves; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Flowers – yellow (alum); bright gold (tin); dark gold (chrome); tan (vitriol); soft beige-grey (iron); Leaves – yellow (alum); grey (blue vitriol); tan (chrome); taupe (iron); yellow-green (tin); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Complementary Colors: (i) Light - colors that when combined will produce a white light; (ii) Pigment - colors that when combined produce black; (iii) Any pair of colors that when placed on a color wheel occupy opposing positions. For example, Red/Green, orange/blue and purple/yellow. The complementary of any primary color (red, yellow, blue) is the secondary color made by mixing the other two. Placing complementary colors next to each other makes for maximum vibrancy. See figure below with pairs of complementary colors.


Complementary Color Scheme: The complementary color scheme consists of two colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel; that is, they are opposed optically such as red-green, yellow-violet and blue-orange.



This scheme looks best when you place a warm color against a cool color; for example, a red versus green-blue. This scheme is intrinsically high-contrast. For further information see post on - Color Schemes.

Conditioning: The process in which the characteristic of pigment has been significantly altered by a physical modification.

Cone Drawing (Tsutsugki): Freehand style application of resist paste, using mulberry paper brass-tip cone.

Cone monochromic: Cone monochromic is a rare total color blindness that is accompanied by relatively normal vision, electroretinogram, and electrooculogram. Cone monochromacy can also be a result of having more than one type of dichromatic color blindness. People who have, for instance, both protanopia and tritanopia are considered to have cone monochromacy. Since cone monochromic is the lack of/damage of more than one cone in retinal environment, having two types of dichromacy would be an equivalent.

Cone of Clear Vision: Central cone of normal human vision in which we see clearly, taken to be an angle of 2 degrees.

Cone of Vision (Perspective): In perspective projections, configuration formed by convergence of visual rays onto station point.

Cones: The photo-receptors in the retina that are sensitive to green, blue-violet and red wavelengths of light.

Congo Red: Congo Red is the sodium salt of benzidinediazo-bis-1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonic acid; a diazo dye that is red in alkaline solution and blue in acid solution and used especially as an indicator and as a biological stain.

Conjugated Bond Systems: A chemical system of alternating double and single bonds. These systems absorb strongly in the ultraviolet and in certain cases can absorb in the visible region of the light spectrum.

Constant White: Blanc fixe.

Continuous Tone: Gradual change from one color to another, or the range of greys between black and white.

Contrast: The degree of separation of tones in an image from black to white.

Cook Out: To boil a dyestuff in water until the color is extracted, the resulting liquid constituting the "dye bath".

Cool Colors: A relative term often used to describe blue, green and other colors with a blue or green cast.

C.P.: Chemically pure, or a grade of material as free as possible from all traces of impurities. Sometimes applied to commercial pigments designated a grade free from extender or added inert pigment.

Copenhagen Blue (CI - 21D6): The color of porcelain made in Copenhagen around 1880. Its modern counterpart is of a stronger, slightly redder color.


Copper Blue (CI - 26B6) See Bremen blue. Same also as copper rust or malachite green.


Copper Green (CI - 26B6) Same as copper rust (see below) or malachite green.

Copper (Mordant): It has been used as a mordant by industry for centuries. It was originally used in the form of verdigris - basic copper acetate. Copper sulfate is also known as “blue vitriol” and is toxic and so should be handled with care. Hence it is rarely used as a mordant by home dyers.

Copper Maroon, R592-D (Pigment): A modern revival of Vandyke red used in automotive finishes and for blending with synthetic organic pigments.

Copper (Red) (CI - 7C8): The color of copper; from the Latin cuprous or "metal from Cyprus". When copper becomes tarnished, it may acquire a more brownish and reddish color a for example, English and venetian red (CI - 8D8). This color change takes place because of the formation of thin layer of copper oxide (brown) or copper sulphide (black). Related to bronze brown, bronze green. See also bronze blue. French: cuirve. (1590)


Copper Rust (CI - 26B6): Same as malachite green, copper green. The color of the blue-green substance which forms on the surface of copper when it is exposed to carbon dioxide in air. See verdigris, Spanish green, green of Greece (CI - 27D4); patina green (CI - 28C5); Poison green (CI - 26A8).


Coquelicot (CI - 8A8): Same as red lead; typical of yellowish red or orange red. The color of poppy whose French names are ponceau or coquelicot See cock's comb (red) (CI - 10B7) (although this has a greater blue content than CI - 8A8). Related to ruddy (CI - 9B5) and maiden blush (CI - 8B4), which have less red content. (1795)


Coral (Red) (CI - 9B7): The color of coral formed by the coral polyp. Greek: korallion. (1513)


Coreopsis (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Garden flower, some annual, some perennial - Coreopsis tinctoria; (ii) Parts Used: Flowers, blooms, and stems after frosts; (iii) Processing: As for flowers; (iv) Colors Obtained: Fresh flowers – bright yellow (alum); bright orange-yellow (tin); rusty orange (chrome); Flowers collected after frost – dull gold (alum); dull rust (chrome and tin); brown (chrome and iron). For olive-green, use frost-bitten flower heads, leaves and stems with an iron mordant. (v) Fastness: Excellent for all shades.

Cork Black: See vine black and Spanish black.

Corn (CI - 4B5): Same as (golden) wheat. (1887)


Cornflower Blue (CI - 20B7): The color of the (blue) cornflower, Centaurea cyannus from the Greek kyaneos, the Latin cyanus (blue). See cyan (blue) (old) (CI - 21F7), cyan (blue) (new) (CI - 23A7). French: bluet. (1891)


Corn (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Garden vegetable - Zea; (ii) Parts Used: All parts of the plant; (iii) Processing: Shed, tear or chop all parts used. If dyeing with cobs, break them in two and soak in water for several days; (iv) Colors Obtained: Husks and leaves in a strong bath – soft yellow (alum); tan (chrome); greyish-tan (iron); soft yellow-green (blue vitriol) bloomed in tin; Cobs – pale beige (vinegar and chrome); (v) Fastness: Husks and leaves, good; cob, fair.

Couch: Priming layer as of varnish or paint, as in painting.

Cover Power: The extent of area over which a given amount of liquid paint or varnish will spread to give a satisfactory coating when it is applied in a normal layer, ordinarily expressed in square feet per gallon. Sometimes confused with hiding power.

Cracking Fastness: The resistance of a dye or pigment to being removed because of a rubbing action.

Cranberry (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Cultivated and wild fruit - Vaccinium macrocarpon, Vaccinium oxycoccus; (ii) Parts Used: Berry or juice; (iii) Processing: As for berries; (iv) Colors Obtained: Juice – beige (vinegar); pinkish-tan (alum and tin); taupe (iron); grey (chrome); (v) Fastness: Fair for all, except grey which was quite fast.

Crayfish Red (CI - 9B8): Same as lobster (red). The color of cooked crayfish. See lobster red.


Cream (CI - 4A3): The color of cream. French: crime. (1500)


Cream of Tartar (Additive): Potassium bitartrate, cream of tartar, is used as an additive to alum and other mordant baths. It softens the effects of harsh mordants, such as tin and iron, and increases the acid value of a bath.

Cremnitz White (Pigment): High quality corroded white lead.

Crimson (CI - 11A8): Same as carmine. The bluish red color of the organic pigment produced from cochineal, a red dye produced from dried bodies of the female bug, Dactylopius coccus, which feeds on the Mexican Nopal cactus. This superseded Kermes as a source for crimson dye. Crimson and carmine are derived from the arabic name for the kermis insect, qirmiz and Arabic and Sanskrit words for worm, charges and kern, respectively. Carmine is also related to the Latin kermesinum. The word developed into Middle Latin carmesinus or cermesinus; French: carmin, cramoisi; English: crimson (1400) and carmine (1523), respectively.


Crocein: Any of several synthetic yellow or scarlet dyestuffs that are diazo and sulfonic acid derivatives of benzene and naphthol. Name derived from Latin croceus from crocus saffron.

Crock: To transfer color by a rubbing action.

Crocking: (i) The removal of color due to rubbing action on the fabric; (ii) Unfixed dye which rubs off a cloth surface.

Crocking Fastness: The resistance of a dye or pigment to removal by rubbing.

Cross Dyeing: Dyeing a fabric blend in two or more successive processes, one for each component of the blend.

Crystal Gum: The common brand name for this is Nafka. This is particular good for acid and disperse printing and was commonly used on silk because of its high definition.

Cuba (CI - 9E8): A fashion color. It originally corresponded to mahogany (CI - 8E7) but is now closer to Havana (brown) or tobacco (brown) (CI - 5F6). (1916)


Cucumber (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Garden vegetable - Cucumis; (ii) Parts Used: Vine and leaves; (iii) Processing: As for leaves; (iv) Colors Obtained: Warm yellow-beige (vinegar); pale yellow (alum); gold (chrome); bright yellow (tin); grey-tan (iron); tan (blue vitriol); (v) Fastness: Good.

Cudbear: Same as orchil. A violet coloring matter obtained from various lichens, especially >Lecanora tartar. A usually soluble substance for staining or coloring e.g. fabrics or hair. Origin: 1760–70; coinage by Cuthbert Gordon, 18th-century Scottish chemist, based on his own name.

Curing: The application of heat, usually to polymerize and/or set resins applied to textile materials.

Currant Red (CI - 10B8): Same as cherry (red). The color of the ripe berry of the currant bush. (1899)


Curry Yellow (CI - 4C8): Same as dark yellow. The color of the Indian spice in powdered form. The color of curry when dissolved in sauces is lighter and greener as in (3B4-3C4). Derived from the word kari the name given to this spice in Tamil, one of the oldest Indian languages. (1946)


Cutting: The process in which a dry concentrate dye is diluted by grinding and mixing with substances such as salt, sodium sulfate and dextrine. See standardization.

Cyan (Blue) (New) (CI - 23A7): A shade of blue used in four-color printing and one of three primaries used in “subtractive color mixing”. It is a color containing no red. The same as azure blue.


Cyanine Blue (Old) (Pigment) (CI - 21F7): Same as Berlin blue, bronze blue, Milori blue, Paris blue, Prussian blue, steel blue. A mixture of cobalt and Prussian blues; also the name of an organic dye.Originally a dark blue, later synonymous with Berlin blue. See blue for its etymological development. (1879)


Cyclamen (CI - 13A6): The color of the flower of the Alpine violet. From the Greek: kylaminos Austrian: zyklame; French: cyclamen (1905).


Cyprus Umber (Pigment): See raw umber.

Daffodil (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Flowering bulb - Narcissus various species; (ii) Parts Used: Faded blooms from any narcissi species, mixed colors; (iii) Processing: As for fresh flowers; (iv) Colors Obtained: From mixed daffodil, jonquil, and narcissus blooms, in white and yellow (soaked out for three days) – soft yellow (alum); medium gold (alum and chrome); bright yellow (tin); old gold (chrome and iron); grey (iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Dahlia (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Garden flower - Dahlia; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh or faded blooms; (iii) Processing: As for flowers; (iv) Colors Obtained: From faded, fuchsia-colored dahlia blooms – strong yellow-green (baking soda); yellow (alum); dark gold (blue vitriol); green (iron); Red and Orange blooms – bring yellow-orange (tin); rust (chrome and tin); Magenta and Purple heads – grey-green (iron); green (blue vitriol bloomed in tin); brown (chrome and iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent, but the greys and greens may change in hue slightly.

Daisy (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Wildflower - Chrysanthemum leucanthemum; (ii) Parts Used: Whole plant; (iii) Processing: As for whole plant; (iv) Colors Obtained: Soft-yellow (alum); bright yellow-green (tin); beige (vinegar); chartreuse (baking soda); gold (chrome); dull pale green (iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Dampening: Necessary process in lithography of dampening the printing late to prevent ink spreading.

Dandelion (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Weed, wildflower - Taraxacum officinale, Leontodon autumnalis; (ii) Parts Used: Leaves, blooms (separately or together), roots; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Flowers only – yellow (alum); bright gold (tin); dark gold (chrome); tan (blue vitriol); soft beige-grey (iron); Leaves – yellow-green (alum); chartreuse (tin); warm tan (iron); gold (chrome); greyish green (blue vitriol); Roots – tan (vinegar and salt); gold (alum); gold-brown (baking soda); grey (iron); bright gold (tin); brown (chrome); (v) Fastness: Good.

Dark: A general term used to indicate the opposite of light (see light). Can be applied to all dark colors without regard to hue. Often refers to hair color and complexion; related to hair brown (CI - 5E4) and dun. Chiefly used to generally modify defined colors, such as, for example, a dark bluish green, dark blue etc. When modifying yellow, dark acquires the special connotation of "reddish". For its etymological background, see black. French: foncé as in blue foncé; German: dunkel as in dunkelblau (dark blue).

Dark Blonde (CI - 5D4): A general name used for hair colors, which are slightly darker than blonde. See blonde.


Dark Blue (CI - 20E7): A general name typified by the sample indicated below. Colors darker than greyish blue and deep blue. Related examples: Delft blue (CI - 20E4); Berlin blue (CI - 21F7).


Dark Brown (CI - 6F8): A general name typified by the sample given below. the darker sections of brown and reddish brown areas. Related examples: chestnut (brown) (CI - 6F7); chocolate brown (CI - 6F4); liver brown (CI - 8F6).


Dark Green (CI - 27F8): A general name typified by the sample given below. Colors darker than greyish green and deep green. Related examples: myrtle green (CI - 25F7); spruce (green) (CI - 26F3); parsley green (CI - 30F8).


Dark Grey: See grey.

Dark Magenta (CI - 13F8): A general name typified by the sample given below. Colors darker than greyish magenta and deep magenta. See dark purple.


Dark Purple (CI - 14F8): A general name typified by the sample given below. Colors darker than greyish magenta and deep magenta. See dark magenta. Example: aubergine (CI - 14F3).


Dark Red (CI - 11C8): Same as deep red. A general name typified by the sample given below - strong dark reds within the larger area of brownish red. Related examples: blood red (CI - 10C8); high red (CI - 10A8).


Dark Ruby (CI - 12F8): A general name typified by the sample given below - port wine. Colors darker than greyish ruby and ruby. Example: Burgundy (CI - 12F5).


Dark Turquoise (CI - 24F8): A general name typified by the sample given below. Colors darker than greyish turquoise and deep turquoise. See turquoise.


Dark Violet (CI - 16F8): A general name typified by the sample given below. Colors darker that greyish violet and deep violet. Related examples: plum purple (CI - 15F5); indigo blue (CI - 18F3).


Dark Yellow (CI - 4C8): Same as curry yellow. A general name typified by the sample given below. A strong and relatively dark yellow.


Daub: Paint thickly, hastily or crudely.

Davy's Gray: Powered slate.

Dawn (CI - 12A3): See Aurora. (1920)


Dawn Grey (CI - 4D1): The color of an overcast sky at dawn. Related examples: sky grey (CI - 23B2), aurora (CI - 10B4), dawn (CI - 12A3) and rose dawn (CI - 7C4). Like these three colors, dawn grey is subject to many variations. (1912)


Daylight Bulb: An incandescent bulb with a blue coating that serves to neutralize the warm color temperature of the filament.

(Deep) Black: Same as black. A general name characterized by the total absence of light. See black.

Deep Blue (CI - 20D8): A general name typified by the sample given below; strong dark blues. Related example: lapis lazuli (blue) (CI - 20E8).


Deep Green (CI - 27D8): A general name typified by the sample given below. Strong dark greens. Related examples: chrome green (CI - 26D8); parrot green (CI - 30E8).


Deep Magenta (CI - 13D8): A general name typified by the sample given below. Strong, dark bluish reds. Related example: beetroot purple (CI - 13D8).


Deep Orange (CI - 6A8): A general name typified by the sample given below, which is the same as chrome orange (CI - 6A8). This sample is also typical of orange. The adjective deep is used in the same way as in deep yellow, with perhaps even more emphasis on the strength of the color; that is, even richer in color. Included in this area are: cadmium orange and chrome yellow (deep), both being (CI - 5A8).


Deep Red (CI - 11C8): Same as dark red.


Deep Turquoise (CI - 24D8): A general name typified by the sample given below. Strong dark turquoise colors. Related example: sea blue (CI - 24E8).


Deep Violet (CI - 17D8): A general name typified by the sample given below. Strong dark purples and violets. Related examples: royal purple (CI - 16D8); clematis blue (CI - 17D8).


Deep Yellow (CI - 4A8): Same as cadmium yellow (deep), saffron, flame yellow. Typical of yellowish orange, orange yellow, reddish yellow. Typical of yellowish orange, orange yellow, reddish yellow. A general name typified by the sample given below. In this name deep has the connotation of reddish as in cadmium yellow (deep). Chrome yellow (deep) (CI - 5A8) is more reddish, extends into the orange area, and is not considered a dark yellow.


Delft Blue (CI - 20E4): Same as Turkish (or Turkey) blue. The color of pottery made in Delft, Holland, in imitation of a color found in Chinese porcelain. Originally called Oriental blue (CI - 22D5). Produced through the same pigment containing cobalt (see cobalt blue (CI - 22B7). Similar to Copenhagen blue (CI - 21D6); enamel blue (CI - 21C7); porcelain (blue) (CI - 23C6); faience blue (CI - 24C7) - all of which have cobalt as their base. China blue (CI - 23D5) is usually considered a Berlin blue mixed with white, but it can also be regarded as a porcelain color. (1800)


Delphinium (Blue) (CI - 20B6): The color of the flowers of the larkspur plant, Delphinium (cultorum). (1919)


Delphinium (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Garden flower, perennial - Delphinium; (ii) Parts Used: Flower spikes; (iii) Processing: As for each flowers; (iv) Colors Obtained: From purple flowers – bright yellow (tin); soft green (blue vitriol); pinkish-tan (iron); (v) Fastness: Good.

Delustrant: White pigment added to synthetic fibers to subdue their luster by scattering light.

Densitometer: An electronic precision instrument used to measure quantitatively colors or density in a color transparency.

Density of a Dye Solution: The density of water at 20oC is 0.9982 g cm-3 or 0.9982 grams per ml. Dye solutions are mostly composed of water and so dyers generally do not take into account the small amount of dye that is dissolved in water. Hence, dyers will use a rough rule-of-thumb and so if they use one ml of dye solution then that measure is also roughly equivalent to 1g of it.

Derby Red: Chrome red.

Deuteranomaly: Deuteranomaly, caused by a similar shift in the green retinal receptors, is by far the most common type of color vision deficiency, mildly affecting red–green hue discrimination in 5% of European males. It is hereditary and sex-linked. The difference with deuteranopia is that in this case the green sensitive cones are not missing but malfunctioning.

Deuteranopia: Deuteranopia is a type of color vision deficiency where the green photoreceptors are absent. It affects hue discrimination in the same way as protanopia, but without the dimming effect. Like protanopia, it is hereditary, sex-linked, and found in about 1% of the male population.

Develop: To treat with an agent so that color appears.

Diamond Black: Carbon black.

Diatomaceous Earth: A form of silica or clay, light, fluffy, and absorbent. The particles are the remains of plant life and under the microscope some varieties exhibit lacy designs, which are skeletons of their original forms. It is used as an inert filler.

Diazo: abbr. Diazonium. A method of reproducing in limited quantities from a transparent or translucent original on paper, cloth or film. The image is exposed onto a light-sensitive coating of diazo salts and dyestuff and the print may be blue, black or another color.

Dichroism: The property of a substance which exhibits two different color effects when viewed under two different circumstances or sets of circumstances. An example is alizarin crimson, which displays a deep maroon color when painted opaquely and a transparent ruby-red color when spaced out in a thin layer and viewed by transmitted light. The so called suede effect - that is a definite difference in color between vertical and horizontal fiber or in painting with respect to brush strokes on an area of flat color - is due to this property.

Dichromacy: Dichromacy is a moderately severe color vision defect in which one of the three basic color mechanisms is absent or not functioning. It is hereditary and, in the case of protanopia or deuteranopia, sex-linked, affecting predominantly males. Dichromacy occurs when one of the cone pigments is missing and color is reduced to two dimensions. Dichromacy conditions are labeled based on whether the "first" (Greek: prot-, referring to the red photoreceptors), "second" (deuter-, the green), or "third" (trit-, the blue) photoreceptors are affected.

Diffusant: Diffusant, when added to the paint, makes it bleed faster and run more smoothly on the silk, thus making backgrounds easier to paint, and enhancing the rock-salt effect. Each silk paint brand has a pre-mixed diffusant in its range; or lyogen can be bought separately from craft suppliers and substituted. Lyogen usually needs to be diluted with water, at least 50:50.

Dill (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Herb, annual - Anethum graveolens; (ii) Parts Used: Dill plant, flower head, and stalk; (iii) Processing: Chop or shred the plant, and cover with water allowing mixture to soak out in two or three days. Stir occasionally and let it sit in a warm place; (iv) Colors Obtained: Soft beige (vinegar, medium bath); soft yellow (alum, strong bath); strong yellow gold (tin, strong bath); medium dark gold (chrome, strong bath); soft grey-green (blue vitriol, saddened in iron, strong bath); (v) Fastness: Good.

Dingler's Green (Pigment): A variety of chromium oxide green.

Dip: Immersion of cloth into dye bath.

Dip Dyeing: A multi-colored dyed effect, created by carefully dipping sections of the yarn or fabric into different colored dye baths. A stripy effect can be achieved by keeping colors separated as much as possible.

Direct Application: Includes painting on, spraying, blocking dyes, pigments or resists onto the surface of a cloth.

Direct Modulation: The addition of one complement to another, usually done in steps, in order to visualize the change more clearly.

Direct Dyes (Substantive Dyes): A class of dye with long flat molecules containing a sulfonic acid group (-SO3) that has a particular bonding affinity for cellulosic fibers such as cotton. The dyes are usually held fast on the fibril surfaces by van der Waals (i.e. intermolecular) forces and by hydrogen bonds. They are fast without the aid of complicated application procedures or additional chemical assistance.

Direct Style: A style of patterning in which one or several colors are applied to the surface of a fabric and are usually fixed by thermofixation or steaming. The fabric base is usually white, but may have been previously dyed. This method was rarely used until the advent of synthetic dyestuff.

Discharge: Using a chemical compound (discharge paste) in order to remove, discharge or extract dye from a fabric. Total removal of the dye returns the fabric to its former color. Also called bleaching or stripping.

Discharge Printing: Darker colored dye fabric is printed with a chemical compound (discharge paste), which destroys, discharges or extracts dye from the darker ground color.

Disperse Dyes: A class of relatively non-polar dyes, only sparingly soluble in water, used to dye hydrophobic (water hating) fibers such as polyamides, polyesters, acetates, and acrylics. They are usually ground in a mill to fine particle size (1-10 micron) in an aqueous medium containing a dispersing agent. The bonding between the dye and the fiber is due to van der Waals forces (i.e. intermolecular forces), hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole interactions (the latter is technically termed dispersion forces).

Distemper: A term employed to designate aqueous paints made with a simple glue-size or casein binder, such as are used for flat indoor wall painting and decoration; (ii) Group of paints formed by mixing pigments with water, bound with casein, glue or egg, which were widely used before the introduction of emulsion paints.

Dock (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Weed perennial - Rumex crispus; (ii) Parts Used: Whole plant, leaves, young plant, roots, seeds and stems from mature plant; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Fresh, leaves, stalks or whole plant – yellow (alum); bright yellow-green (tin and blue vitriol); gold (chrome); greyish green (iron and blue vitriol), tan (vinegar); Mature reddish brown whole plants – warm beige (alum); medium brown (blue vitriol); medium gold (chrome); dark brown (iron); bright yellow-gold (tin); (v) Fastness: Excellent for all shades.

Doctor: A scraper or knife edge used to scrape off paste paint from a surface.

Doctor Blade: A device used in intaglio printing processes to wipe excess ink from the surface of a plate. The blade is made of flexible metal.

Dogwood (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Ornamental trees and shrubs - Cornus florida, Cornus alternifolia; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh leaves, fall leaves, red bark, or roots; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Fresh leaves – yellow (alum); gold (chrome); beige-tan (vinegar); Autumn leaves – pinkish-beige (alum, vinegar); brown (iron and chrome); Roots – yellow-gold (alum); warm tan (chrome); (v) Fastness: Good for all colors.

Domino: The color of a black clerical robe. From the Latin dominos (master). See black. Blacker than the color given below.


Dope Dyeing (Solution Dyeing): The coloring of synthetic filaments by the addition of pigments before extrusion.

Dove Grey: A medium grey color with a slight tint of pink or blue, like that of a dove. The grey below is that of a Wilsonart Dove Grey.


Drab (CI - 5E3): Same as mouse grey. Refers to a color of a certain type of yarn. From the Middle Latin drapes. (1686)


Dressing: A mixture applied to give a finish to the cloth surface. Best removed before dyeing.

Dragon’s Blood: A transparent resin of blood-red hue; not a true pigment color. It will dissolve in alcohol, benzol and some other solvents, but it is practically insoluble in turpentine. Not permanent.

Driers: Substances usually metallic salts that can speed ink drying.

Drop Black (Pigment): Burnt grapevines. See Black Pigments.

Dry-Brushing: Paint technique that keeps the bristle surface of a brush relatively dry in order to build up a cloudy effect, or to touch up the highlights of a textured surface.

Dry Mounting: The use of heat sensitive adhesives.

Dull Blue (CI - 21D4): A general name typified by the sample given below. Lies within the area of greyish blue; consists of the dull, less saturated greyish blue colors. Related examples: Oriental blue (CI - 22D5), China blue (CI - 23D5).


Dull Green (CI - 27D3): A general name typified by the sample given below. Lies in the are of greyish green; consists of dull, less saturated greyish greens. Related examples: Spanish green (CI - 27D4), cactus (green) (CI - 28E4); lavender green (CI - 30D3).


Dull Lilac (CI - 15C3): A general name typified by the sample given below. Lies within the area of lilac.(The latter areas in turn a part of the greyish violet area).


Dull Red (CI - 10C4): A general name typified by the sample given below. Lies in the area of greyish red and partly within that for greyish rose. The area consists of the dull, less saturated greyish reds. Examples: maiden's blush (CI - 8B4); aurora (CI - 10B4); (CI - 10C4) is also typical of greyish red, which covers a broader area.


Dull Violet (CI - 17D3): A general name typified by the sample given below. Lies within the area of greyish violet; dull, less saturated greyish violets, which border on dull lilac.


Dull Yellow (CI - 3B3): A general name typified by the sample given below. Lies within the area of greyish yellow; consists of dull, less saturated greyish yellow. Related example: straw yellow (CI - 3B4).


Dulse (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Seaweed - Rhodymenia palmata; (ii) Parts Used: Use all the dulse, kelp or seaweed; (iii) Processing: Chop or shred dulse and soak in salt water covered for several days. Resulting shades as listed below will alter if fresh water is used; (iv) Colors Obtained: With dulse in a strong bath – medium warm tan (vinegar); taupe (baking soda); soft warm beige (alum); grey-tan (iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Dun: An old term derived from a Celtic language. Referred to animal colorings of dull, indefinite tones (953).

Duplex Board: One consisting of two layers of different color and/or quality, pasted together.

Dust (CI - 5D2): The color of dust, small particles of dried earth, and other matter. Related to khaki (CI - 4D5). (1607)


Dutch Metal Leaf: Imitation gold or silver using gliding.

Dutch Pink (Pigment): A fugitive yellow lake made from blackthorn berries. Made for decorative purposes. Also called Brown Pink.

Dutch White (Pigment): China clay; also Dutch process white lead.

Dyad: Any pair of complementary hues.

Dye: A colorant that will go into solution; that is, dissolve into water or in other solvents.

Dye-Ability - General Definition: It is the ability of fibers to be dyed; Reason for Fiber Property: There are numerous fiber properties that contribute to its dye-ability and for that matter, some of these properties preclude the use of a particular dye types in preference for other dye types etc. The major fiber properties with respect to dye-ability depend on - (i) Chemical structure of the fiber (e.g. reactive groups and dye sites in the fiber polymer system); (ii) molecular structure such as its orientation, crystallinity, cross-linkages, hydrogen bonding etc. within the fiber polymer system; (iii) fiber diameter; Translation into Fabric Property: Affects the ability of a fabric to be dyed or printed with a particular dye type.

Dye Based Ink: Ink obtaining its color from aniline dye.

Dye Bath: Water in which the dyestuff has been cooked out. The dyestuff itself is often strained off and discarded. That is, it is a bath in which the solution of dyestuff, assistants and water in which cloth is immerse.

Dye Bath Ratio: The ratio between the cloth weight and water is called the dye bath ratio. For example, a 1:50 dye bath ratio means for every 1g of cloth 50g of water is required.

Dyed Style: A method of patterning in which a mordant is applied to a fabric before dyeing. Only the mordant areas permanently fix the dye. Different mordants can produce different colors with the same dye upon the piece of fabric.

Dyeing: Apart from its participle meaning it is also used as a noun meaning a specimen of dyed material (e.g. a dyed hank of cotton). Dyeing is in general carried out in an aqueous solution. The attachment of a dye molecule to a fiber is due to absorption. There are four types of forces that bind a dye molecule to a fiber and these are: ionic forces, hydrogen bonds, van der Waals’ forces and covalent bonds.

Dyeline: Same as "diazo".

Dyestuff: Animal, mineral or vegetable (plant) matter from which a dye is made.

Earth Colored (or Mould) (CI - 5F2): The color of half-dry earth or mould of the kind used in gardens.


Eau De Nil: A pale yellowish green color. From French eau de nil, from eau ‎(“water”) + de ‎(“of”) + Nil ‎(“the Nile”).


Ebony: The color of the black ebony wood. Derived from the Greek ebenos, the Egyptian hebni. See black. Blacker that the color given below (CI -4F2).


Ecru (CI - 4C3): Naturally colored; unbleached. Same as beige, flaxen, or light blonde. Until 1910 this color name enjoyed great popularity, but was later replaced by beige. Borrowed from the French ecru, which was derived from the Latin ex and cru, raw or unprocessed (from the Latin crudus. See natural (CI - 4B3).


Eggplant (CI - 14F3): See aubergine.


Eggshell: Mid-sheen, oil - or acrylic-based paint used as a base coat for basic and bravura finishes. White eggshell is also used for mixing some pale colors for the glaze coat. Also used to describe a mid-sheen finish of paints and varnishes. With respect to color eggshell is considered a shade of White that is 11% saturated and 94% bright.


Egyptian Blue (Pigment) (CI - 21C7): Same as enamel blue. The color of a pigment made from a mixture of copper silicates. It is one of the earliest artificial pigments, dating in Egypt from about 3000 BC and Rome at a later date. It has long been replaced for paint by small, which in turn has been replaced by the modern cobalt blues. (1809)


Egyptian Brown: See Mummy.

Egyptian Green (Pigment): A green variety or greenish shade of Egyptian blue.

Elderberry (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Cultivated and wild shrub - Sambucus candadensis; (ii) Parts Used: Leaves, fresh fruit; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: The leaves give a good range of yellow, tans, golds, and browns. From berries and fruits – softish pink (alum); pinkish-tan (chrome); blue with purple tinge (iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent for colors from leaves, poor for colors from fruit.

Electromagnetic Radiation (Spectrum): The complete range of wavelengths that constitute light.

Elephant Skin (CI - 5E2): Same as metal (grey). The color of the hide of an Indian elephant. (1928)


Elm (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Ornamental hardwood - Ulmus americana; (ii) Parts Used: Leaves, bark; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Leaves – yellow (alum); tan (vinegar); yellow-green (baking soda); gold (chrome); Bark – medium grey-brown (chrome); dark grey-brown (iron); warm tan (salt and alum); beige-tan (vinegar); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Embossing Effects: The thermal properties of a fiber or resin that can be used to emboss a fabric. Simple effects can be achieve by placing objects (e.g. washers, lino cuts) under a heat press for a few minutes.

Emerald Chromium Oxide (Pigment): Viridian.

Emerald Green (Pigment) (CI - 27B8): Same as Paris green. Copper aceto-arsenite or a hhydrated chromium oxide. The most brilliant of greens, very difficult to match, called Schweinfurt Green in Europe. It is a bad pigment in that some common varieties are not light-proof and because it is a dangerous poison, and because mixture of emerald green with several other pigments will darken on short exposure. It is limited to the color of emeralds. The emerald of old, which were mined in the vicinity if the Red Sea were comparatively lighter in color. This name has also been applied to the pigment, hydrated chromium oxides, but is limited to the color of emeralds. The name is probably of Indian origin, derived from maragada. Compared to the Hebrew baraq (to glitter); Sanskrit: marakata; Greek: (s)marauds; Latin: smaragdus; French: verse émeraude. See chrome green and viridian green. (1572).


Emeraude Green (Pigment): Viridian.

Emulsifier: An auxiliary that assist the absorption of substance into an emulsion.

Emulsion: (i) Water-based paint, suitable for most decorative paint finishes if protected with a glaze or varnish; (ii) Suspension of an oil in water.

Emulsion Paints: Paint in which the coloring is contain in tiny oil droplets suspended in water.

Emulsion Thickeners: They are generally long-chain compounds containing a hydrophilic group at one end of the molecule. Emulsion thickeners of the white-spirit type are particular suitable for pigment printing, because all the components, except the emulsifying agent, will completely evaporate, leaving no residues.

Enamel: (i) A vitreous glaze or porcelain which contains pigments, applied to metal or pottery objects and fused to produce a smooth, hard, durable surface by heating in a kiln or furnace; (ii) An object so decorated; (iii) A liquid paint, which dries with an extremely high gloss, its effect approaching that of a vitreous enamel. Derived from the German word meaning "to melt" (about 1550).

Enamel Blue (CI - 21C7): Same as Egyptian blue. The color of an ancient pigment made from copper silicate. The color of an animal pigment made from copper silicate. Smalt, a pigment using cobalt silicate in powdered form, corresponds to color (CI - 19A8). The word enamel is of German origin, relating to the German word meaning "to melt". Latin: smaltum; Italian: smalto; French: email. See cobalt blue (CI - 22B7). (About 1550)


Enamel White (Pigment): Blanc fixe.

Encaustic: A painting medium using hot wax to bind colors to a wood panel or wall.

Endoscope: See "fiber optics".

English Pink: Dutch Pink.

English Red (CI - 8D8) (Pigment): Light red. Same as Venetian Red. A color from iron oxide pigment. A frequently misused name. See oxide red. (About 1700)


English Vermilion: Vermilion made in England.

English White: Whiting.

Epoxy: Artificial resin used in tough adhesive.

Eschel (Pigment): A variety of smalt.

Euchrome (Pigment): Burnt umber.

Evening Primrose (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Wildflower, biennial - Oenothera biennis; (ii) Parts Used: Blooms or whole plant; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Flowers – yellow (alum); brilliant yellow (tin); bright gold (chrome); Whole Plant – yellow-green (alum and blue vitriol) greyish-green (iron); chartreuse (alum bloomed in tin); tan (chrome); (v) Fastness: Good for blooms; excellent for whole plant.

Exhaust: The degree by which the cloth takes up the full color potential of the dye bath.

Exhaust Dyeing: Using water, additives and sometimes heat, the fibers of a cloth are able to take up dye. This continues until all the dye has been absorbed into the cloth, leaving an "exhausted" dye bath.

Exhaustion: The process, during dyeing, of the transfer of the dye from the dye bath to the fiber until the dyestuff in the dye bath has been used-up (i.e. exhausted).

Extender: Substance added to paint, glue or the like, as to thicken or dilute it.

Eye Blue (CI - 22C3): The color of the iris, a somewhat vague concept. Other eye colors are brown or grey etc.


Eye Brown (CI - 7F6): The brown color of the iris.


Eye Grey (CI - 23D2): The grey color of the iris.


Fabric Dyes: There are dyes for both man-made and natural fabrics. It is important that the correct dye is used for the target fabric otherwise streaky results will occur. There are two types of dyes that are generally available: cold water dyes which are only suitable for natural fabrics such as cotton and linen and hot water dyes.

Fabric Paints: Fabric paints can be used on most fabrics. There is a large range of colors and moreover, the paints can be intermixed to create nearly an endless range. All paints can be diluted with water and are available in four finishes – pearlized, opaque, fluorescent and transparent. Different types of fabric paints react differently on materials. For example, pearlized paints sit on the fabric and do not soak into it and for that reason they can be employed on darker backgrounds. White fabric paint can be mixed with opaque fabric paints to create pastel colors. The amount of fabric paint employed is a function of the technique that is used and the effect that is desired. For example, a technique like block printing requires little fabric paint. It should be noted that diluting fabric paints with too much water can cause the paint to bleed into the fabric.

Fabric Pens: Fabric pens look and work like ordinary felt tip pens, but are especially formulated to be used on fabric. They are generally available in two nib sizes – a fine tip and a wider tip. The pens can be used on most fabrics, although the color may bleed on a fine, smooth material. They are not suitable for fabrics with dark backgrounds as the color will not show up. When used on fabrics, the effect is rather like diluted fabric paint. Fabric pens are useful for scribbles, doodles, dots and lettering and are not useful for painting large flat areas.

Facing: Facing is due to the partial discharge of the unprinted areas of the dye ground occurring mainly in roller printing. It is also called scumming.

Fading: Loss of color caused by light-initiated chemical break down of dye molecules.

Faience: Earthenware with an opaque glaze.

Faience Blue (CI - 24C7): The color of porcelain made in the Italian village of Faenza, around 1500. See Delft blue. (1923)


Fallow (Color): See Fawn Brown below.

Fastness: The cloth's color resistance, particularly to light and washing.

Fastness Properties and Tests: Fastness is the resistance of dyes or pigments to various agencies and actions, which the dyed or painted fabric must withstand in the process of manufacture and in its everyday use. For example, fastness tests encompass: acids, alkalis, bleaching agents, burnt gas fumes, hand washing, heat, light, linseed oil, acid and alkaline milling, oleic acid, perspiration, rubbing, solvents, sublimation, washing, and water. For example, disperse dyes transfer printing on polyester shows a standard wet fastness not worse than grade 4 for color change and staining in ISO Wash Fastness Test No. 3.

Faux Blanc: Off white.

Fawn Brown (Pigment) (CI - 4E4): Mixture of raw or burnt umber with dark ochre. The color of the fur of a fawn. The color of this fur may also be white or dark grey. (1789)


Fermentation: Processing of a dyestuff (usually umbilicate lichens) in water, ammonia, and oxygen for several weeks or longer, until the mixture "works", like home-made wine.

Fern (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: None-flowering plants, embryophytes - Pteridium aquilinium, Matteucia struthiopteris and others; (ii) Parts Used: The leafy fronds at various stages of maturity; (iii) Processing: As for any other leaf; (iv) Colors Obtained: Struthiopteris collected in July – soft lime-green (alum and blue vitriol); yellow-green (alum, bloomed in tin); bright green (alum, blue vitriol, bloomed in tin); From the same species picked in September – gold (chrome); soft gold (alum); bright gold (alum and tin); brown (chrome and iron); (v) Fastness: Good to excellent; some variance.

Ferrite, Ferrox (Pigment): Trade names for Mars yellow.

Ferruginous: Same color as rust. See rust.

Feuille Morte (or Autumn Leaf) (CI - 6D7): The same color as raw sienna. The color of the leaves of the beech tree, which fall in autumn. The name of the autumn leaf was introduced around 1892. The French name, feuille morte was used in England as early as 1640.


Fez (CI - 10D8): Same as cardinal red, strawberry. The color of the Arabian hat, which was originally made in the village of Fez in Morocco. (1925)


Fiber-reactive Dyes: Cold water dye, which reacts to alkaline solution to form a bond between the dye molecule and the fiber. It is intermixable, reliable, fast and simple to use on cotton and silk.

Filler: See Inert Pigment.

Film Former: Any fluid material or ingredient, which when applied over a surface, will set to a solid continuous layer of film and perform the function of a paint vehicle, medium or varnish.

Fire Red (CI - 7A8): Same as flame red. Not a specific pigment. Toluidine red, cadmium red, flame red, flame scarlet, and others have so been labeled. Typical of reddish-orange. The red color of fire. One of the oldest color names, because of its association with the concept of fire. (1382)


Fir - Green or Pine Needle (CI - 26F3): Same as spruce (green). The color of the needles of the fir tree; the word pine is derived from the Latin name pinus. Fir (green), 1884, pine needles, 1927.


Fir (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Coniferous softwood tree - Abies balsamea; (ii) Parts Used: Tips of branches from mature or young trees; cones; (iii) Processing: Tear up the branch tips or larger branches so they are in small pieces, cover with water and soak put for two dyes. Cook out branches and strain off the liquor. Process cones as would nuts; (iv) Colors Obtained: Fresh fir tips from mature branches – gold (alum and vinegar); tan (blue vitriol); warm brown (chrome); bright gold (tin); Cones – tan to medium brown (alum and chrome); grey (blue vitriol and iron); beige (alum and vinegar); warm tan (baking soda); (v) Fastness: Excellent. Browns may darken if processed at a temperature above a bare simmer.

Fixation: Most fixation processes require the application of heat to fix the dyestuffs to the fabric fibers. There are various methods available some of which include: air fixing, wet processing with chemicals, thermo-fixing (baking) and steam fixing.

Fixative: A clear vanish solution that, sprayed over artwork or a drawing, dries to a protective coating without altering surface qualities.

Fixing: The process of making the color permanent to ensure fastness.

Flake White (Pigment): Basic lead carbonate. The best variety of corroded white lead - a fine white color; works well in oil, with which it forms a smooth unctuous mixture. It is poisonous if taken internally and turns to brown if exposed to sulfur fumes. Very opaque; absorbs less oil than any other heavy white pigment. Suitable for artists' use only if well protected by oil, varnish or over painting; under these conditions it is absolutely permanent. It should not be used in other mediums.

Flame Black (Pigment): Made by burning coal tar, mineral oils etc. by a process which produces a grade of carbon inferior to lampblack. Rather brownish, likely to contain impurities.

Flame Red (or Flame Scarlet) (CI - 7A8): Same as fire red. Typical of red orange. The color of a flame. See fire red. (1590)


Flame Yellow (CI - 4A8): Corresponds to cadmium yellow (deep) deep yellow, saffron yellow. Typical of yellowish-orange, orange yellow, reddish yellow. Originally used to designate a yellow such as that in a flame; now refers to a strong orange-like yellow. Related to fire red or flame red.


Flamingo (CI - 12A4): Typical of pink and rose. The color of the flamingo bird. The flamingo was the Egyptian hieroglyph for red. The Latin name for flamingo Phoenicopterus roses was derived from the Greek phoenix or phoinikos (purple red). The flamingo was the Egyptian hieroglyph for red. The Portuguese word flamingo, on the other hand, is possibly derived from the word for flame, flama; the color of \, flame red or flame scarlet (CI - 7A8), which is very different from (CI - 12A4). (1898)


Flat Color: An area of unbroken, single hue and value.

Flavin: Another name for quercetin. A heterocyclic ketone that forms the nucleus of certain natural yellow pigments, such as riboflavin. In dyeing, any yellow pigment based on flavin. From Latin flāvus meaning yellow.

Flaxen (CI - 4C3): Same as beige, ecru, light blonde. The color of the ripened flax plant. Related to bamboo (CI - 4C4); golden wheat or corn (CI - 4B5); straw yellow (CI - 3B4). Formerly used to describe hair color, which is now more commonly call light blonde. (1602)


Flemish White (Pigment): White lead.

Flesh (CI - 6B3): The color of flesh of Caucasian race. An average flesh color, which differs from the special color names applied to complexion, such as pale (CI - 2A2); pale yellow (CI - 2A3); sunburn, sun brown (CI - 6D5); or tan (CI - 6D6). Related to negro (CI - 6F3); Somalis (CI - 7E5). (1611).


Flogging: Colored glaze is laid over a base coat, then flogged with a long-bristled brush. This gives a mottled effect.

Florentine Brown: See Vandyke red.

Florentine Lake: Crimson lake.

Fluorescence: Absorbing ultraviolet light and then re-emitting light in the visible spectrum.

Fluorescent Ink: Ink used in poster and display work that has bright and luminous color due to phosphorous content, natural or synthetic.

Flushing Effects: In discharge it is the “halo” effect that often occurs.

Foam Dyeing: Dye liquor is applied to the fabric surface as foam; when the foam breaks the fabric surface is wetted.

Fog (CI - 23C1): The color of fog seen against a light background. Related to smoke grey (CI - 3C2) and to fog blue (CI - 23C3). (1922)


Fog Blue (CI - 23C3): The color of fog or mist when seen against a dark background. Related to smoke blue, sky blue and fog. (1902).


Foliage Green (CI - 30D6): Same as leaf green. The color of leaves of growing plants due to the presence of the pigment chlorophyll. This word derives from the Greek chloral meaning yellow green. The Greek term was originally used to describe the light yellowish color of young plants but later commonly referred to green in general. Although the color of leaves depend on the type of plant, the season and illumination, the standard here is relatively stable color present in mid-summer, particularly when viewed from a distance in sunlight. In shade the color may change to around (CI - 30F4); on over cast days to around (CI - 29E4). Spring green (CI - 30C7); lettuce green (CI - 30D7); and grass green (CI - 30E7), closely resemble foliage green. See also bracken green (CI - 29E7); spinach green (CI - 29E6); apple green (CI - 29C7); and pea green (CI - 29D5). (1892)


Foliage Green (in shade) (CI - 30F4): See foliage green (CI - 30D6).


Foliage Green (on overcast days) (CI - 29E4): See foliage green (CI -30D6).


Folium (Pigment): An ancient mulberry color of various vegetable origins. The term was superseded by more exact names of specific lake colors.

Forsythia (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Flowering shrub - Forsythia various species; (ii) Parts Used: Flowers; or use stems and other cuttings after pruning; (iii) Processing: As for flowers; (iv) Colors Obtained: Yellow (alum); bright yellow (tin); bright gold (chrome bloomed in tin); With daffodils: dull yellow (alum); deep yellow (tin); warm tan (chrome and iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Fountain: A reservoir for ink supply when using a silk screen; (ii) on offset-litho machines, reservoir for supply of fountain solution (water, acid, gum) to dampening rollers.

Four Color Process: A method of printing in full color by color separation, producing four plates for printing in cyan, yellow, magenta and black.

Fox (CI - 8D7): The color of the pelt of the common red fox. German: fuchsrot. (1796)


Fraise (CI - 11C7): Originally the color of strawberries (CI - 10D8). More recently changed to a bluish red color (CI - 11C7). From the French, fraise or strawberry (a pale red). The name fraise is rarely used today.


Frankfort Black (Pigment): Drop black.

Frankincense: Same as oblibanium. Resin used in incense.

French Blue (Pigment): Artificial ultramarine.

French Ultramarine (Pigment): Artificial ultramarine.

French Veronese Green (Pigment): Viridian.

French White (Pigment): Not a standard term - silver white.

Frit: The term frit refers to any melted or fluxed ceramic glaze that may be white or colorless. In the case of pigments, it is a vitreous substance, such as the blue or greenish blue glaze on Egyptian faience, made by melting or fluxing siliceous materials with copper and other metallic salts, which impart color to the mass. The hue of Egyptian blue frits may be aped in paints by viridian plus cerulean and cobalt blues.

Fuchsine: Also called magenta. A dark green synthetic dyestuff used to make a purple-red dye employed in coloring textiles and leather and as a bacterial stain. See magenta.

Fugitive Colors: (i) Colors or inks, which are not permanent and change or fade when exposed to light; (ii) A dyestuff that will quickly fade through washing or exposure to light.

Fugitive Ink: One which fades or changes color on exposure to light, as distinct from "light-fast" or "permanent in".

Fuliginous: Having the color or properties of soot or smoke; musty. Latin fūlīginōsus full of soot, equivalent to fūlīgin - (stem of fūlīgō) soot + -ōsus -ous.


Fuller's Earth (Pigment): A form of diatomaceous earth.

Full-Spectrum of Light: Artificial or natural light that contains all wavelengths of visible light.

Fulvous: Fulvous is a color, sometimes described as dull reddish-yellow, brownish-yellow or tawny. It can also be likened to a variation of buff, beige or butterscotch. As an adjective it is used in the names of many species of birds, and occasionally other animals, to describe their appearance. It is also used as in mycology to describe fungi with greater color specificity, specifically the pigmentation of the surface cuticle, the broken flesh and the spores en masse. The first recorded use of fulvous as a color name in English was in the year 1664. Fulvous in English is derived from the Latin fulvous, a term that can recognised in the scientific binomials of several species and can provide a clue to their coloration.


Fungi (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Non-flowering plants Polyporaceae family; (ii) Parts Used: The whole fungus; (iii) Processing: Chopped up and soaked in water to one to three days and if the fungi does not soften, trying pouring boiling water over it; (iv) Colors Obtained: Most fungi give shades of yellow, beige, tan, greyish yellow, light brown, dark brown and gold; (v) Fastness: Excellent for all but dark brown.

Fustic: A small dioecious tropical American tree (Macular tinctorial synonomous Chlorophora tinctorial) having wood that yields a yellow dye. Origin: Middle English fustik, from Old French fustoc, from Arabic fustuq, from Greek pistakē, pistachio.

Gahn's Blue (Pigment): Cobalt ultramarine.

Gale (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Woody shrub - Myrica gale; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh leaves and twigs; young or mature leaves, with or without twigs; (iii) Processing: Tear or shred leaves and twigs, soaking for two or three days, stirring the mixture down occasionally; (iv) Colors Obtained: New leaves, without twigs – yellow (alum); brilliant yellow (tin); strong gold (chrome); New leaves with twigs – yellow-green (alum); yellow-grey (iron); brown (chrome); Mature leaves, with twigs – strong brown (chrome and iron); olive-green (blue vitriol, saddened in iron); warm tan (alum); Mature leaves without twigs give good greens with alum, blue vitriol, iron and tin; (v) Fastness: Good, but the greens are soft or pale may grey slightly with time.

Galipot: Turbine resin from pine trees.

Galliolino (Pigment): Naples yellow.

Gallstone (Pigment): Dutch pink made from ox-gall; more often it was a yellow lake formed from quercitron.

Gamboge (Color): Gamboge is a partially transparent deep saffron to mustard yellow pigment. It is used to dye Buddhist monks' robes because the color is a deep tone of saffron, the traditional color used for the robes of Theravada Buddhist monks.


Gamboge (Pigment): A native yellow gum from Thailand. Transparent. Not a true pigment color. Not reliably permanent. Superseded by cobalt yellow.

Ganosis: The toning or dulling of stone sculpture - for instance, by the application of colors mixed with wax.

Garance (Pigment): Madder lake.

Garnet Brown (CI - 9D8): A variation of the color of mineral garnet. (1905)


Garnet Red (CI - 11E8): The deep, bluish red color of the precious garnet or mineral from which it was cut. From the Latin, grants. (1783)


Gas Black (Pigment): Carbon black.

Gathering or Ruching (Dye Pattern): A length of string is laid over one corner of the fabric and the fabric is rolled diagonally around it. From a circle with the rolled fabric, the fabric is gathered tightly along the string and the ends tied. The fabric is dyed and then rinsed, and the string removed and the fabric is rinsed gain. When dry repeat the process but roll the fabric from the opposite corner and dye in the same or different color. Note: The effect on the fabric is shown in the background.


Gellert Green (Pigment): Variety of cobalt green.

Genet (or Dyer's Broom) (CI - 3A7): The color of the yellow flowers of the broom shrub. From the French, genet which is derived from the Latin Genista tinctoria.


Gentian Blue (CI - 21B7): The color of the flowers of certain kinds of gentian plants; others have flowers of a more violet blue color. The name is supposedly derived from the name of the Illyrian king, Gentius. German:enzian. (1865)


Geranium Lake (Pigment): A vivid but impermanent synthetic organic pigment.

Geranium (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: House and garden flower - Pelargonium; (ii) Parts Used: Faded flower heads; heads with some leaves added to the bath; (iii) Processing: As for flowers; (iv) Colors Obtained: Blooms, mixed colors, no leaves – green (baking soda); light green (blue vitriol); tan (iron); bright green (tin, alum); grey (chrome, iron); Blooms, mixed colors, with leaves – olive-green (iron); strong medium grey (alum, iron); khaki to brown (chrome); greenish-grey (blue vitriol); (v) Fastness: Excellent. All shades had an interesting and attractive depth of color.

Geranium (Red) (CI - 11B7): The color of the flower of this plant; from the Latin Geranium sanguine and the Greek geranos (stork) and geranion (stork's bill). Also the name of an organic pigment. (1842)


German Black (Pigment): Drop black.

Gesso: A solid coating made with a purely aqueous binder, either glue, casein or gelatin solution. It is usually pure white in color, and the dry ingredient is either whiting, chalk or slaked plaster of Paris, sometimes with a small amount of zinc or titanium white to enhance whiteness or opacity.

Giallorino (Pigment): Obsolete for an opaque lead yellow. See Naples Yellow.

Ginger: Associated with hair coloring that is reddish-brown. Middle English ginger, alteration of gingivere, from late Old English ginger, ginger (influenced by Old French gingibre), from Medieval Latin ginger, zinger, from Latin zingiberi, from Late Greek zingíberis, from Middle Indic (compare Pali siṅgivera.


Gladiolus (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Flowering bulb - Gladiolus; (ii) Parts Used: Faded blooms (no stalks); (iii) Processing: As for flowers; (iv) Colors Obtained: From light flowers – yellow (alum and vinegar); beige (blue vitriol); soft yellow-gold (chrome); bright yellow (tin); beige—grey (iron); Dark shades (red, purples); green (iron and blue vitriol); bright yellow-green (alum bloomed tin); (v) Fastness: Good for dark shades; excellent for light colors.

Glauber’s Salt: Glauber’s salt is sodium sulfate. It is a purgative used in dyeing as a leveling agent. The addition of this salt to a dye bath ensures even dyeing. Glauber’s salt may darken colors somewhat. It is also used to extract pigment from barks, lichens, and roots, much as ordinary salt is used to “draw out” color, although Glauber’s salt is stronger than the household variety. Although some recipes recommend the addition of Glauber’s salt to every dye bath, this results in the dyer producing a limited range of shades, all with that quality of color, which Glauber’s salt produces. However, it is extremely useful to add this salt when attempting to level dye baths.

Glaze: Any paint that has been diluted and in which color can be mixed. A semi-transparent film of pigment and oil or varnish used to color or model an underlying painting, which is usually monochromatic or limited in color range; imparts a lustrous effect.

Glitter Binder: A water-based pigment ink that produces a shimmering glitter print effect.

Glitter Paints: Suitable for all surfaces, including paper. Glitter paint is available in the large range of colors. It remains on the surface of the fabric and so can be used on darker backgrounds.

Gloss Binder: On its own, gloss binder creates a shiny almost plastic print on the fabric, similar to acrylic gloss. It can be mixed directly with pigment color, but can clog up silk screens because of its thick consistency.

Gloss Ink: A printing ink consisting of a synthetic resin base and drying oils. These inks dry quickly without penetration, and are suitable for use on coated papers.

Glue: A colloidal mixture of proteins prepared from animal or fish wastes treated first with milk of lime, acidified and them heated with water ca. 60oC.

Gmelin's Blue (Pigment): Artificial ultramarine.

Gobelin Grey (CI - 5A3): See Gobelin Red.


Gobelin Pink (CI - 6A4): See Gobelin Red.


Gobelin Red (CI - 10C6): Red used in the Gobelin tapestry factory establish in the fifteen century in Paris. Related to Gobelin pink (CI - 6A4); Gobelin grey (CI - 5A3). The best work was of the eighteenth century.


Gold Binder and Metallic Colors: To produce pigment colors in gold, silver, bronze and so on, a specialist metallic binder and metallic powder color will need to be employed.

Golden (CI - 4C6): Regarded as a general name. The color of the metal, gold; also used to describe a slightly reddish hair color. Similar to golden blonde. In this and the following color name, which sometimes indicates a slight red tinge: golden yellow (CI - 5B7); (golden) wheat (CI - 4B5); golden brown (CI - 4D7); golden grey (CI - 4C2); reddish gold (CI - 6C7). This is an old color name with the same root as yellow. Anglo-Saxon: golden; Old Norse:gulling (from the word for gold, gull or goll); German: golden. The relationship between the names yellow and golden is evident even in the Sanskrit hiranya, gold and hari, yellow; these names are in turn related to the Latin word for gold, aurum. French: doré. See blonde in reference to hair color. (1300)


Golden Blonde (CI - 4C4): Generally between 4C4 and 5C4. A general name that is more usually applied to a more restricted area. Refers to a hair color that is slightly redder than blonde and so we have designated it 4C4. See golden. (1423)


Golden Brown (CI - 4D7): A general name in which the word golden indicates yellow. See golden. See blonde in reference to hair colors. (1891)


Golden Grey (CI - 4C2): Same as greyish beige. See golden.


Golden Ochre (Pigment): Ochre brightened by the addition of chrome yellow. Not permanent. See ochre.

Goldenrod (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Perennial weed, wildflower - Solidago juncea and other species; (ii) Parts Used: Flowering tops and whole plant, at any stage of maturity; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: May be used to dye white, grey and brown fibers to produce fascinating results on darker yarns. Flowers used without leaves produces yellows, golds and tans. Slightly immature blooms produce yellower shades than those, which are fully open. Using whole plants gives yellow-greens and greens with mordants such as blue vitriol and iron. A good avocado to olive-green can be obtained using all the plant except the bloom, with blue vitriol and iron as mordants. For browns, use mature blooms and leaves with chrome and blue vitriol. Tin produces bright, sharp golds and often a bronze unequalled in clarity; (v) Fastness: Excellent.

(Golden) Wheat (CI - 4B5): Same as corn. The color of wheat ready for harvesting. Old Norese: hveiti; German: Weisen (from the German word for white; the color of flour). Related to bamboo (CI - 4C4); flaxen (CI - 4C3); straw yellow (CI - 3B4); golden (CI - 4C6). (1711)


Golden Yellow (CI - 5B7): Same as Indian yellow. A general name which is limited to the sample indicated. See golden. The color differs from golden (CI - 4C6). (1597)


Goose Turd (CI - 3F3): The color of the excrement of a goose or duck. Corresponds to the French color name (couluer de) merge d'oie; should not be confused with the French fashion name (bleu) canard, which refer to Duck's plumage. (1693)


Gouache: Opaque water color for which the pigments are mixed with white lead, bone ash or chalk also the method by which these water colors are use. Note: Its pronounced "Gwash".

Gouache Colors: Alizarin crimson, Bengal rose, burnt sienna, burnt umber, cobalt blue, grenadine, jet or lamp black, middle olive green, Naples yellow, orange lake light, permanent green, Prussian blue, spectrum red, spectrum violet, spectrum yellow, turquoise blue, ultramarine, Vandyke brown, yellow ochre and zinc white.

Gouache Paints: Gouache paints enables designers to match colors exactly and depict fabric textures and weights more successfully than other, flatter mediums. From sheer chiffons to highly textured wools, gouache has a broad range of application and can be used with mix media (such as marker and colored pencil) to accurately depict fashion designs.

Gradation: The smooth transition from one tone or color to another, or the range of values between black and white.

Grape Black (Pigment): Vine black.

Grapefruit (CI - 2C8): The color of ripe grapefruit. (1924)


Graphite: (i) An allotropic form of pure carbon. Principal uses: pencils, stove polish, anti-corrosive paint, lubricant. Greyish black, semi-crystalline, flaky, greasy. Permanent, but used in pigments in fluid paints; (ii) the color of the mineral graphite. From Greek graphic (to draw); German: graphit. Blacker than (CI - 16F2) which is shown below. see black. (1915).


Grass Green (CI - 30E7): The color of ordinary green grass. One of the oldest color names, it was probably the basis for the concept of green. The Eskimo word, ivinjak, green, is derived from the word grass, ivik. Similarly, the Russian word for green, muravyi, is derived from the word for grass, murava. In sunlight the color of grass can change to (CI - 30C6). Related to foliage green (CI - 30D6) and other chlorophyll greens. French: vert d'herbe; German: grasgrün. See green. (About 700 AD).


Grass Green (in sunlight) (CI - 30C6): See Grass Green.


Grass (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Lawn grass – various species; (ii) Parts Used: Freshly cut grass clippings; (iii) Processing: Soak out clippings in water to cover several hours before making dye; use enough to make a strong dye bath; (iv) Colors Obtained: Clear strong yellow (alum); brilliant yellow (tin); gold (chrome); tan (blue vitriol); soft grey (iron); alum and tin give a yellow-green; (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Grecian Purple (Pigment): Tyrian purple.

Green (CI - 27A8): A general name, typified by the sample given below - a primary green. Also called vivid green. In most languages, green was one of the last primary colors to be named. The basis for the concept is the phenomenon of plant growth, which is characterised by a light green color. The old High German, gruojan (to grow), the Dutch groin, and the French croitre are all related to the Greek chloros (yellowish green). In the modern Germanic languages the words for green are: German: green; Swedish and Danish, gron; Dutch: groen. The Romance languages derived their words for green from the Latin: viridis; French: vert; Italian and Spanish: verde. (See Spanish green or verdigris). The meaning of green has changed from the original pale yellowish green to a stronger, more bluish color represented by (CI - 27A8). The Chinese name for green, lo, represents a color that lies (CI - 26A) and (CI - 29A). Examples of colors that fall within the green area: poison green (CI - 26A8) and emerald green (CI - 27B8). (About 700 AD)


Green Earth (Pigment): A natural clay colored by small amounts of iron and manganese. It is quite transparent and of extremely low hiding and tinctorial power; it is used in glazes and as a water-color wash. It has a particular good absorption for dyes and has therefore been used as a base for some green lakes. Permanent. The best European grades are known as Bohemian (pure green tone), Cyprian (yellowish), Verona (bluish) and Tyrolean (similarly bullish but dull).

Green Gold (Pigment): A yellow pigment.

Greenish Black: A general name for a black with a tinge of green. See black.

Greenish Blue (CI - 24A8): Same as turquoise. A general name which has been replaced by turquoise. (CI - 24A8) is also designated as Indian blue.


Greenish Brown (CI - 6E3): A general name typified by the sample given.


Greenish Green (CI - 27D5): A general name typified by the sample given.


Greenish Grey (CI - 27D2): A general name typified by the sample given. Related examples, mineral grey (CI - 30C2); ash grey (CI - 1B2). The color area designated as olive grey also overlaps with the greenish area.


Greenish White (CI - 27A2): A general name typified by the sample given; whites with a tinge of green.


Greenish Yellow (CI - 1A8): A general name typified by the sample given. Also called poison yellow. Generally, strong colts between green snd yellow, but closer to the latter. Related example: primrose yellow (CI - 1A6).


Green of Greece (CI - 27D4): Same as verdigris, Spanish green.


Green (Psychology): In language, green is the color of immaturity (greenhorn), jealousy (Shakespeare's green-eyed monster) and freshness. Graphically it is used to express the idea of natural purity and of course the environment. For further information see post - Psychology of Color.

Note green is also associated with nature, fertility, youth, inexperience, environment, wealth, generosity, illness, greed, growth, health, stability, calming and new beginning (as is sprouting).

Green Ultramarine (Pigment): See ultramarine blue.

Green Verditer (Pigment): A greenish variety of the copper pigment describe under Bremen blue.

Grey (CI - 4C1): A general name for achromatic or neutral effects without hue, which lie between white and black. Aside from white and black, the grey scale includes the following general color names: pale grey or greyish white (CI - B1); pastel grey (CI - C1); light grey (CI - (C to D)1); middle or neutral grey (CI - E1); dark grey (CI - F1); Blackish grey (CI - G1); greyish black (CI - H1). Specific color names which completely or in part correspond to neutral grey are: platinum grey (CI - D1); pearl white (CI - 3B1); pearl grey (CI - 3C1); dawn grey (CI - 4D1); mole or taupe (CI - 4F1); steel (grey) (CI - 20D1); pewter (grey) (CI - 20E1); fog (CI - 23C1). Grey is one of the oldest color names. Its derivation can be traced back to the words for "dawn" in different languages. Old Norse: gryja, dawn; grar, grey; German: es graut, it dawns; grau, grey; Swedish: gry, to dawn; gra, grey. The French and Spanish name for grey is gris; the Dutch: grijs; the Italian: grigeio. (About 700 AD).


Greyish Beige (CI - 4C2): Same as golden grey. A general name for colors between beige (CI - 4C3) and grey (CI - 4C1). French: grége, silk.


Greyish Black: A general name for the darkest neutral greys; blacker than dark grey. See grey and black.

Greyish Blue (CI - 21D5): A general name typified by the sample given. Strong colors between blue and bluish green. Related examples: campanula (blue) (CI - 20B5); Copenhagen blue (CI - 21D6); Oriental blue (CI - 22D5); sapphire blue (CI - 23D7).


Greyish Brown (CI - 6E3): A general name typified by the sample given (brownish beige and Saruk). Colors between brown and brownish grey but closer to the latter. Related examples: drab (CI - 5E3); negro (CI - 6F3).


Greyish Green (CI - 27D5): A general name typified by the sample given (brownish beige and Saruk). Colors between green and greenish grey. Related examples: copper rust (CI - 26B6); ocean green (CI - 27C5); apple green (CI - 29C7); grass green (CI - 30E7).


Greyish Lilac (CI - 15B2): Same as lilac grey.


Greyish Magenta (CI - 13D5): A general name typified by the sample given. Colors between purplish red and purplish grey. Related example: amaranth (CI - 14E7).


Greyish Orange (CI - 6B5): A general name typified by the sample given. Colors between orange and orange grey. Related examples: apricot yellow (CI - 5B6); flesh (CI - 6B3).


Greyish Red (CI - 10C4): A general name typified by the sample given. Colors between reddish orange or red, and reddish grey. Related examples: maiden's blush (CI - 8B4); old rose (CI - 10C5); dull red (CI - 10C4) ia a general name which covers a narrower color area.


Greyish Rose (CI - 12B3): A general name typified by the sample given. Slightly shaded rose colors. Related example: mallow (purple) (CI - 12B5).


Greyish Ruby (CI - 12D5): A general name typified by the sample given. Colors between ruby and reddish grey; a greyish version of the general name, ruby (CI - 12D8).


Greyish Turquoise (CI - 24D5): A general name typified by the sample given. Colors between turquoise grey and turquoise. See the latter. Related examples: aquamarine (CI - 24B3); peacock blue (CI - 24D7).


Greyish Violet (CI - 17D5): A general name typified by the sample given. One of the most complicated areas of color to pin-point. Related examples: lilac (CI - 15B4) (which represents a somewhat smaller area); dull lilac (CI - 15C3) (which represents a still smaller area); violaceous (CI - 16C5); dull violet (CI - 17D3) (which represents a very small area); lavender (blue) (CI - 18B3); royal blue (or king's blue) (CI - 19C7).


Greyish White (CI - B1): Same as pale grey.

Greyish Yellow (CI - 2B5): A general name typified by the sample given. Colors between yellow and yellowish grey. Related examples: canary yellow (CI - 2B7); ash blonde (CI - 3C3); golden (CI - 4C6).


Grey (Psychology): Pure grey is the only color that has no direct psychological properties. It is, however, quite suppressive. A virtual absence of color is depressing and when the world turns grey we are instinctively conditioned to draw in and prepare for hibernation. Unless the precise tone is right, grey has a dampening effect on other colors used with it. Heavy use of grey usually indicates a lack of confidence and fear of exposure. For further information see post - Psychology of Color.

Note grey is also associated with elegance, conservatism, respect, wisdom, old age, boredom, dullness, pollution, neutrality formality, blasé, decay, military, education and strength.

Grey Scale: A tonal scale in a transparency enabling the printer to check reproduction of tones.

Grisaille: (i) A pigment consisting of a mixture of burnt umber, red lead, and quartz, used in stain glass. The term has also been used to describe a technique of painting; (ii) From the French meaning “grey”. White glass decorated with foliage designs (conventionalized or naturalistic), executed in monochrome glass-painting pigment.

Guar Gum: It comes from the guar plant and is a water dispersible guaran. In order to avoid lumps, the hydration of the powder should not be faster than the rate of surface wetting. Excessive stirring will cause a loss of viscosity. The time required for complete dispersion and maximum viscosity is temperature dependent. If 30 minutes is sufficient at 25oC then 60 minutes may be required at 15oC. Note: “Added acid” guar gums are safer since they only swell when the pH is reduced in lieu of temperature dependency.

Guignet's Green (Pigment): Viridian.

Gulf Red (Pigment): Persian Gulf oxide.

Gum Acacia: Resin or gum from various acacia trees used in inks, glues and the like. See Gum Arabic.

Gum Arabic: A high molecular weight polysaccharide exuded from wounds in the Acacia species. It is soluble in water at room temperature and form viscous solutions up to 50% by weight of the gum. It has long been the medium in inks and water paints and is used as a fixative for pigments.

Gum Tragacanth: The gum is obtained from slits in the bark of Astragalus gummifer. In its raw state it is often called Devil’s toenails or Dragon gum, because it was sold in the form of curved, horny white or yellow scales. It is now available in a powder and when mixed with warm water will produce a paste, which is widely used as a thickener – both on its own and in mixtures with starch – for discharge prints, and can be used with most dyes.

Gutta: It is a resist and so prevents paint from spreading from one area of the silk to another. It can also be used purely as a decoration or for emphasis. It is basically a latex or vegetable gum, depending on the type. Its function is similar as wax in batik in that it soaks into the fabric and so acts as a wall against the absorption of the paint into the fabric.

Gypsum: Native calcium sulfate, an inert pigment only used in painting as an adulterant. Very white and sufficiently permanent in water vehicles it is used extensively in paper and textile finishing trades and sometimes to prepare painting grounds.

Haarlem Blue: Antwerp blue.

Hair Brown (CI - 5E4): Represents an average of the usual variations in brown hair color. For other hair colors, see dark and blonde. The term brunette (from the French burn or brown), refers to a woman with brown hair. (1766)


Half Chalk (Half Oil) Grounds: Emulsion grounds. Grounds made of chalk and glue are universally known as gesso grounds. The German - Halbkreidegrund - is translated as half or semi-gesso.

Haloing: A white ring that resembles a "halo" around a colored discharge print. This is caused by migration of the soluble reducing agent around the printed design.

Hansa Yellow (Pigment): A bright pale yellow made from modern synthetic dyestuff pigment yellow. Transparent or semi-transparent, it is permanent. Name originally was a German trademark.

Hardener: A chemical which, when added to a polyester resin, causes them to harden.

Harrison Red (Pigment): A trade name applied to several cherry reds of the lithol and para red class (azo). It is not sufficiently light proof.

Hatchett's Brown (Pigment): Vandyke red.

Havana (Brown) (CI - 5F6): Same as tobacco (brown) and snuff (brown). (1875)


Hawthorn (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Tree-shrub - Crataegus; (ii) Parts Used: Mature fruit; (iii) Processing: Crush fruit, soak out for two or three days, stir, and bring to simmer, cook for 30 minutes and strain off the mush; (iv) Colors Obtained: Soft rich yellow (alum); strong medium gold (chrome); bright yellow-orange (alum, bloomed in tin); khaki (iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Hazel (CI - 6E8): Same as rust (brown); typical of brown. The color of the shell of the ripe hazel-nut. French: noisette. (1592)


Heal-All (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Perennial weed, wildflower - Prunella vulgaris; (ii) Parts Used: Whole plant; (iii) Processing: As for each whole plant; (iv) Colors Obtained: Soft yellow (alum); medium brown (blue vitriol); orange-gold (chrome); medium grey (iron); brilliant gold (tin); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Heat-Expanding Paints: These opaque paints come in a tube and have a unique raise effect. They can be used on any fabric although fine fabrics are not suitable as the paint is too heavy. They are not to be used on fabrics that are washed regularly as the paint sits slightly raised to the surface and the washing action may cause it to be removed. Generally when it is applied and after it has been left to dry, the reverse side of the fabric is ironed with a hot iron for a few minutes. The heat will expand the paint, making it raised and rubber-like in appearance. Wash the fabric carefully by hand.

Heat Sensitive Ink: Similar in quality to a pigment, it uses a similar binder. The ink is screen-printed or hand painted onto fabric. The ink changes color with a fluctuation of temperature, particularly after being touched.

Heat-Set Inks: Those inks designed for quick-drying by application of heat, which vaporizes oil content and allows residue to harden more speedily.

Heavy Spar (Pigment): Barytes.

Heliotrope (CI - 17B7): The color of the small violet flowers of this plant, which turns in the direction of the sun. From the Greek helios (sun) and trope (turning). The mineral of the same name is dark green or blood red in color, and seems to bear no relation to this color name. (1882)


Hemlock (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Coniferous tree - Tsuga canadensis; (ii) Parts Used: The fresh tips of hemlock boughs; bark; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Tips collected in mid-summer – bright yellow (alum); strong brilliant yellow (tin); bright gold (chrome); warm brown (chrome and iron); Bark – gives reddish-brown; (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Henna (CI - 7E8): Same as agate. The color of hair which has been tinted with henna. From the Arabic, henna, a brown pigment made from the leaves of a tropical plant. For other colors see blonde. (1613)


Hera: Spatula used for applying resist paste through a stencil.

Hexad: A system of colors or hues found by placing a six-pointed shape within a hue circle to determine three sets of complements.

Hiding Power: Degree of opacity in a paint or pigment; ability to mask or conceal an under painting. Covering power is sometimes confused with it.

High Gloss Ink: One having a vehicle so composed that ink does not penetrate deeply into paper and so has a varnish appearance.

High Intensity Color: Color that is pure (hue) or almost pure with no adulteration added.

High Red (CI - 10A8): Same as vivid red. A general name given to the color of the sample given below. The modifier high indicates a high degree f saturation combined with a high degree of lightness or a vivid red. Contrast with deep red (CI - 11C8), a strong but darker red. The most typical color in this area is (CI - 10A8), the sample that represents both primary red and signal red. This sample is also typical of the color red name. German: hochrot.


Hikizome Brushes: A ground color brush with wide handle and deer hair bristles, which absorbs large amounts of dye.

History of Color: Dates from images formed on cave walls. See post - A Brief History of Color.

History of Color: The ancient Egyptians were using color for cures and ailments. They worshipped the sun, knowing that without light there could be no life. They looked at nature and copied it in many aspects of their lives. The floors of their temples were often green - as was the grass that grew alongside their river - the Nile. Blue was a very important color to the Egyptians since it was the color of the sky. They built temples for healing and used gems (crystals) through which the sunlight shone. They would have different rooms painted in different colors. For further information about the history of color see post - A Brief History of Color.


Holly Green (Pigment): Green earth.

Hollyhocks (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Garden flower, perennial - Althaea rosea; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh flowers; (iii) Processing: As for flowers; (iv) Colors Obtained: From mixed shades (but mainly magenta, red and orchid) – soft pinkish-beige (alum); taupe (iron); warm tan (chrome); light green (blue vitriol); blue (from red blooms, with alum and tin); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Honey Yellow (CI - 4D6): Between (CI - 4D6) and (CI - 5D6), closer to the former and so presented below. The color of honey. The Latin word for honey yellow, helvus, is related to the original German form for yellow, gelwa. (1611)


Hooker's Green (Pigment): A mixture of Prussian blue and gamboge. Solid in two shades, yellowish and bluish, both of which are rather olive in tone. Not permanent, and has been superseded by phthalocyanine blue and cadmium yellow.

Horace Vernet Green (Pigment): Copper green.

Horizon Blue (CI - 24A3): Same as pale turquoise. The color of the sky viewed at an angle of about 5 degrees to the horizon. See sky blue. (1905)


Horsetail (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Non-flowering, perennial - Equisetum arvense; (ii) Parts Used: Green foliage which appears following the spore stem; (iii) Processing: As for fresh leaves; (iv) Colors Obtained: Soft green (alum and blue vitriol); light green (alum); yellow-green (blue vitriol); bright dark yellow (chrome); brilliant medium yellow (tin); grey-green (iron); (v) Fastness: Good to excellent.

Hue: The family name of a set of colors (e.g. yellow, green, red etc.); also a color that is entirely pure. The quality of light (wavelength) that separates one color from another.

Hungarian Green: Malachite.

Hyacinth Blue (CI - 19C6): A color of the hyacinth flower. These flowers appear in several shades of blue, as well as in red and yellow. The sample below has been selected to represent this color name. The Greek myth of the youth, Hyacinths, from whose blood a lily-like flower blossomed, is supposedly related to the red hyacinth. (1388)


Hydrangea (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Flowering shrub - Hydrangea; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh flowering heads; (iii) Processing: As for flowers; (iv) Colors Obtained: From white and pink flowers – beige (alum); medium warm brown (chrome); grey (blue vitriol); Blue flower heads – yellow (alum); yellow-green (blue vitriol); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Ice Blue (CI - 24C8): The color of the kingfisher. German: Eisvogel (kingfisher). The bird's color is reminiscent of steel; its name is related to Eisen (German for iron). Steel blue (CI - 21F7), however, is redder and darker than ice blue which belongs to the turquoise area. (1933)


Ikat (Kasuri): A resist method of hand dyeing in which certain areas of the yarn are wrapped to resist the dye, producing a pattern that will be later developed in the weave.

Imperial Green (Pigment): Emerald green, reduced with inert pigment.

Imprimatura: A veil or thin glaze of color applied to a ground as a preliminary coating. Term not in very wide use.

Incandescence: The emission of light due to heating a substrate.

Incident Light: Light rays which fall on the surface of a body, such as a fiber surface.

Indelible Ink: Ink that cannot be washed off or erased.

Indian Blue (CI - 24A8): Typical of turquoise or greenish blue. An indigo that was gradually modified by industrial application. (About 1830)


Indian Ink: Conventional term for black drawing inks, carefully made of lampblack with aqueous binders. Various kinds contain additions to improve color and working properties. Permanent. The color of black ink used in drawing, painting etc., which is produced from carbon; related to carbon black, pitch black, jet black, ink black etc. See black.

Indian Lake: See Lac.

Indian Red (Pigment): See red oxide. Formerly this name was applied to a very pure native red oxide from India. It is now the name of the best grade of manufactured iron oxide, bluish shade.

Indian Yellow (Pigment) (CI - 5B7): Same as golden yellow. An obsolete lake of euxanthic acid made in India by heating the urine of cows fed on mango leaves. The color given is a bit too reddish. It is replaced with more desirable modern light resisting lakes such as Hansa yellow or by cobalt yellow. (1735)


Indigo: Dark purple coloration. Made from the leaves of the plant Indigofera. This dye is distributed widely throughout the tropical areas of the world. Historically indigo is the oldest and most important of dyestuff. Synthetic indigo came onto the market in 1897, and was soon cheaper and more convenient to use than the natural product. The indigo dye was originally extracted from woad.

Indigoid Dyes: A dye class that is a sub-set of vat dyes. See vat dyes.

Indigo Blue (CI - 18F3): The color of the blue dye obtained from the indigo plant, Indigofera tinctorial and Indigofera anil. These plant names are derived from the Arabic al-nil, the Sanskrit nili, and the related word for dark blue, nila (the origin of the name of aniline base used in the formation of many rich dyes). The old Latin term for this dye was color indicus. The Greeks call the color indikon. The ancient Egyptians used indigo as we know from traces of this dye found on wrappings of mummies. At one time the Germans used to color their clothing indigo blue by using the dye obtained from the plant Isatis tinctoria. The clothing was soaked in the dye preparation on Sundays and laid out to dry on Mondays, since exposure to oxygen turned the dye the desired blue color; this practice gave rise to the expression "blue Monday". See Indian blue, pastel blue and Persian blue. (1289)


Indigo (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Tropical herbaceous plant - Indigofera tinctoria; Subject of a blog and so will not be covered here.

Indigosols: Indigosols are dyes derived from indigo vat dyes. The indigosols, with their light, bright color tones are particularly suitable for batiking on cotton cloth.

Indirect Modulation: Any mixture of two non-complementary hues (containing all three primaries but not producing a neutral) that results in a temperature shift. For example, a mixture of yellow-orange and red-violet.

Inert Pigment: A finely powered substance, which when mixed with a colored pigment causes no appreciable change in its shade or hue. Although inert pigments are used largely as adulterants or cheapeners, many are also employed to impart valuable or desirable physical or structural properties to paints and other mixtures.

Infra-Red: Not a color name. Denotes those rays, which lie beyond the red end of the visible spectrum, with wavelengths longer than those of visible light. Can be experienced as heat. From the Latin infra or under, which in this context has the same meaning as beyond.

Infusorial Earth (Pigment): Diatomaceous earth.

Ingrain Dyes: The term ingrain is applied to all types of dyes formed in situ on the substrate by the development or coupling of intermediate compounds, which are not themselves true finished dyes. The group includes Azoic and Oxidation dyes but is limited to those types "from growing knowledge of phthalocyanines".

Ink Black: The color of black ink or India ink. Blacker than (CI - 18F2) (see below). The Greek melan originally meant black, but was later used for ink as well. See ink blue. (1814)


Ink Blue (CI - 20F4): The color of bluish ink, such as royal blue used in fountain pens (CI - 20E8) - see Lapis Lazuli (Blue Pigment). Can vary greatly. (1928)


Ink Drier: A chemical agent added to ink to speed drying and to prevent smudging.

Intense Blue (Pigment): Variety of indigo lake. Recently applied also to phthalocyanine blue.

Intensity: (i) The relative number of photons that flood the optical nerve of the eye. Low intensity colors suggest few photons are registered compared to very intense colors; (ii) The degree of chromatic reflection; the less white light reflected from a surface the more intense the chromatic or the black effect will be; (iii) In color, a high degree of brightness; the fullest manifestations of a cooler chroma, its freedom from black, white or grey. In aesthetics, high emotional excitation.

Intermolecular Forces: Commonly known as van der Waals’ forces (named after a scientist who first investigated the phenomenon), intermolecular forces can be weakly attractive and repulsive and so they operate at close range to be effective. In the case of the attractive force, it arises principally from: ion-ion interactions; ion-dipole interactions; dipole-dipole interactions; dipole-induced dipole interactions etc. It is the principle force that binds a dye to a fiber in hydrophobic fibers.

Inter-reflection: A color shift due to light absorption into a deeply textured yarn or fabric surface; particularly evident in a nap or pile surface texture.

Ioden: A darkish green color.


Iodine Scarlet: Mercuric oxide. A vivid geranium red, like a synthetic color in brilliance and purity of tone, but much less permanent, fading rapidly to a pale yellow on exposure to light. Extremely poisonous. Useless as a pigment.

Iridescence: A color effect produced due to the chemical skeleton structure of the dye.

Iris Green (Pigment): Sap green. Originally the name of an obsolete lake made from the juice of iris flowers.

Iris (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Domestic and wild flower - Iris various species; (ii) Parts Used: Blossoms from any species; roots from yellow iris; (iii) Processing: Treating blossoms as for fresh flowers. The roots should be chopped and soaked out in water to cover before processing; (iv) Colors Obtained: Blue flag rhizomes – yellow-tan (alum); soft grey (iron); Blue flag blooms – yellow (alum); yellow-green (blue vitriol); grey (iron); (v) Fastness: Good; rhizome colors show good fastness.

Iron: Ferrous sulfate is sometimes referred to as “copperas”, which is its traditional name, but the use of that term confuses new dyers unfamiliar with the terminology. Iron (i.e. ferrous sulfate) “saddens” colors: in other words, it drabs them, producing khaki and avocado greens from strong yellow-green dye baths such as goldenrod and rhododendron leaves. It will also turn a pale beige or tan to a good grey and make excellent medium green from a lettuce bath when combined with blue vitriol. Iron in this form is poisonous. It is important not to use more than the specified amount as too much will make the fiber harsh. Keep a separate pot for mordanting and dyeing with iron, as even little residue from it in the pot will darken and drab subsequent alum, chrome and tin baths.

Iron Black: Precipitated metallic antimony, not in use as a pigment. Also see black oxide of iron.

Iron Blue (Pigment): Prussian blue.

Iron Brown (Pigment): Yellow oxide of iron.

Iron Yellow (Pigment): Prussian blue.

Isabella (CI - 4D7): See golden brown.


Italian Blue (Pigment): Egyptian or Pozzuoli blue. Name also used for imitations made from lakes or for special shades of Bremen blue.

Italian Earth (Pigment): Sienna.

Italian Pink (Pigment): Variety of Dutch Pink.

Ivory (CI - 4B3): Same as natural, platinum blonde, sand. The color of elephant tusks. From the Greek, elephas; German: elfenbein; French: ivoire. Variations: ivory white (1595) and ivory yellow. (1385)


Ivory Black (Pigment): Impure carbon. The black most widely used by canvas artists. Most (and probably all) ivory black on the market is really a high grade bone black. Permanent. True ivory black, carbon made by burning ivory scraps, has the same properties as bone black, but is finer, more intense, and of a higher carbon content. See bone black.

Ivy (Green) (CI - 1F3): The color of leaves of the clinging ivy. Derived from the Greek name iphyon. (1902)


Ivy (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Climbing vine - Hedera helix; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh leaves; (iii) Processing: As for leaves; (iv) Colors Obtained: Soft yellow (alum); bright yellow (tin); tan (chrome); (v) Fastness: Good.

Jacaranta Brown (Pigment): Burnt umber.

Jade Green (CI - 27E5): The green color of the mineral jade (which also appears in yellow and grey colors). From the Spanish piedra de ijade (stone for the back). A term originating from the use of jade in the treatment of backache. (1892)


Japan A loose term applied to two classes of varnishes: (i) Varnishes which are mixed with paints in order to impact a gloss. These are generally composed of resins and solvents with little if any oil, and are too brittle to be used alone; (ii) Decorative japans. These are cheap enamels, almost always black and almost always containing asphaltum. Some japans dry in air and others require baking.

Japanese Rice Resist Paste: Rice paste can be drawn or stenciled directly onto the surface of the cloth. It acts as a resist to most dyes.

Jasper Red (CI - 9B7): Same as coral (red). The red color of the mineral jasper, which also appears in many different colors. From the Arabic and Hebrew words for this mineral: yashe and yashphch respectively. (1912)


Jaune Brillant (Pigment): Naples yellow.

Jaune D'Antimoine (Pigment): Naples yellow.

Jet Black: The color of the black ornamental stone of the same name which is a product of petrified wood. Blacker than (CI - 5F2) shown below. See black. Old French: jayete.


Jet Dyeing: A dyeing procedure whereby the fabric rope and concentrated dye liquor are moved together in a sealed pressurized dye vat.

Jewelers' Rouge: Also known as colcothar and crocus. The brownish-red oxide of iron produced by heating ferrous sulphate: used chiefly as a pigment in paints and theatrical rouge, and as a polishing agent.

Jig Dyeing: A dyeing procedure in which the fabric is move back and forth through the dye liquor.

Joe-Pye-Weed (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Perennial weed, wildflower - Eupatorium maculatum, Eupatorium; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh flowers heads or whole plant; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Purple flat-topped flower clusters – medium yellow (alum); bright gold (chrome); sharp yellow (tin); Whole plant – yellow-green (alum); green (blue vitriol and iron); grey (iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

jonquil: Jonquil is a hue of yellow. It is the color of the interior of the central cylindrical tubular projection of the jonquil flower. The color takes its name from a species of plant, Narcissus jonquil, which has clusters of small fragrant yellow flowers, and is native to the Mediterranean. The first known recorded use of jonquil as a color name in English was in 1789.


Juneberry (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Shrub, small tree - Amelanchier various species; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh leaves, fresh blossoms, berries; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: From blossoms – a warm brown (alum and tin); lemon yellow (alum); soft green (blue vitriol); From leaves – yellow-green (alum); medium green (blue vitriol); brown (chrome); grey (iron); brilliant yellow-orange (tin); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Jungle Green (CI - 25F5): The color of the impenetrable jungle, may be darker than (CI - 25F5) given below. From the Hindustani jangle, the Sanskrit jangala.


Kaolin: A pure clay, sometimes used as a filler; very similar to and often the same as material sold as China clay or pipe clay.

Kassler Yellow (Pigment): Turner's yellow.

Kasuri: See Ikat.

Katazome: Paste-resist stencil dyeing.

Kendal green: A light greyish green color, like that of the cloth. (Dyeing) the color of this cloth, produced by a dye obtained from the woad plant. Named after Kendal, town in Westmoreland, England, where the cloth was originally woven and dyed.


Kermes: An obsolete crimson lake made from dyestuff of insect origin.

Kernel Black (Pigment): Vine black.

Key: See color keys.

Khaki (CI - 4D5): The color of cloth used for uniforms in the Anglo-Indian army. From the Hindustani khaki (dust-colorer), which was derived from the Persian khak, dust. See dust (CI - 5D2). (1848)


Kieselguhr (Pigment): A variety of diatomaceous earth.

King's Blue (Pigment) (CI - 19C7): Cobalt blue; formerly smalt. Same as royal blue. (About 1550)


King's Yellow (Pigment): Arsenic trisulfide; artificially made. Very bright yellow; opaque; not reliably permanent; very poisonous. Obsolete since the introduction of the cadmium yellows.

Kitchen Measurements: 1/4 teaspoon (tsp) = 1 milli-litre (ml); 1/2 tsp = 2 ml; 1 tsp = 5 ml. (This illustrates a rough rounding off for 1/4 and 1/2 tsp); 2 tsp = 10 ml; 1 table spoonful (tbsp) = 15 ml; 1/4 cup (standard drinking cup) = 60 ml; 1/3 cup = 70 ml; 1/2 cup = 120 ml; 1 cup = 240 ml; 1 pint (US pt) = 0.473 litres (l); 1 quart (qt) = 1.1 litres (l). For more detailed explanation of measurements used in dyeing and printing see post - Units used in dyeing and printing of fabrics.

Knapweed (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Perennial weed, wildflower - Centaurea nigra; (ii) Parts Used: Flowering heads or whole plant; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Flowers – yellow (alum); yellow-green (blue vitriol); gold (chrome); Whole plant – greenish-grey (iron); tan (blue vitriol); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Knotting (Dye Pattern): Depending on how the knots are formed, knotting can produce a variety of different patterns from intermittent undulating bands to unusual free form flower shapes. The fabric is rolled diagonally and knotted tightly at intervals and then dyed. The fabric is unknotted and rinsed thoroughly. It is then re-knotted below the original knots. The fabric is untied, rinsed again and washed. To produce a broken wavy pattern, the fabric is folded three or four times length wise and tied into several regularly spaced knots before dyeing. On the other hand freedom designs can be produced by knotting the fabric at random although the areas of pattern should be determined by first marking the position of each knot. Note: The effect of the first procedure on the fabric is shown in the background.


Krems White (Pigment): Cremnitz white.

Lac: Not a true pigment. A resin with a deep, transparent, brownish-red color. Not permanent. Obsolete as a pigment as it was replaced by alizarin. Described under shellac.

Lacquer: A fast drying varnish which forms a film and cures, because of evaporation of the solvents. Contains nitro cellulose along with various gum resins and solvents.

Lacquering: Technique for simulating the high-gloss finish of Chinese and Japanese lacquer.

Lake: A lake is a pigment, which has been made by precipitating or fixing a dye upon an inert pigment or lake base. The process may be compared to that of dyeing cloth and a high degree of skill is required to produce good results. Lakes are made in a great range of hues and strengths.

Lake Base: Both blanc fixe and alumina hydrate are given this name.

Lake Red (CI - 9C8): Originally the color of red dyestuff made in India from the secretion of the insect Coccus Iacca. The name is derived from the Hindustani lac or lakh (a hundred thousand) and Sanskrit laksa. This pigment was adopted for use by Italian artists in the sixteenth century. Today, lake pigments are produced in a greater number from shades from compounds of soluble coloring matter and certain metals. (1925)


Lamb’s Quarters (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Weed, annual - Chenopodium album; (ii) Parts Used: Whole plant; (iii) Processing: As for whole plant; (iv) Colors Obtained: Yellow-tan (vinegar); soft yellow (alum); soft green (blue vitriol); grey (iron); tan (chrome); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Lampblack: Pure carbon. A fine, light, fluffy powder obtained by collecting soot from burning fats, oils etc. The most familiar and widely use of the pure carbon black group. Permanent for all paint purpose.

Lap: The slight overlapping of two printed colors to ensure there is no fault in the registration.

Lapis Lazuli (Blue Pigment) (CI - 20E8): See azure blue and ultramarine. From Latin lapis, stone and lazuli, blue. (1920)


Larch (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Coniferous tree, deciduous - Larix laricina; (ii) Parts Used: Fall leaves (gold); fresh twigs; cones; bark; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Needles – warm yellow tan (chrome); Fresh twigs – brown (chrome); Cones – tan (vinegar and salt); Inner bark – warm grey with a bluish tinge (iron); (v) Fastness: Good for all shades.

Latex Paint: Paint containing a rubbery sap or gum to increase smoothness and adhesive properties.

Lavender (Blue) (CI - 18B3): Same as lavender grey. The color of the flowers of the Lavender plant, Lavendula spica or Lavendula officinalis, which derives its name from the Latin lavare (to wash), because of its early use as a scent in bathing. Note: Lavender grey is the same color. (1796)


Lavender Green (CI - 30D3): Same as celadon green. The color of the leaves of the lavender plant. See lavender (blue).


Lavender Grey: Same as lavender (blue). (1705).

Lazuline Blue (Pigment): Native ultramarine.

Lead: Metal.

Lead Grey (CI - 2D2): The color of the oxidized surface of the metal lead. The pure metallic surface is more brownish grey (CI - 6E2), although lead is popularly thought of as bluish in tone. (1385)


Leaf Green (Pigment) (CI - 30D6): Chrome green. Same as foliage green. (1891)


Leather: This is animal hide or skin, and can be decorated with colored leather shoe dyes for interesting effects.

Leather (Brown) (CI - 6E6): Same as cocoa (brown) or cacao (brown) and tan. Originally the color of ox hide which may have been tanned with oak bark; today it is the color of modern tanned leather. (1892)


Leek Green (Pigment): Chrome green.

Leipzig Yellow (Pigment): Chrome yellow.

Leithner Blue (Pigment): Variety of cobalt blue.

Lemon (or Citron) Yellow (Pigment) (CI - 3B8): Barium yellow. The color of the peel of the ripe lemon. Also a general term use for pale yellow shade, rather than a designation for a pigment of any particular composition, and often applied indiscriminately to pale chrome, zinc, or cadmium yellows and others. See remarks under primrose yellow. French: citron. (1598)


Lettuce Green (CI - 30D7): The color of green head of lettuce. Related to the other neighbouring "chlorophyll greens", such as spring green (CI - 30C7); leaf green (CI - 30D6); grass green (CI - 30E7); parsley green (CI - 30F8) - all of which belong to the same color plate. (1884)


Lettuce (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Leafy vegetable - Lactic; (ii) Parts Used: Leaves; (iii) Processing: As for fresh leaves; (iv) Colors Obtained: Soft yellow (alum); gold (chrome); green (blue vitriol); avocado-green (iron); bright yellow-green (tin); (v) Fastness: Excellent for non-greens; the greens greyed a little in time.

Leuco Bases: White, colorless compounds formed by the reduction of dyes, which when oxidized are converted back into dyes. Note: leuco is a prefix from Greek word leukos meaning white.

Leukotrope W (Auxiliary): Commercial name: BASF. It is added to a discharge paste to improve its overall efficiency. Leukotrope W is required in discharging of indigo as it will combine with the reduced indigo dye, in its leuco form, to create a soluble orange alkali that will not re-oxidize, so that the discharging indigo can then be washed away.

Level Dyeing: Dyeing without streaks or unevenness.

Levelness: The quality, in dyed yarn or fabric, of having the same depth of shade everywhere.

Leveling: Term used to describe the addition of sodium sulfate (Glauber's salt) to a dye bath to act as an agent, which evens the color of the bath.

Leveling Agent: An assistant that promotes the level distribution of color on the cloth.

Leyden Blue (Pigment): Variety of cobalt blue.

Lichen: Form of a plant life composed of two organisms: an algae and a fungus; not to be confused with moss. In Cape Breton, dye lichens are referred to as "crottle" or in Scottish form "crottal".

Lichens (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Non-flowering plants – various genera and species; Subject of a future blog and so will not be detailed here.

Light: (i) Common term for electromagnetic radiation; (ii) The opposite of dark. Principally used to modify generally defined colors such as light yellowish green, light blue etc. For its etymological associations, see white. French: clair; German: hell.

Light Blonde (CI - 4C3): Same as beige, ecru or flaxen. A general name used for hair colors, which are slightly lighter than blonde. See blonde.


Light Blue (CI - 21A5): A general name typified by the sample given. Colors between blue and pale blue, including the area for pastel blue and sky blue (CI - 22A5).


Light Brown (CI - 6D8): A general name typified by the sample given. Lighter sections of yellowish brown and brown areas. Related examples: golden brown (CI - 4D7); cinnamon (brown) (CI - 6D6); brick red (CI - 7D7).


Light Fast: A dyed fabric not readily decomposed by the presence of light.

Light Fast Ink: One which does not fade appreciably when exposed to light for long periods (as distinct from fugitive ink).

Light Green (CI - 27A5): A general name typified by the sample given. Colors between green and pale green. Also includes areas for pastel green; turquoise green (CI - 25A5); viridian green (CI - 29A5).


Light Grey: Pastel grey. See grey.

Light Level: The degree of ambient light, the intensity of which may be high or low.

Light Lilac (CI - 15A4): A general name typified by the sample given, which also represents orchid lilac. Colors between reddish violet, purple and pale violet; includes part of the pastel violet area.


Light Orange (CI - 5A5): A general name typified by the sample given. Colors between orange and pale orange; includes salmon (CI - 6A4).


Light Primaries: Those wavelengths of light, which together combine to give the sensation of white and which cannot be formed in combination of other wavelengths (red, blue, green). Also called additive primaries.

Light Red (Pigment): A variable name, used by easel painters in the UK as the name of an earth color. This term is now applied to the more intense pure oxides of the Mars or English red type, but originally it was intended to describe a good grade of burnt ochre of a shade between Indian red and Venetian red; these are permanent, but not so desirable as the pure red oxides, which are cleaner and more powerful. See oxide red.

Light Secondaries: See Additive Primaries.

Light Turquoise (CI - 24A5): A general name typified by the sample given. Colors between turquoise and greenish blue and pale turquoise.


Light Violet (CI - 17A5): A general name typified by the sample given. Colors between violet (reddish and bluish) and pale violet; extends into the light lilac area of plate 16; includes the balance of pastel violet area. See light lilac.


Light Yellow (CI - 2A5): A general name typified by the sample given, which also represents sun yellow, sunlight. Colors between yellow and pale yellow; also includes the pastel yellow area. Related examples: sulfur yellow (CI - 1A5); butter yellow (CI - 4A5).


Lilac (CI - 15B4): A general name typified by the sample given. Within this color area lies mauve (Perkin) (CI -15B5) and violaceous (CI - 16C5). Lilac itself is the lightest section of the greyish violet area. From Arabic laylak, the Persian nil (the diminutive of nil (meaning blue), the Sanskrit nila (dark blue). See indigo blue. French: lilas; Italian: lilla; German and Spanish, lila. (1775).


Lilac Grey (CI - 15B2): Same as greyish lilac. A general name typified by the sample given. (1886)


Lily (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Perennial, domestic and wildflower - Hemerocallis fulva; (ii) Parts Used: Blooms, roots; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Fresh blooms – yellow (alum); rust (alum and chrome); burnt orange (chrome and tin); Roots – yellow-orange (alum and tin); (v) Fastness: Good.

Lily White: As white as a lily and chalky, snow white. The plant of the family Lilium. Note: may sometimes have a yellow tinge, for example (CI - 1A1) as below.


Lime Blue (Pigment): See Bremen blue.

Limewash: Substance made of slaked lime and water used to whiten exterior walls. Known as whitewash.

Lincoln Green: An olive-green color. So called from the color of a fabric originally made in Lincoln, England.


Linden Green (CI - 2C5): The color of the seeds of the linden (lime) tree. (1905)


Linoleum Brown (CI - 5E7): The color of brown linoleum made with linseed oil. As linoleum is produced in a number of other colors, this name is not a desirable choice. (About 1900).


Linseed Oil: Oil that is extracted from the seeds of flax.

Bundle of flax showing the seed pods from which linseed oil is made.

Lipo: Prefix signalling oil or fat. Lipophile; a substance, which has the property of attracting fats or oils, or selective affinity for oil over water.

Lipoid: a material belonging to a specific group of chemical compounds which resemble fats or waxes in many of their properties.

Liquor: Strained-off dye bath; the liquid in which the dyestuff has been cooked out.

Liquor Ratio: The relation of the water in a dye bath to the weight of the cloth.

Lissapol: Detergent and wetting agent.

Litharge: Lead monoxide. A heavy, yellowish powder, now obsolete as a paint pigment, but used as a drier in vanish cooking.

Lithol Red (Pigment): A bright synthetic organic lake pigment of the azo class, with bluish undertone. Used in printing ink and industrial paints; for canvass artists it is not sufficiently fade-resistant.

Lithopone (Pigment): Zinc sulfide 30%, barium sulfate (blanc fixe) 70%, intimately combined by chemical means, the blanc fixe being coalesced with and becoming an integral part of the pigment, not an adulterant. Greater proportions of zinc sulfide does not always improve it. A fine, white, opaque pigment, which has been largely replaced by zinc oxide for interior house paints, because of its good structural properties and lower costs. It is not used as artists pigments, but is generally used in grounds.

Liver (Brown) (CI - 8F6): The color of fresh liver. (1686)


Liver of Sulfur: A chemical solution used to artificially tarnish metal such as copper; consists of saturated sulfurated potash.

Lobster (Red) (CI - 9B8): The color of cooked lobster or crayfish. (1789)


Local Color: The true or actual color of an object as distinguished from the color effect it produces when viewed as part of a whole composition or when influenced by light or atmospheric conditions in nature or in a painting, by the technique and intervention of the artist. In other words, the natural or daylight color of an object, seen closely, as opposed to its optical color as seen from a distance, or as influenced by reflections, weather or surrounding objects.

Locust Bean Gums: Sometimes known as gums gatto or carob gum, these gums are extracted from the kernels of the nuts of the carob tree, Ceratonia siliqua. The gum is treated with chemicals to make it readily soluble in water and is used for most types of printing as it is stable in all ranges of pH.

Low-Intensity Color: Color that shows little of its original purity because it is a broken color (e.g. faded) – a hue that has been mixed with white, black, grey or its own complement.

Low Relief Screen Printing (LRSP): This technique was developed by Marie-Therese Wisniowski. It enables the printing of low relief textured surfaces with fabric paint and acrylic print paste using a silk screen. In LRSP the technique builds on previous screen colors, melding and then intermixing with the next color. The amount of prints created using the LRSP technique can be endless (as long as your relief items are durable). You can print six or six hundred prints by continually changing colors with each successive print. For more information about this technique see post - Low Relief Screen Printing.

Marie-Therese Wisniowski's ArtCloth using Low Relief Screen Printing (LRSP) technique.

Ludigol: Chemical that prevents reduction.

Luminescence: Light not associated with heat.

Luminosity: Measure of brightness of a paint or color.

Lupin (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Perennial, domestic and wildflower - Lupinus; (ii) Parts Used: Flowering heads, flowers and leaves or whole lupin plant; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Light color blooms (white, pink, orchid) give yellow-green shades if just flowers are used, and greens if leaves are used. Blue and purple blooms – green and grey-green (alum); green (blue vitriol, iron); (v) Fastness: Fast but highly variable and quite likely to change in color.

Lupine (CI - 21B4): The color of the blue flowers of the plant Lupinus. The plant also appears with purple, pink, white or yellow flowers. (1922)


Luster (or Lustre): Light reflected from the surface of the fiber.

Luteous: Colors of a light to moderate greenish-yellow color. Similar to the color of an egg yolk. From Latin lūteus meaning bright yellow.


Lye: Caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) solution.

Madder Brown (or Brown Madder) (Pigment): Same as alizarin brown.

Madder Lake (or Rose Madder) (Pigment): Madder, made from the root of the madder plant (Rubia tinctrium) was used as a textile dye in ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome, being the most permanent of the maroon or ruby-colors of natural dyestuff origin. It was superseded as a pigment toward the end of the 19th century by alizarin crimson.

Madder Red (Bluish) (CI - 11B8): See Madder red (yellowish).


Madder Red (Medium) (CI - 10B7): Same as cock's comb (red). See madder red (yellowish).


Madder Red (Yellowish) (Pigment) (CI - 9A7): The color of the pigment produced from the root of the madder plant, Rubia tinctorum. This pigment appears in a great variety of colors ranging from yellowish red to a bluish red. Of these, the following three typical shades have been selected: madder red (yellowish) (CI - 9A7); madder red (medium) (CI - 10B7); and madder red (bluish) (CI - 11B8). The ancient Egyptians, Persians, and Indians used this pigment to dye cloths; the Greeks called it erythrodanon (giver of red); the Romans called it rubia (red). See Turkish or Turkey red. Among the many names given to variations of madder (A. -S. maedere) are madder brown, madder crimson, madder purple and madder rose. (1727)


Madeira (CI - 8E5): The color of wine from Madeira, which translates literally as "the wood island" from the Portuguese madeira (wood). Related to wine red or Bordeaux (red) (CI - 11D8); Burgundy (CI - 12F5); and port wine (CI - 12F8). (1948)


Magenta (CI - 13C8): A general name which is limited to the sample given; purplish red or violet red. The color of fuchsine, an organic dye first produced in 1859, the year France defeated Austria at the battle of Magenta in Italy. The name of a shade of deep violet red established as one of the standard four-color printing inks. The name appears in many languages with the same spelling. (1860)


Magnesia White (Pigment): An unstandardized name for artificial or native magnesium carbonate.

Magnesite (Pigment): Natural magnesium carbonate used occasionally as an inert pigment. Permanent. Properties similar to those of whiting.

Magnesium Carbonate: Artificially made. Probably the whitest inert pigment. Sold in two forms: heavy, which has properties similar to those of precipitated chalk; and light, which is extremely bulky, light, fluffy powder of the same composition.

Mahogany (Brown) (CI - 8E7): Same as mahogany red. The color of the wood of the mahogany tree, Swietenia mahagoni, whose name is presumably of West Indian origin. The treated wood may vary in color because of the stain and polish applied. (1737)


Mahogany Lake (Pigment): A red or brown lake made on a burnt sienna base, not reliably permanent. Burnt umber and the deeper shades of burnt sienna are sometimes used as mahogany oil stains, and hence sometimes go by the name mahogany brown.

Mahogany (Red) (CI - 8E7): Same as mahogany (brown). See above.

Maiden's Blush (CI - 8B4): Most frequently used to describe the color of the face when blushing. There are also more yellowish blushes, for example blush (which is also named flesh) (CI - 6B3). Exaggerations such as fire red (CI - 7A8), poppy red (CI - 8A8) and ruddy (CI -9B5) are also prevalent. (1661)


Maize (Yellow) (CI - 4A6): The color of corn, Zea mays, from the Haitian word mahiz. (1861)


Major Key: The organization of values in a work that produces high contrast.

Malachite: Native basic carbonate of copper. Fine, clear, yellowish-green. Not reliably permanent. Also made artificially - see Bremen blue. Used as a pigment by earliest civilizations. Also made artificially; see Bremen blue.

Malachite Green (CI - 26B6) Same as copper green, copper rust. The color of the mineral malachite, a carbonate of copper. From the Greek malache, the mallow plant, whose leaves gave rise to this color name. The mineral was mined in the Sinai and used as a cosmetic pigment in Egypt some 6,000 years ago. (About 1200 AD)


Mallow (Purple) (CI - 12B5): The color of the flowers of mallow plant, genus Malva (from the Greek name for this plant, malache). French: mauve (Perkin). (1611)


Mandarin Orange (CI - 6B8): Same as tangerine or orange peel. The color of the peel of the ripe mandarin. (1883)


Manganese Black, Manganese Brown (Pigments): Manganese dioxide. Permanent. Extremely powerful drier in oil. Not in common use. The native variety is listed under black oxide of manganese.

Manganese Blue (Pigment): Barium manganate. A brilliant, clear, greenish, transparent, permanent azure color, its mass tone is a fairly close match to opaque cerulean blue. Barium-manganese compounds of this type are freely available to artists.

Manganese Dioxide: Manganese black.

Manganese Green (Pigment): A green variety of manganese blue; has also been known as Cassel or Rosenstiehl's green. Not normally available.

Manganese Violet (Pigment): Made by combining manganese chloride, phosphoric acid, and ammonium carbonate. A permanent violet color resembling the deep or bluish variety of cobalt violet and having the same general properties. See Violet Pigments.

Mapico Colors: American trademarked name of a series of permanent Mars colors.

Maple (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Ornamental hardwood tree - Acer various species; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh leaves, autumn leaves, bark; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Fresh leaves – yellow (alum); beige (vinegar); warm tan (chrome); grey-green (iron); soft green (blue vitriol); Fall leaves – warm rich tan (chrome and tin in a strong bath); Bark – medium brown (chrome); bright dark brown (chrome and tin); rose-tan (alum); medium grey-brown (iron); Twigs – reddish-tan (alum and chrome); (v) Fastness: Excellent for all.

Marble Dust: Natural calcium and/or magnesium carbonate.

Marble White (CI - 5B2): Same as alabaster; typical of orange grey. The color of the stone, marble, from the Greek marmaros. Like chalk, this stone is a calcium carbonate mineral. Related to chalky. The color of marble may vary from chalky to reddish blonde (CI - 5C4) or even black, depending on the iron oxide content.


Marbling (Dye Pattern): Of all the patterns marbling is the easiest to achieve using dyes. The fabric is crumbled into a ball or sausage shape and bound tightly at intervals with string. The crumbled fabric is wet thoroughly and dyed. If more than one color is used, the fabric needs to untied and be rinsed well, before it is re-tied and re-dyed. Note: The effect on the fabric is shown in the background.


Marc Dust: Vine black.

Marigold (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Annual, garden flower - Tagetes various species; (ii) Parts Used: Flowers, separated by color or used all together, either fresh or faded; severely frost-bitten blooms; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Fresh blooms, light-colored flowers (yellows) – clear light yellow (alum, short processing, low heat); medium bright yellow (alum, longer processing); rich gold (alum, processed at high heat, with vinegar added to bath) Fresh blooms – orange and rust flowers – orange (tin); burnt orange to rust (chrome, bloomed in tin); brown (chrome, sadden in iron); Frost-bitten blooms, mixed colors, in a copper boiler lined ith tin; green (blue vitriol); brown (chrome); grey (iron); Faded blooms – dark color in a brass pot; olive-green (blue vitriol); khaki (chrome); bronze (tin); (v) Fastness: Excellent for all shades, although the dark colors may change over a period of time.

Marine Blue (CI - 19F6): Originally the same as indigo blue (CI - 18F3), which was used to dye seamen's uniforms. This name is now more generally used in reference to other textiles as well. French: bleu marin. Also called Navy blue. (About 1800)


Maroon (CI - 11F8): Typical of violet brown. The color of the large Spanish chestnut. The small variety of this nut corresponds to chestnut (brown) (CI - 6F7). Italian: marine; French: marron. (1789)


Mars Colors: Artificial oxides of iron. The variation in shades and hues is due to the process of manufacture. All are absolutely permanent and have the same general properties as the pure red oxides. Mars brown contains some manganese. Mars black is described under black oxide of iron. Mars yellow under yellow oxide. The Mars reds are sold in a number of shades from a bright scarlet to a very bluish variety known as Mars violet.

Mass-Coloration: The incorporation by mechanical means, of pigments with a mass of plastic material e.g. rubbers, polymers to produce an even coloration.

Massicot (Pigment): An obsolete yellow oxide of lead similar to litharge.

Mastic: Same as guaiacum. Resin or gum as used in vanish.

Matexil PA-L (Auxiliary): To avoid excessive halo effects in discharging, the fabric can be treated with this resist salt before printing. This salt acts as a mild oxidizing agent that prevents the spread of unwanted reducing agent.

Matte: Having a dull, almost non-reflective surface; the opposite of glossy. Matte varnishes protect a painting without glossiness.

Mauve (Pigment) (Perkin) (CI - 15B5): Also known as mauveine. The color of the organic dye produced by Perkin in 1856. Considerably bluer than mallow (purple), which was named after the mallow plant. A fugitive synthetic organic lake pigment. A variety of brilliant mauve pigments is made in two types: reddish and bluish. (1856)


Mauveine: Mauveine, also known as aniline purple and Perkin's mauve, was the first synthetic organic chemical dye, discovered serendipitously in 1856. See mauve.

Maxwell’s Disks: Rapidly spun disks or wheels that produces high contrast.

Mechanical Resists: The creation of a physical barrier between the colorant and the cloth (e.g. wax, fat, resin, clay, starch, gum, clamping, tying, stitching etc.)

Mechanical Tints: Tints consisting of dot or line patterns that can be laid down on artwork before or during reproduction process.

Medium: The liquid usually linseed oil, in which the pigment of a printing ink is dispersed.

Medium Grey: Same as neutral grey; a typical grey. A general name associated with greys grouped around the middle of the grey scale (CI - E1). To the left of E1 is white (CI - A1) and three grey shades (B to D)1; to the right of (CI - E1) are three grey shades (CI - (F-H)1) and black (CI - I1). See grey.

Melon (Yellow) (CI - 5A6): The color of the flesh of a ripe melon from the plant Cucumis melo. The Latin melo is derived from the Greek melopepon (apple melon). The peel is slightly more yellow. (1773)


Mercury Yellow (Pigment): Basic sulfate of mercury. Obsolete. See turpeth mineral.

Metal Grey (CI - 5E2): Same as elephant skin. The color presumably corresponds to the greyish metals such as silver, lead, steel and pewter. See colors names listed under these metals. (1892)


Metallic Ink: A printing ink, which produces an effect of gold, silver, copper or bronze.

Metamerism: The near identity of two color samples under some light sources and not others, caused by the different light sources exaggerating or masking differences in the spectra of samples.

Methuen Color Index and Classification System: For further information see post - Methuen Color Index and Classification System.

Methylated Spirits: An industrial alcohol used as a solvent.

Methyl Radical: The radical -CH3 , which is derived from methane (CH4). Methyl radicals are found in many dye molecules.

Mica: An inert pigment made from a complex silicate, which occurs in transparent laminated form that can be slit into very thin layers or sheets. The white powder has a brilliant sparkle; it has been used in industrial paints to impart this quality to them, because of its flat, flaky particles help to prevent rapid settling of fluid paints and improve their structural properties. Its ability to future cleave makes it use limited. On the other hand, micronized mica is an extremely fine powder and so is less problematic.

Micro Dyeing: This technique is based on traditional tie dyeing technique in which the item to be dyed is tied, pleated or knotted and immerse in a dye bath which is placed in a microwave oven for four minutes. Note: the size of the items is dictated by the micro-oven size.

Midnight (Blue): Same as night blue; a fashion name for blackish blue material as it appears at midnight when illuminated by a weak light. Blacker than (CI - 19F2) - see below. Also see black. (1915).


Migration: The transfer of dye from heavily dyed parts of the substrate to lighter dyed parts during the dyeing process.

Milk White (CI - 1A2): The color of milk. Since milk has been a food of mankind since the dawn of time, this is naturally a very old color name. (1000 AD)


Milori Blue (Pigment) (CI - 21F7): Same as Prussian blue, Berlin blue, Paris blue, cyan (blue) (old), bronze blue, steel blue. The term is usually applied to the purest and highest quality grades. See Berlin blue.


Mimosa (Yellow) (CI - 2B8): The color of the flower of family Mimosa. (1922)


Mineral Black: A name variously applied to graphite, native black iron oxide, vine black, and artificial black oxide.

Mineral Blue: Azurite. Antwerp blue and manganese blue have also been sold under this name.

Mineral Brown: Burnt umber.

Mineral Green: Malachite. Also Bremen green.

Mineral Grey (CI - 30C2): A vague color name which is not associated with any specific mineral. See ultramarine ash. (1890)


Mineral Lake (Pigment): A yellow tin (stannic) chromate or combined chromate and oxide calcined with potassium nitrate. Name has also been applied to potter's pink. Now obsolete.

Mineral Turpeth: Turpeth mineral.

Mineral Violet: Ultramarine violet; also manganese violet.

Mineral White: Gypsum.

Mineral Yellow: Turner's yellow.

Minette: Ochre.

Minium (Pigment): Red lead. Cinnabar was often adulterated with red lead and so the term minium was gradually more specifically applied to this mixture, and eventually it was applied to straight red lead. The word miniature derives from its use in illuminated manuscripts.

Minor Key: The organization of value in a work that produces low contrast.

Mint (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Perennial herb - Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata; (ii) Parts Used: Whole plant; (iii) Processing: As for whole plant; (iv) Colors Obtained: Soft yellow (alum); beige-tan (blue vitriol); gold (chrome); yellow-orange (tin); tan-grey (iron); (v) Fastness: Good.

Mittis Green (Pigment): Copper arsenate, a variant of Scheele's green.

Mittler's Green (Pigment): A variety of viridian.

Mole (CI -4F1): See taupe.


Monastral Colors: Trademark name for phthalocyanine colors.

Monceau (CI - 8A8): Same as coquelicot, red lead, and poppy (red).


Monochromatic: Pertaining to a single color or hue; composition organised around tonal variations of one color.

Monochromatic Color Scheme: The monochromatic color scheme uses variations in lightness and saturation (intensity) of a single color; that is, it is a color scheme using (variations of) the one hue. For further information see post - For further information see post Color Schemes.


Monochromatism: Color blindness in which all colors are a single hue.

Monochrome: An image made up of varying tones but in only one color.

Monolite Yellow: Trademark name for Hansa Yellow.

Monopole Brilliant Oil: Stabilizer and softener for naphthol dye baths.

Montpelier Green: Verdigris.

Montpelier Yellow: Turner's yellow.

Mordant: A metal salt, which combines with small dye molecules within a fiber to form a large, insoluble complex that yields a wash fast dyeing process.

Mordant and Dye Bath Temperatures: Generally a slow simmer is between 120oF or 50oC. A simmer is between 91 - 95oC (or 190oF). A boil is between 98 - 100oC (or 212oF). Soaping is often used after the dyeing process and so soap is not warmed greater than 120oF or 50oC.

Mordant Dyes: A group of dyes (also called metalled or pre-metallized dyes) that cannot be applied to a fiber without the help of metallic salts or chemical assistants called mordants. The group covers dyes sold under such names as chrome dyes, metachrome dyes, after chrome dyes and chrome printing colors.

Morelle Salt: Old name for manufactured red oxide (pigment).

Mosaic Gold: Metallic powder of complex composition, principally bisulfide ion of tin. Formerly used as a cheap substitute for powdered gold. Replaced by modern bronze powders.

Moss Green (CI - 1E7): Same as chrome green. The color of various kinds of moss, such as Hypnum triquetrum. French: mousse. (1884)


Mottled: Variegated, spotty or patchy coloring, probably from motley, the partly-colored costume of the fourteenth century jester.

Mountain Ash (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Deciduous ornamental tree - Sorbus Americana and others; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh leaves, fresh berries or fruits; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Golden-tan (alum); warm tan (blue vitriol); bright dark gold (chrome); soft grey-brown (iron); bright yellow-gold (tin); Berries - salmon-pink (alum); rose-tan (chrome); (v) Fastness: Excellent for dyes from leaves and fruits.

Mountain Blue: Azurite; also Bremen blue.

Mountain Green: See Bremen blue. The name was also formerly applied to native malachite.

Mouse Grey (CI - 5E3): The same as drab. The same color as the hairs of the average house mouse, Mus musculus. French: gris sours or gris-de-souris. (1606)


Mullein (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Biennial, weed, wildflower - Verbascum thapsus; (ii) Parts Used: Flowering heads; flowering heads and fresh leaves; flowers, leaves and stalks; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Soft yellow (alum); bronze (blue vitriol); gold-bronze (chrome); grey (iron); bright yellow (tin); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Multiplex Screen Printing (MPSP): This technique was developed by Marie-Therese Wisniowski. It is titled, "Multi-Plexing", and employs the use of transparent inks. The technique involves multi-complex layering of transparent inks and visuals using block out medium to create painterly effects of great depth, movement and rich transparent layers to the silk screened image. For more images using the technique see post - Federation on Hold.

Marie-Therese Wisniowski's - Whose Church? Fine-Art print on paper employing Marie-Therese Wisniowski's "multiplex" silkscreen printing technique.

MultiSperse Dye Sublimation (MSDS): Developed by Marie-Therese Wisniowski, the MSDS technique employs disperse dyes and involves hand printing multiple resists and multiple overprinted layers employing numerous color plates, mixed media and low relief plant materials. The completed works are rich in color, light, shade, contrast, movement and depth. The multiple layers also imbue a painterly aesthetic and textural, three-dimensional quality to the finished ArtCloth works. Each print is unique and cannot be replicated. For more information on this technique see post - In Pursuit of Complex Cloth.

Marie-Therese Wisniowski's MSDS ArtCloth - Reflections (full view).

Mummy (Pigment): Bone ash and asphaltum, obtained from grinding up Egyptian mummies. Not permanent - no longer in use.

Munich Lake: Carmine.

Munsell Color System: A system of color measurement and notation, which defines all colors according to hue, value and chroma. For further information see post on - The Munsell Color Classification System.

Mushroom (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Non-flowering plant – various genera and species. This will be a subject of a future blog and so will not be detailed here.

Mustard (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Annual wildflower, weed - Sinapis arvensis, Brassica kaber; (ii) Parts Used: Whole plant; (iii) Processing: As for whole plant; (iv) Colors Obtained: Pale yellow (alum); pale yellow-green (blue vitriol); tan (chrome); soft grey (iron); medium yellow (tin); gold (alum and tin); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Mustard Brown (CI - 5E6): The darker color of mustard prepared from mustard seeds. (1926)


Mustard Yellow (CI - 3B6): Similar to mustard brown, but of a lighter, more yellowish color. French: mortared. (1886)


MYC System: A pigment system in which magenta, yellow and cyan are the primary colors.

Myrrh: Same as bdellium.Resin or gum used in making perfume.

Myrtle Green (CI - 25F7): Chrome green. The color of the evergreen leaves of the myrtle tree, Myrtus communist. (1835)


Nacarat Carmine (Pigment): Best grade carmine. Obsolete.

Naming of Colors: There are only eleven basic color words in the English language, and they are: red, blue, yellow, green, violet, orange, pink, grey, black, white and brown. Strictly speaking, grey, black and white do not have characteristic wavelengths. They are either the lack of color (black) or a combination of all visible colors (white) or a blend of the two (grey). Color names are therefore derived from the following categories: (i) Color names derived from plants: e.g. apricot (yellow), lemon yellow, grass green, hazel, rose red; (ii) Color names derived from minerals and metals: e.g. alabaster, amethyst (violet), copper (red), malachite green, platinum blonde; (iii) Color names derived from man-made products: e.g. chocolate (brown), faience blue, bottle green, wine red; (iv) Color names derived from fauna: e.g. beaver, canary yellow, mouse grey, fox, and butterfly blue; (v) Color names derived from geographic names: e.g. Berlin blue, Copenhagen blue, Naples yellow, Pompian red, Spanish green; (vi) Color names derived from natural phenomena: e.g. aurora, spring green, sky blue, fire red, fog; (vii) Color names derived from miscellaneous subjects: e.g. calypso (red), infrared. For further information see post - Naming of Colors.

Nankeen Yellow (CI - 3B7): Same as Naples yellow. The color of undyed cotton from Nanking. Also refers to a cloth which has been dyed with certain metallic coloring matter. Related to beige (CI - 4C3). (1775)


Naphthol Dyes: See Azoic dyes. These dyes form color on the fiber, usually cotton, by impregnating with naphthol and then coupling with a diazo salt bath. The dyes are very fast to boil and light and are extensively used in Javanese batiks today.

Naples Yellow (Pigment) (CI - 3B7): Same as Nankeen yellow. The color of the pigment which is a compound of lead and antimony. Lead antimoniate made by calcining litharge with antimony dioxide. A heavy opaque yellow, made commercially in limited amounts in about six shades, from greenish yellow to a comparatively pinkish orange yellow. Permanent, except that the usual precautions for the use of lead pigments apply to it. Often imitated in tube colors, by mixtures such as zinc oxide, cadmium yellow and ochre. It was found on Babylonian bricks, which date back to 2500 BC. In the Middle ages it was used in Naples under the giallolino di fornance (yellow oven) The pigment is believed to be derived from a mineral found at Vesuvius but more likely derived from ochre. In 1702 it was given the Latin name luteolum neapolitanum. (1738)


Nasturtium (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Annual, garden flower - Tropaeolum majus; (ii) Parts Used: Blooms (fresh or as they fade); (iii) Processing: As for flowers; (iv) Colors Obtained: Faded blooms , mixed shades – yellow-beige (alum); yellow-tan to gold (chrome); grey (iron); bright gold (tin); yellow-green (blue vitriol); (v) Fastness: Good.

Native Green (Pigment): Native chromium oxide; now obsolete.

Natural (CI - 4B3): Same as ivory, platinum blonde, sand. A vague name used in reference to untreated wood. Related to beige and ecru (CI - 4C3). (1928)


Natural Dyes: Natural dyes fall into two categories: adjective or substantive. The former require mordants to fix or fast the dye in the fiber, whereas the latter does not.

Nature of Color: Light and so color has particle and wave like characteristics. For further information see post on - The Nature of Color.


Negro (CI - 6F3): The name itself has become obsolete due to its offensive connotations with respect to racial slurs. It was coined after the skin of black people and so it covers a fairly wide range of colors. Related to Somalis (CI - 7E5) and flesh (CI - 6B3). The name comes from the Latin niger (black). Related to Spanish negro. the Italian nero, the French noire. (1698)


Nettle (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Weed - Urtica dioica; (ii) Parts Used: Whole plant; (iii) Processing: Chop first and soak out in water cover overnight or for a day or two; (iv) Colors Obtained: Yellow-green (alum); strong yellow-green (blue vitriol); gold (chrome); greyish-green (iron); chartreuse (tin); L. purpureum collected for dyeing after it has turned reddish-purple – rosey-brown (chrome); warm tan (alum); pinkish-grey (iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent for all shades from fresh nettle or purple nettle; good for colors from purple nettle in the fall.

Neutral: Same as colorless, achromatic. See neutral grey. From the Latinneutralis.

Neutral Grey: Same as medium grey. Although neutral refers to grey (achromatic) effects in general, the above name is limited to the middle of the grey scale (CI - E1).

Neutral Orange (Pigment): A blended or mixed color. If pure, should be composed of cadmiums and red oxide.

Neutral Tint (Pigment): A greyish-violet prepared water color made of Indian ink, phthalocyanine blue, and a small amount of alizarin.

New Blue (Pigment): A name applied originally to a variety of cobalt blue which contains chromium, but shades of ultramarine were also sold under this name.

New Silver (CI - 4D1): Same as argent; almost neutral grey.


Newton's Dual Prism Experiment: White light is passed through a prism, producing a spectrum. The light of the spectrum is blocked by a screen with a narrow slit, allowing only one color of the spectrum to pass through. This one color of light passes through a second prism. If the prism simply added additional colors to light, this color should again produce a spectrum. But the light that emerged from the second prism was the same one color that entered it. This proved that a prism did not add colors to light.

Nickel-Azo Yellow: Green gold.

Nickel Green (CI - 27F3): The color of arsenate of nickel. From the German, nickel, the name of mischievous goblin who was believe to cast a spell over mines, which made them yield nickel instead of copper. Related to cobalt, as indicated under cobalt blue. (1912)


Night Blue: Same as midnight (blue).

Nigrosine: Also known as nigrosin. Any of the class of deep blue or black dyes obtained by the oxidation of aniline, used as coloring agents in inks and shoe polishes and for dyeing leather, wood, textiles, and furs. Origin: 1890-95; Latin nigh- (stem of niger) black, dark + -ose + -ine.

Nile Blue: A pale greenish blue color.


Nile (Green) (CI - 28C3): The colors of the water of the Nile. Related to sea crest (CI - 27C5); water green (CI - 30C3). (1888)


Nitrate Green (Pigment): A modern blue-tone variety of chrome green.

Non Spectral Colors: Any colors not found in the visible spectrum such as brown, black or grey.

Nori: Rice paste resist.

Normal Value: Value most characteristic of each color. Usually the value of paint right out of the tube. See figure below.


Nougat (CI - 5D3): The color of French nougat, a confection of almonds, caramel, and other ingredients. (1925)


Nutmeg: Nutmeg, nutmeg tree spice consisting of the seed of the Myristica fragrant, a tropical, dioecious evergreen tree native to the Moluccan, or Spice Islands, of Indonesia. Color is named after spice color.


Nutria (CI - 5F3): The color of the fur of a beaver-like rodent call coypu; from the Latin lutra (otter). Related to beaver (brown) (CI - 5F4). (1892)


Oak (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Hardwood and ornamental tree - Quercus; (ii) Parts Used: Acorns; fresh or fall leaves; bark; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: See acorns; Fresh leaves – yellow (alum); tan (blue vitriol); gold (chrome); Fall leaves – tan (alum); medium brown (alum and chrome); rusty tan (tin); Bark – gold (alum); bright gold (chrome); strong yellow (tin); grey (iron filings, horse shoes, and blue vitriol); reddish-brown (vinegar and tin); Oak bark combined with sumac fruiting cones and nails yielded a strong dark grey; (v) Fastness: Fresh leaves, excellent; barks, excellent; fall leaves and acorns are quite fast but all browns are likely to change and darken with time.

Oak Brown (CI - 5D6): The color of the natural wood of the oak tree. Same as oak wood (1925) which is similar to neutral (CI - 4B3). (1888)


Ocean Blue (CI - 24E8): Same as sea blue.


Ocean Green (CI - 27C5): Same as sea crest and sea green.


Ochre (Pigment): Widely called yellow ochre, a clay colored by iron and produced in a number of dull yellow shades. Opaque. Absolutely permanent. Golden ochre is ochre brightened by the addition of chrome yellow and is therefore not a permanent color. Transparent gold ochre is a name applied to a permanent color which is either an ochre mixed with alumina hydrate or rather rare dark native ochre which is naturally transparent.

Off White: Same as French term, faux blanc (false white). A fashion name of indefinite character, used to describe colors that are almost white, but contains tinges of grey, yellow or other colors; greyish whites, yellowish whites etc.

Oil Black: Lamp black.

Oil Gilding: Technique in which transfer gold is applied to a surface.

Oil Green: Bremen green; also a variety of chrome green.

Old Gold: Old gold is a dark yellow, which varies from light olive or olive brown to deep or strong yellow, generally on the darker side of this range. The first recorded use of old gold as a color name in English was in the early 19th Century (exact year uncertain).


Old Rose (CI - 10C5): This color is rather vaguely defined as corresponding to that of an old rose. Formerly a more popular color name than today. French: vieus rose. (1892)


Old Silver (CI - 4E2): Same as silver (grey). (1481)


Oleum White: Lithopone.

Olive (CI - 2F6): A general name typified by the sample indicated. Dark greyish variations of yellow, which appear greenish. The color of the fruit of the olive tree. From Latin oliva French: olive; the Greek elaia, which is related to "oil". Related examples: moss green (CI - 1E7); ivy (green) (CI - 1F3); reseda (green) (CI - 2E6); goose turd (CI - 3F3). French: olive; German: oliven. (1613).


Olive Brown (CI - 4E5): A general name typified by the sample indicated. Colors darker than dark yellow and greyish yellow. Related examples: Isabella (CI - 4D7); honey yellow (CI - 4D6); khaki (CI - 4D5). (1796)


Olive Green (Pigment)(CI - 2F6): Same as olive. A designation, which may be used for any one of many mixtures. Applied principally to certain chrome greens.

Olive Grey (CI - 1D2): A general name typified by the sample indicated. Related examples: lead grey (CI - 2D2); stone grey (CI - 3E2); slate grey (CI - 3F2). (1862)


Olive Yellow (CI - 3D7): A general name typified by the sample indicated. Represents the most saturated colors between greyish yellow (yellow) and olive. Related examples: grapefruit (CI - 2C8); chartreuse (yellow) (CI - 2C6). (1886)


Ombre: Literally, shaded: fabric in which the color is graduated from light to dark. That is, a dyeing effect that graduates the fabric color from light to dark. This is achieved by lowering the fabric or yarn in the dye vat in gradual stages. An ombre effect can also be achieved by using printing methods.

Onion (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: vegetable - Allium cep; it will be featured in a post and so is not detailed here.

Onion Skin: Highly glazed, very thin, translucent paper.

Opacity: The term used to describe non-transparency in printing.

Opal (CI - 25C6): Same as opaline green. (1921)


Opalescence: A color effect produced by the skeletal structure of the dye; like iridescence but milkier in appearance.

Opaline Green (CI - 25C6): Same as opal/ The color of the precious stone, which exhibits a play of green and red colors; can be traced from the Latin opalus and Greek opalos to the Sanskrit upala (stone or precious stone). (1912)


Opaque Binder: An opaque binder will sit on dark colors and so will enable the printing of light colors onto darker colored dyed backgrounds. The binder is very thick, so you can combine it with standard binder to reduce the stiffness of the fabric.

Opaque Color: Color through which light cannot be seen.

Optical Brightener: A fluorescent dye used to give a “brighter than white” effect.

Optical Finishes: Chemical finishes that either raises or lowers the light reflectance and luster of the fabric.

Optical Mixtures: Color combinations perceived as mixtures produced by juxtaposing small dots or slashes.

Orange (CI - 6A8): A general name typified by the sample indicated (which is also typical of deep orange and represents chrome orange). It was originally identical to orange peel (CI - 6B8); that is, strong orange colors between yellow and red. Related examples: melon (yellow) (CI - 5A6); golden yellow (CI - 5B7); carrot red (CI - 6B7). The name of the fruit, and consequently the color, may be traced to the: Tamil nary (aromatic); the Sanskrit: naranga; the Persian: naranja; the Arabian: naranj; the Spanish: naranja; the Portuguese: auranja; the Latin: auranja; the Latin: aurantius (gold). In modern languages, orange translates as follows: French and German: orange; Spanish: anaranjado; Italian: arancione; Dutch: orange.


Orange Grey (CI - 5B2): A general name typified by the sample indicated (which also represents alabaster and marble white). The color area includes colors with a slight orange tinge between orange white and brownish grey. Related example: birch bark (CI - 6B2).


Orange Mineral (Pigment): A lead oxide, very similar to red lead, but more yellowish, paler, and not quite so heavy. Less reactive in oil and more suitable for industrial pigment color use than red lead.

Orange Peel (CI - 6B8): Same as mandarin orange or tangerine. Like the peel of a ripe orange. French: orange; Dutch: appelsine; German: apfelsin from the word apfel (or apple), and Sina (China).


Orange (Psychology): Since it is a combination of red and yellow, orange is stimulating and our reaction to it is a combination of the physical and the emotional. Buddhist monks often wear a combination of yellow, red and orange robes. For further information see post - Psychology of Color.

Note orange is also associated with happiness, energy, balance, heat, enthusiasm, playfulness, warning, autumn, desire, optimism, Protestantism and abundance.

Orange Red (CI - 8A8): Same as yellowish red. A general name typified by the sample indicated. (CI - 8A8) also represents coquelicot, red lead, poppy (red), ponceau. Covers strong colors between reddish orange and red. Related example: paprika or capsicum red (CI - 8B8).


Orange Vermilion: A variety of real vermilion.

Orange White (CI - 5A2): A general name typified by the sample indicated. Covers whites with a tinge of orange.


Orange Yellow (Pigment) (CI - 4A8): Same as yellowish orange, reddish yellow - all three are general colors names typified by (CI - 4A8). This sample also represents flame yellow and saffron yellow. Covers the color area with strong colors between orange and yellow. Related examples: buttercup yellow (CI - 4A7); maize (yellow) (CI - 4A6); yolk yellow (CI - 4B8); banana (CI - 4B7). A variety of deep cadmium yellow.


Orcein: A red dye, the principal coloring matter of cudbear and orchil, obtained by oxidizing an ammoniacal solution of orcinol. Origin: 1830-40 - arbitrary alteration of orcin.

Orchid Lilac (CI - 15A4): Typically of light lilac. The color of the flowers of certain orchids, genus Orchidaceae. See orchid purple. (1915).


Orchid Purple (CI - 14C8): The colors of flowers of certain orchids.


Orchil: Substance present in lichens, which when fermented with water, ammonia, and oxygen produces red.

Oriental Blue (CI - 22D5): Corresponds to a color used in pottery (and also used in dyeing of cloths) in the Orient. Probably related to cobalt porcelain colors. See Delft blue (CI - 20E4). (About 1700).


Orient Red (CI - 10C8): Same as blood red, bronze red, Turkish red. Typical for brownish red. Like Turkish red, it probably refers to Turkish linens, which were dyed with a madder red. (1905)


Orpiment (Pigment): See King's yellow.

Ostrum (Pigment): Roman name for Tyrian purple.

Over-Dyeing: Partially or fully dyeing a fabric that has already been initially dyed. The final outcome will be affected by the original base color.

Overlay: Translucent or transparent material laid over a piece of artwork or other original copy, on which instructions may be shown; also one of a series of separations in artwork drawn for color reproduction.

Overlaying Color: The color printed on top of part or on all of another color; an overlaying color might also be printed to correct a poorly printed or unsatisfying underlying color.

Oxblood Red (CI - 9E7): Originally the color of the blood of an ox corresponding to (CI - 10E8) and related to blood red (CI - 10C8). Later associated with a special kind of Chinese ceramic, now used by porcelain manufacturers. (1705)


Oxidation: Exposure of the dyed cloth to air; in vat dyeing this converts the color back into its insoluble form to bond it to the fiber.

Oxide Red (CI - 8E8): Same as Persian red; typical of a reddish brown. It is the color of the chemical compound ferric oxide. Like yellow ochre, this pigment is in abundant supply in nature (as clay, mixed with ferric oxide) and may also be artificially produced. The color can vary significantly. See burnt umber, Vandyke red, English red, both (CI - 6F6); the reddish ochre, burnt Sienna (CI - 7D8); Venetian red, English red, both (CI - 8D8); Persian red (CI - 8E8); caput mortuum (CI -8F7); Pompeian red (CI - 9C7); rust (brown) (CI -6E8); brick red, tile red, terra cotta (CI - 7D7). All of these names are based on a ferric oxide pigment which has been known to artists ever since the time of cave painters. Turkish red (or Turkey red) (CI - 10C8) may refer to both oxide red and to madder. See yellow ochre regarding oxide yellow and the variations thereof. The name of the compound ferric oxide is derived from the Latin ferrum (iron) and the Greek oxus (acid) since ferric oxide can be thought of as an acidic oxygen compound. Light red and red ochre are also related to this color in the UK. (About 1800)


Oxide Yellow (CI - 5C7): Same as yellow ochre. See oxide red.


Oxgall (CI - 4B7): See Banana, bile and Chinese yellow. (1600)


Oyster Grey (CI - 2C2): Both are used to describe the color of the inside of the oyster shell and so are used interchangeably to describe the one color. (1894)


Oyster White (CI - 2C2): See Oyster grey. (1893)

Padding: A dyeing process in which the fabric impregnated with dye is squeezed between weighted mangles to recover (and recycle) the excess.

Paint: A viscous liquid made for covering surfaces. Its essential constituent parts are: (i) a pigment; (ii) a vehicle. It can also contain additives to improve or alter its properties; anti-fungicides to inhibit growth of moulds; granules to make it easy to apply by brush; substances to hasten its drying; an extender such as chalk to supplement the pigment.

Paint Quality: One of the desirable visual attributes of a finished painting; the term does not refer to good or bad ingredients rather to its intrinsic material beauty or its successful surface effects.

Pale (CI - 2A2): Typical of yellowish white. Used as a color name to describe a facial complexion that is opposite of ruddy or sunburn. Similar to sallow (CI- 4D3). Often used to qualify general color names. In this context pale means very light or with a considerable white content, but it can also be considered as a general color name. French: pale.


Pale Blue (CI - 21A3): A general name typified by the sample given. Includes whitish, unshaded blues such as butterfly blue (CI - 22A3) and Persian blue (CI - 23A3). Neighbouring tints are bluish white (CI - 21A2); pastel blue (CI - 21A4); light blue (CI - 21A5). See pale. (1941)


Pale Green (CI - 27A3): A general name typified by the sample given. Whitish, unshaded greens. Neighbouring colors are: greenish white (CI - 27A2); pastel green (CI - 27A4); light green (CI - 27A5). See pale.


Pale Grey: Same as greyish whites. A general name for a very whitish or light, colorless grey. See grey, pale, pastel grey, light grey.

Pale Orange (CI - 5A3): A general name typified by the sample given. Whitish unshaded oranges. See orange white (CI - 5A2) and light orange (CI - 5A5). See pale.


Pale Red (CI - 5A3): A general name typified by the sample given. Whitish unshaded reds and orange reds, such as shell pink (CI - 10A3). Neighbouring colors are: reddish white (CI - 10A2); pastel red (CI - 10A4); and rose (or pink) (CI - 12A4) (which lies partly within the pale red rose area). See pale. (1941)


Palette: A particular range, quality selection or use of colors; also, surface on which to place colors. Also, the tin panel (often with thumb hole) on which a painter mixes pigments; also the colors usually employed by an artists.

Palette Knife: Knife with flexible steel blade and no cutting edge. Used to mix colors, apply thick paint, papier mache or other soft materials used in arts and crafts.

Pale Turquoise (CI - 24A3): Same as horizon blue. A general name typified by the sample given. A whitish unshaded variation of turquoise (CI - 24A8). Related to light turquoise (CI - 24A5). See pale.


Pale Violet (CI - 17A3): A general name typified by the sample given. Whitish unshaded variations of purple, violet and violet blue. Related to violet white (CI - 17A20); pastel violet (CI - 17A4); light violet (CI - 17A5); light lilac (CI - 15A4). See pale.


Pale Yellow (CI - 2A3): A general name typified by the sample given. Whitish unshaded yellows, such as cream (CI - 4A3). Related to: yellowish white (CI - 2A2) (or pale); pastel yellow (CI - 2A4); light yellow (CI - 2A5). See pale.


Pannetier's Green: Viridian.

Pansy (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Annual garden flower - Viola - various species; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh or faded flowers; (iii) Processing: As for fresh flowers; (iv) Colors Obtained: Maroon, blue and purple flowers – tan (vinegar); pinkish-beige (alum); gold (chrome); grey (iron); Mixed flowers, faded allow to soak in water to cover for two weeks – soft yellow (alum); brilliant yellow (tin); warm bright gold (chrome); lovely soft grey (iron); warm tan (blue vitriol); (v) Fastness: Good. The shades obtained from fermented flowers allowed to soak two weeks were quite fast to light.

Pantone System: The motivation behind the development of Pantone Matching system (PMS) was to allow designers to "color match" specific colors when a design entered the production stage - regardless of the equipment used that produced the color. PMS has been widely adopted by the commercial art industry, graphic designers, reproduction and printing houses, textile and fabric companies. For further information see post - Pantone System. Trade name for color-matching system covering inks, papers, pens and gouache.

Paprika (Red) (CI - 8B8): Same as capsicum red. The color of the red fruit of the plant Capsicum tetragonal. (1921)


Paraffin Wax: Higher homologues of alkanes, wax-like substances obtained as a residue from the distillation of petroleum: melting point 45-65oC. It is more brittle and so can yield a cracked effect. Marbling effects are created by using a greater percentage of paraffin in the recipe.

Para Red (Pigment): Paranitraniline toner or lake. A bright cherry red, fairly permanent for industrial use. Its undertone is bluish and less clear than those of other reds.

Paris Black (Pigment): An inferior grade of ivory black.

Paris Blue (CI - 21F7): Same as Berlin blue, bronze blue, cyan blue (old), Milori blue, Prussian blue, steel blue. See Berlin blue.


Paris Green (Pigment) (CI - 27B8): Common name for emerald green. See also chrome green (CI - 26D8). Paris Green is a common name for copper(II) acetoarsenite, or C.I. Pigment Green 21, an extremely toxic blue green chemical with four main uses: pigment, animal poison (mostly rodenticide), insecticide, and blue colorant for fireworks. Other names for the chemical are Parrot Green, Schweinfurt Green, Imperial Green, Vienna Green, and Mitis Green. It is almost never called Paris Green when referencing its use as a pigment. Since the use of Emerald Green as a pigment has been abandoned (around 1960). If one comes across the chemical today it is usually referred to as Paris Green. The reference to the city of Paris is uncertain. (1864)


Paris White: See whiting.

Paris Yellow (Pigment): Chrome yellow.

Parma Violet (CI - 17D6): The color of the flowers of the plant Viola parmensis from Northern Italian province of Parma. A very popular color name in the 1800s. May originally have been a bluish red, similar to (I - 12D6), but today it is identified with greyish violet color of (CI - 17D6). French: violette de Parma.


Parrot Green (CI - 30E8): The green color of the feathers of certain parrots. (1646).


Parsley Green (CI - 30F8): The color of the parsley plant, Petroselinum hortense. Related to other chlorophyll colors, such as grass green (CI - 30E7); foliage green (CI - 30D6); lettuce green (CI - 30D7).


Parsely (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Herb, annual or biennial - Petrosilinum; (ii) Parts Used: Leaves and stems; (iii) Processing: As for fresh leaves; (iv) Colors Obtained: Soft yellow (alum); bright gold (chrome); bright yellowish-green (tin); yellow-grey (iron); (v) Fastness: Good.

Parsnip (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Vegetable - Pastinaca; (ii) Parts Used: Green leafy tops; (iii) Processing: As for fresh leaves; (iv) Colors Obtained: Weak bath – lovely clear yellow (tin); Medium bath – dull yellow (alum); gold (chrome); tan (blue vitriol); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Partitive Mixing: It is the same as optical mixing.

Paste Blue: Prussian blue.

Pastel: Drawing material in the form of sticks made from pigment bound in glue and allowed to harden.

Pastel Blue (CI - 21A4): A general name typified by the sample given. The lightest of the light blues. The name originally referred to blue dye obtained from the "pastel plant". Isatis tinctorial, but now refers to light colors described. The name is derived from the Italian word pastello (chalk). (1798)


Pastel Green (CI - 27A4): A general name typified by the sample given; the lightest of greens.


Pastel Grey: A general name limited to the neutral greys. Example of pastel grey, which are more of less neutral: pearl grey (CI - 3C1); fog (CI - 23C1). (1887)

Pastel Manner: The color form of the crayon manner in printmaking, used primarily to reproduce pastels.

Pastel Pink (CI - 11A4): A general name typified by the sample given, which lies within the pink or rose color areas..


Pastel Red (CI - 10A4): A general name typified by the sample given. The lightest of pale reds. Related example: peach (CI - 7A4).


Pastel Violet (CI - 17A4): A general name typified by the sample given. The lightest of the violets and lilacs. Related examples: orchard (lilac) (CI - 15A4).


Pastel Yellow (CI - 2A4): A general name typified by the sample given. The lightest of light yellows.


Pastiglia: Decoration of moulded gesso or white lead paste, often gilded on paintings and furnishings such as large chests (cassoni) and small boxes.

Patent Yellow: Turner's yellow.

Patina: (i) Color and texture that appears on the surface of a material as a result of age or atmospheric corrosion; (ii) The mellow, greenish-brown film created on a copper or bronze sculpture either through natural oxidation or by applying chemicals and heat.

Patina Green (CI - 28C5): The color of the patina, which nature forms on stones and trees that are described "green with age". May also refer to bronze green (CI - 30F3) and perhaps to copper rust (CI - 26B6). (About 1890).


Patination: Artificially created patina.

Payne's Grey (Pigment): A mixture of ultramarine, black, and ochre, generally sold as a prepared water color.

Peach (CI - 7A4): The color of the ripe fruit of the peach tree. German: Pfirschen; French: peche (1588).


Pea Green (CI - 29D5): The color of ripe peas. (1752)


Pea (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Vegetable - Pisum sativum, Lathyrus japonicus; (ii) Parts Used: Domestic pea: vines; wild peach pea: whole plant; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Domestic pea, pods – beige (vinegar); light tan (chrome); tan (blue vitriol); Domestic pea, vine – yellow (alum); bright yellow (tin); Beach pea, whole plant – yellow (alum); gold (tin); yellow-green (blue vitriol); dark gold (chrome and alum); yellow-grey (iron); taupe (chrome and iron); (v) Fastness: Domestic pea pods and vines good; Beach pea, excellent.

Peacock Blue (CI - 24D7): The color of the green feathers of the peacock. French: bleu paon. (1882)


Peacock Green (CI - 27D7): The color of the green feathers of the peacock. French: vert pain. (1882)


Peanut Batik: Batik in which a paste of finely ground peanuts, lime and water was used as a resist agent.

Pear (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Ornamental fruit tree - Pyrus communes; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh leaves, alone or combined with leaves from other fruit trees; fresh peeled skins; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Leaves – soft lemon-yellow (alum); gold (chrome); bright yellow-orange (alum and tin); beige (blue vitriol); grey-tan (blue vitriol and iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent for leaves.

Pearl-Everlasting (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Perennial wildflower - Anaphalis margaritacea; (ii) Parts Used: Flowering heads or whole plant; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Whole plant – strong yellow (alum); chartreuse (alum bloomed in tin); gold (chrome); yellow-green (blue vitriol and iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Pearl Grey (CI - 3C1): The color of a pearl. Pearls vary in color, but the average color is almost neutral grey (CI - 3C1). French: gris perle. (1705)


Pearl White (CI - 3B1): It is uncertain whether this name originally referred to the gem itself or to the color of the inner lining of the pearl oyster, the so-called mother-of-pearl, but the latter source is most likely. See also parl grey. (1590)


Peasant Blue (CI - 21F5): A popular color name among the former peasantry of Europe; originally referred to a color darker than (CI - 21F5). (1922)


Peony (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Garden flower, perennial - Paeonia; (ii) Parts Used: Faded blooms; (iii) Processing: As for flowers; (iv) Colors Obtained: Mixed colors colors of blooms – yellow (alum); sharp yellow-gold (tin); strong medium gold (chrome); bronze (blue vitriol); orange-tan (iron and chrome); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Pentimento (repentance): Obliterated painting subsequently revealed by reason of the over painting's becoming transparent; a characteristic of linseed oil being that its refractive index increases with age.

Permalba (Pigment): Trade name for an artists' white.

Permanent Blue (Pigment): Usually applied to ultramarine blue, but sometimes to an organic pigment.

Permanent Carmine (Pigment): A modern synthetic organic pigment of good permanence only.

Permanent Green (Pigment): This is a mixture of various permanent greens and yellows in oil and water color. Note: Victoria Green is also referred to as permanent green.

Permanent Violet (Pigment): Manganese violet.

Permanent White (Pigment): Blanc fixe.

Permanent Yellow (Pigment): Barium yellow. It may also refer to some of the semi-permanent synthetic pigments.

Persian Blue (CI - 23A3): The color of Persian porcelain as described under Delft blue. Before about 1912 this name referred to the color of certain Persian fabrics dyed with indigo blue. See indigo blue (CI - 18F3). (1669)


Persian Gulf Oxide (Pigment): A variety of native red oxide of iron, usually containing 25% of silica.

Persian Orange (Pigment) (CI - 6A7): This name probably corresponds to Persian yellow, a pigment derived from a compound of arsenic and sulfur. An impermanent opaque lake color. (1892)


Persian Red (Pigment) (CI - 8E8): Light red. Same as oxide red. Typical of reddish brown. Sometimes used in reference to cinnabar whose color, however, is represented by (CI - 9A8). Also a variety of chrome red. See oxide red. (1835)


Persian Rose (CI - 13B8): A name associated with textiles during the 1920s. (1922)


Petunia (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Garden flower, annual - Petunia; (ii) Parts Used: Faded blooms; (iii) Processing: As for faded flowers; (iv) Colors Obtained: Mixed shades – yellow-tan (alum); bronze (blue vitriol); gold (chrome); yellow-green (iron); sharp gold (tin); (v) Fastness: Good, but not fast to light.

Pewter (Grey) (CI - 20E1): The color of the alloy of the same name. (1924)


Phosphor: A substance that becomes luminescent when bombarded with light.

Phosphorescence: Fluorescence that continues to be visible even though radiation has ceased.

Photo Brown (CI - 9F8): The brown "sepia" of early photographs; modern colorless prints are white with tones of grey and black.


Photochemical Reaction: A chemical reaction initiated by light, usually sunlight.

Photo Emulsion: It is a light-sensitive solution used in stencil making - such as producing photographic screens for screen printing.

Phototropism: With respect to dye technology, it refers to reversible fading, induced by light of certain dyes in association with substrates.

Phthalocyanine Blue (Pigment): Copper phthalocyanine. A deep intense cyan or greenish blue, whose pigment properties and color effects are identical with Prussian blue, including its coppery bronze and great tinctorial power when in concentrated form. It is completely permanent and replaces the less reliable Prussian blues.

Phthalocyanine Green (Pigment): Chlorinated copper phthalocyanine. A green phase of phthalocyanine blue, equally permanent and with identical pigment properties. Its hue resembles that of viridian except that it has a more intense and cleaner color effect.

Piece Dyeing: Dyeing of one type of material or yarn, such as 100% cotton, into one single even color. This involves the fabric being completely submerged into a dye bath. It is also a commercial practice of dyeing solid color fabric to order.

Pigeon Blue (CI - 20B2): One of the many colors of pigeons.


Pigment: (i) Finely ground solid matter forming the coloring agent of paints and printing inks. It is a solid coloring material, which is suspended in the vehicle. It can be either organic or inorganic in nature; (ii) In case of fabrics, the powdered forms mixed with a resin-bound, are coated onto the fabric, giving an opacity and slight stiffening to the texture.

Pigment Primary: One of the three colors of pigment (yellow, cyan, magenta) which can be combined to give all other colors, but which cannot itself be obtained from a mix of other colors. It is also the primary colors of canvas artists.

Pigment Yellow: See Hansa yellow.

Pigweed (Natural Dye): See lamb’s quarters.

Pine (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Coniferous tree - Pinus; (ii) Parts Used: Needles, cones, bark; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Fresh needle – yellow-beige (alum); Brown needles – tan (vinegar); gold (chrome); brown (chrome and iron); Cones – warm tan (alum and chrome); Bark – warm tan with reddish tinge (alum, chrome); pinkish-red (alum, bloomed in tin); (v) Fastness: Good for all; excellent for shades from bark.

Pine Soot Black: A Chinese lampblack, pure carbon.

Pink (CI - 12A4): Same as rose; a general name which may have derived from that of the pink family of plants. It is used somewhat arbitrarily in reference to pale and light reds. Formerly also applied to yellow in UK. (About 1500).


Pinkish White (CI - 10A2): Same as reddish white.


Pink (Psychology): Being a tint of red, pink also affects us physically, but it soothes, rather than stimulates. Pink is a powerful color, psychologically. It represents the feminine principle, and survival of the species; it is nurturing and physically soothing. Too much pink is physically draining and can be somewhat tiring. For further information see post - Psychology of Color.


Pistachio (CI - 28C4): Same as pistachio green (see below). (1892)

Pistachio Green (CI - 28C4): Same color as pistache. The color of the green seed of a pistachio tree, pistachio vera, from Persian pistah. (1789)


Pitch Black: The color of pitch. Blacker that (CI - 5F2) given below. Used in the literature to describe total darkness (e.g. "a pitch black night"). (1599)


Plangi (Tie Dyeing): A resist method of printing fabric or yarn in which the fabric or yarn is first tied with a wax thread where ever it is intended to resist the dye, and then is dipped in a dye bath.

Plaster of Paris: White powder made from gypsum. Used chiefly as casts and moulds or in craftwork to cast figurines etc.

Plasticizer: Substance added to varnishes, lacquers, and paints in order to impart or maintain necessary properties or to correct undesirable characteristics.

Platain (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Weed - Plantage major; (ii) Parts Used: The whole plant; roots; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: From new leaves – soft green (alum); gold-bronze (blue vitriol); yellow-green (chrome); grey (iron); grey-green (tin); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Platinum: The color of metal; derived from the Spanish plata (silver). (1918)

Platinum Blonde (CI - 4B3): Same as ivory, natural, sand. Blonde as platinum. Interpreted as lighter than light blonde (CI - 4C3), but like the latter, is used in reference to hair color. See blonde.


Pleating (Dye Pattern): The fabric is pleated or folded to produce on dyeing colored stripes. Several variations are possible: if the fabric is folded lengthwise vertical stripes ensue, width-wise for horizontal stripes or diagonally for diagonal stripes. Every fold produces a stripe and so for an evenly spaced design it is important that the distance between folds is measured and the string bindings tied at regular intervals. By re-folding and re-tying the fabric between several dyeings, a multi-colored criss-cross design can be created. Always tie the new bindings before removing the old ones so that the pleats are not disturbed. Note: The effect on the fabric is shown in the background.


Plessy Green (Pigment): A variety of chromium oxide green.

Plumbago: Graphite.

Plum (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Ornamental and fruit tree - Prunus; (ii) Parts Used: Leaves, bark, fruit, and/or skins; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Fresh leaves (from domestic dwarf plum); yellow (alum); bright yellow-orange (tin); rust (alum and chrome); gold (chrome); Bark – reddish-brown (alum and chrome); taupe (alum saddened in iron); Fruit, mixed with cherries – soft pink (alum); rose (chrome); pinkish-grey (iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent for all but those obtained using the fruit were only light fast for several days and faded noticeably when washed.

Plum Purple (CI - 15F5): The color of the ripe dark violet plum, prunus. From the Latin prune meaning plum. (1805)


PMS: Initials of "Pantone Matching System"; prefix attached to color samples and specifications which employ that system. For further information see post A Modern Color Classification System.

Poison Green (Pigment) (CI - 26A8): Originally the color of certain poisonous green pigments whose color is similar to emerald green (CI - 27B8). Possibly related to (CI - 27D4) (Spanish green, verdigris and green of Greece), which is also made from a poisonous pigment. Also similar to copper rust (CI - 26B6). Today interpreted as a very harsh green.


Poison Yellow (CI - 1A8) Typical of greenish yellow. It may have at one time referred to a poisonous yellow pigment - such as chrome yellow - with either lead or arsenic as an ingredient. Today it represents a clear, greenish yellow.


Poliment (Pigment): Bole, native red oxide.

Polychromate: Made of many colors, as in painted statuary or the multi-colored ceramic sculpture of the Della Robbia family.

Polychromate Dyeing: A dyeing process in which streams of different colored dyes are poured over a moving piece of fabric, resulting in a colored pattern.

Polychrome: Multi-colored.

Polyester Resins: Thermosetting plastic materials usually purchased as a liquid and used for casting projects in plastic.

Pompeian Red (Pigment) (CI - 9C7): A variety of Indian red. The brownish red color made with oxide red, which was used in ancient Pompeii. This pigment may have been mixed with cinnabar, causing the color to become redder and stronger. See oxide red (CI - 8E8) and cinnabar (CI - 9A8). (1882)


Pompeian Yellow (CI - 5C6): Similar to the yellow ochre color, which was used in ancient Pompeii. A variable color related to yellow ochre (CI - 5C7) and Pompeian red (CI - 9C7). (1902)


Ponceau (CI - 8A8): Same as coquelicot, red lead, and poppy (red). See the latter.


Popular (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Hardwood tree - Populus nigra, var. italica; (ii) Parts Used: Leaves; (iii) Processing: As for leaves; (iv) Colors Obtained: yellow (alum); bright yellow-orange (tin); bright gold (chrome); rust (tin and chrome); brown (chrome and iron); brown (blue vitriol); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Poppy (red) (CI - 8A8): Same as coquelicot, red lead, and ponceau.


Poppy (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Perennial garden flower - Papaver orientale; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh or faded blooms, alone or in combination with other flowers; (iii) Processing: As for flowers; (iv) Colors Obtained: Red-orange Icelandic poppies – warm beige (alum); yellow-gold (tin); dark gold (chrome); pinkish-tan (blue vitriol); warm grey (iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Porcelain (Blue) (CI - 23C6): The color of certain kinds of porcelain, possibly of Chinese origin; based on cobalt compounds. See Delft blue (CI - 20E4). (1789)


Port Wine (CI - 12F8): Typical of dark ruby. The color of wine from the Portuguese village of Oporto; derived from Latin ports (harbour). Related to Madeira (CI - 8E5); wine red (CI - 11D8); Burgundy (CI - 12F5). (1918)


Posterization: Separating range of tones in continuous-tone original into flat, graded tones, using several negatives, one for each grade, then making a composite print of them all; also called tone separation.

Post Office Red (CI - 10B8): Same as cherry red, currant red. (About 1900).


Potassium Permanganate (Oxidizing Agent): It is used to discharge indigo with the aid of a critic acid solution. If used in high concentrations it will damage cloth. The oxidizing agent works best on a medium to lightweight cotton fabric that has been dyed to a mid tone in an indigo bath.

Potter's Pink: Stannic (tin) oxide roasted with varies other metallic oxides to produce several variations of pure, but not very intense, pink color. Used in ceramics and of interest to fresco painters. Permanent but not of sufficient tinctorial power to warrant its use in other techniques.

Pozzuoli Blue (Pigment): Egyptian blue.

Pozzuoli Red (Pigment): This name is applied by fresco painters to a red earth originally produced at Pozzuoli - a species of clay or natural cement capable of setting to a hard plaster-like mass when mixed with water. Both high grade artificial red oxides and native earth of a peculiar rosy shade have been sold under this name. The modern fresco painter is more interested in the hue of Pozzuoli red rather than its setting properties, which in fresco might be a defect rather than an advantage.

Primary Arc: Any arc consisting of hues that fall between a pair of primary hues on a hue circle; for example, an arc of hues between red and yellow in an RYB hue circle.

Primaries: See Additive Primaries and/or Subtractive Primaries.

Primary: Of light or color. One of the three that can be combined to give all other colors. As the light or additive primaries are different from the pigment or subtractive primaries, it must always be specified which is discussed.

Primary Blue (CI - 21A8): Typical of vivid blue and blue. Neither greenish nor reddish but typical of the perception of blue. Corresponds to a wavelength of approximately 472x10-9 meter. See green.


Primary Colors: Colors from which all other colors can be mixed. The primary colors in paint are red, yellow and blue. These are colors that cannot be created by combining any other colors and hues. Primaries are used to create all other colors.

Primary Green (CI - 27A8): Typical of vivid green and green. Neither greenish nor reddish nor bluish but typical of the perception of green. Corresponds to a wavelength of approximately 544x10-9 meter. See green.


Primary of Light or Color: One of three colors that can combine to give all colors. As the light or additive primaries are different from the pigment or subtractive primaries, it is very important to delineate between the two in any discussion. See figure below.


Primary Red (CI - 10A8): Typical of vivid red, high red and red. Represented by signal red. Neither yellowish nor bluish but typical of the perception of red. Corresponds to a wavelength of approximately 614x10-9 meter.


Primary Yellow (CI - 2A8): Typical of vivid yellow, and yellow. Represented by cadmium yellow (light) and chrome yellow (primrose). Neither greenish nor reddish but typical of the perception of yellow. Corresponds to a wavelength of approximately 573x10-9 meter.


Primer: Sealant for new plaster or woodwork before painting.

Priming: The first coat of paint applied to a canvass in preparation for a painting process. White is usually used but it is not necessary to adhere to this one color.

Primrose (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Perennial garden flower - Primula; (ii) Parts Used: Flowers; (iii) Processing: As for flowers; (iv) Colors Obtained: Mixed shades – pale yellow (alum); bronze (blue vitriol); warm tan (chrome); bright yellow (tin); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Primrose Green (CI - 27A8): Same as green and primary green.


Primrose Yellow (Pigment) (CI - 1A6): The name primrose is generally used to designate the very lightest or palest shade of yellow and is indiscriminately applied to chrome yellows, zinc yellows, cobalt yellows etc. The color of the flower of the plant Primula vulgarise. (1629)


Princess Blue (CI - 20C8): Of uncertain origin; slightly greener than royal blue (CI - 19C7).


Prismatic Hues: Colors seen in the visiable spectrum; that is colors seen when white light is refracted through a prism. Note: Rain droplets act as a prism and so when white or visiable light is refracted through them a rainbow is born.

Privet (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Deciduous shrub - Ligustrum ibolium; (ii) Parts Used: Freshly picked leaves, free from twigs; berries; (iii) Processing: Soak out in water to cover several hours before dyeing; (iv) Colors Obtained: Leaves – bright clear yellow (alum); yellow-green to chartreuse (tin); gold (chrome); bronze (blue vitriol and iron); yellowish-grey (iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent for shades from leaves.

Process Colors: Cyan, magenta and yellow.

Process Inks: Those used in four color and three color processors.

Process White: An opaque white gouache for correction and masking of artwork intended for reproduction.

Protanomaly: Protanomaly is a mild color vision defect in which an altered spectral sensitivity of red retinal receptors (closer to green receptor response) results in poor red–green hue discrimination. It is hereditary, sex-linked, and present in 1% of males. The difference with protanopia is that in this case the L-cone is present but malfunctioning, whereas in the earlier the L-cone is completely missing.

Protanopia: Protanopia is a severe type of color vision deficiency caused by the complete absence of red retinal photoreceptors. Protans have difficulties to distinguish between blue and green colors and also between red and green colors. It is a form of dichromatism in which the subject can only perceive light wavelengths from 400 to 650 nm, instead of the usual 700 nm. Pure reds cannot be seen, instead appearing black; purple colors cannot be distinguished from blues; more orange-tinted reds may appear as very dim yellows, and all orange-yellow-green shades of too long a wavelength to stimulate the blue receptors appear as a similar yellow hue. It is hereditary, sex-linked, and present in 1% of males.

Prussian Blue (Pigment) (CI- 21F7): Same as Berlin blue, bronze blue, cyan blue (old), Milori blue, Paris blue, steel blue. Ferric-ferrocynanide. A deep, intense cyan or greenish blue; transparent and of extremely high tinctorial power. A great variety of shades exist, depending on variations in manufacture. The concentrated color has a bronze sheen. Large quantities of the cheaper grades are used in commerce. The finest grades are fairly permanent except when used in thin coats and glazes or excessively diluted with white. In painting it is now replace by phthalocyanine blue, the latter is a more resilient color.


Prussian Brown: Iron (ferrous) hydroxide. Formerly made by burning Prussian blue. Opaque, permanent, but not ordinarily used as a pigment. It is a powerful drier and is therefore used in the preparation of patent leather and oilcloth oils.

Prussian Green (Pigment): Brunswick green.

Prussian Red (Pigment): Light red.

Psychology of Color: Colors are often associated with feelings, moods or atmospherics. For further information see post on - a psychology of color.

Puce: reddish-purple color.

Puff Binder: A water-based pigment that can be mixed with standard color, and expands under heat to create 3D effects with a rubbery texture.

Pumice: Powered volcanic rock. A greyish inert pigment and abrasive, it is often used to impart tooth to grounds.

Pure Scarlet: Iodine scarlet.

Puree (Pwree): Crude Indian yellow.

Purkinje Shift: An adaption of the eye to low light levels.

Purple (CI - 15A8): A general name typified by the sample given (which also represents true purple). Strong colors between purplish red and reddish violet. Originally the color of a dye obtained from whelks; this dye is chemically related to indigo blue. The rich royal purple of the Phoenicians which was used to dye the robes of kings and emperors fell into disuse about 1100 AD.; it has been succeeded and even surpassed in beauty by the synthetic dyes of today. The name purple may perhaps be traced to the method used in making the coloring matter itself. The Greek word porphyreos is derived from the Greek word phyro (to mix). It is believed that this referred to the mixing and stirring which accompanied the cooking of whelks to produce the dye. Latin: purpureus; Italian: porpora; French: pourpre; German: purpur. See royal purple. (975 AD)


Purple of the Ancients: See Tyrian purple.

Purple (Psychology): Purple is associated with nobility, envy, spirituality, creativity, mystery, wisdom, gaudiness, exaggeration, confusion, pride and instability.

Purplish Grey (CI - 14D2): A general name typified by the sample given. Colors that are redder than those in the purple area, but whose red content is modified by the bluish tinge which purple acquires when shaded. This area consists to a great extent of colors between the grey scale and greyish magenta (plus reddish lilac).


Purplish Pink (CI - 14A4): A general name typified by the sample given. List variations of purplish red or violet red.


Purplish Red (CI - 14A8): Same as violet red. A general name typified by the sample given. Strong colors between bluish red and purple. Note that purplish red is here interpreted as an independent color concept which is not the same as purple. Related examples: cyclamen (CI - 13A6); Persian rose (CI - 13B8); the general name magenta (CI - 13C8); orchid purple (CI - 14C8).


Purplish White (CI - 14A2): A general name typified by the sample given; white with a tinge of purple.


Purslane (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Weed, wild food - Portacula oleracea; (ii) Parts Used: Whole plant; (iii) Processing: As for whole plant; (iv) Colors Obtained: Yellow (alum); beige (vinegar); tan (blue vitriol); yellow-green (alum and tin); gold-brown (chrome); (v) Fastness: Good.

Putty (CI - 4B2): The color of common putty. German: Kitt. (1889)


Quanta: Small packets of energy of light; a quanta of light can be visualized as an ethereal bullet that has no mass but only energy.

Radish (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Vegetable, weed - Raphanus; (ii) Parts Used: Wild radish – whole plant; Domestic varieties – green tops; (iii) Processing: As for each category. A strong bath recommended for domestic tops; (iv) Colors Obtained: Wild radish - Soft yellow (alum and tin); bright yellow-gold (chrome and tin); beige-tan (blue vitriol); soft grey (iron); Domestic radish tops – medium green with iron in a strong bath; (v) Fastness: Good.

Ragging: Paint technique that employs a crumpled piece of rag to create decorative broken-color finishes.

Ragwort (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Wildflower, weed - Senecio various species; (ii) Parts Used: Whole plants or flowers alone; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Whole plant – yellow (alum); bright yellow (tin); bright gold (chrome); grey-beige (iron); yellow-tan (blue vitriol); Using flowers gives shades that are yellow, yellow-green or chartreuse; (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Raspberry (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Wild and cultivated fruit - Rubus idaeus, Rubus strigosus; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh or frost bitten leaves; new shoots or mature cranes; berries if desired; (iii) Processing: As for berries – see blackberry; (iv) Colors Obtained: Colors obtain are almost identical to those from blackberry, but the fruits, in a strong bath with sugar and flour, will give a rose-tan or rose-grey with vinegar. Fruits steeped in water will give a pinkish shade to wool fibers pre-mordanted with alum, but the color is not fast; (v) Fastness: Highly variable with berries; colors from leaves and shoots are excellent.

Raspberry (Red) (CI - 10D7): The color of raspberries. French: framboise. (1892)


Raven: The color of the bird with the same name; blacker than (CI - 22F2) shown below. It is usually used in a literary context to refer to a deep black.


Raw Sienna (Pigment) (CI - 6D7): The color of a pigment made from earth containing iron. Italian: terra di Sienna. A natural clay, which contains iron and manganese. Absolutely permanent. Color similar to that of a dark ochre but more delicate and less opaque. Same as feuille more. Note: Raw Sienna is slightly darker due to its content of a manganese compound. (1760)


Raw Umber (Pigment) (CI - 5F8): The color of the umber pigment obtained from the earth. From the Italian: terra 'ombre (earth from the region of Umbria). Sometimes confused with the Latin umbra (shade). When burned, raw umbra becomes a more reddish brown color. Its composition is similar to that of sienna but it contains more manganese. A dark brown, its tones vary from greenish or yellowish to violet-brown. Not entirely opaque. Absolutely permanent. See burnt umber (CI - 6F6). Related to yellow ochre and oxide red. French: ombre, terre d'ombre. (1658)


Reactive Dye: A relatively small colored molecule containing a reactive group that reacts with and then bonds to the textile fiber.

Realgar (Pigment): Natural arsensic disulfide; reddish-orange; poisonous. Now obsolete, replaced by cadmiums. See King's yellow.

Receding Color: Planes of color in a design that appear to move away from the viewer. Usually cool colors in a work have this characteristic but the effect depends on the color usage.

Red (CI - 10A8): A general name indicative of the sample given that represents primary red and signal red. The sample also is typical of vivid red and high red. It covers the area of strong reds. Related examples: cinnabar or vermilion (CI - 9A8); scarlet (CI - (A8); madder red (yellowish) (CI - 9A7); poster (red) (CI - 9B8); coral (red) (CI - 9B7); post office red (CI - 10B8); cock's comb red (CI - 10B7); crimson or carmine (CI - 11A8); germanium (red) (CI - 11B7). The etymological history of red is discussed under blood red (see also rust and ruby red). As noted in these references, red is one of the most ancient color names found in any language and is often related to the word for blood. Specific names for different read, such as flamingo, are of course of other derivations. The names for red in some of the modern European languages are as follows: Italian: rosso; Spanish: rojo; French: rouge; Dutch: rood; German: rot. (700 AD)


Red Arsenic: Another term for realgar. See realgar.

Red (Psychology): Red symbolizes the color of love, danger, anarchy and left wing politically. Part of its significance is derived from the color of blood and fire. For further information see post - Psychology of Color.

Note red is also associated with passion, strength, energy, sex, love, romance, speed, danger, anger, revolution, wealth (China( and marriage (India).

Reddish Black: Same as blackish red. A general name for a black with a tinge of red.

Reddish (Blonde) (CI - 5C4): It is limited to the sample given. A general name for a hair color that is slightly redder than golden blonde and blonde. Also known as sandy. It is limited to the sample given.


Reddish Blue (CI - 19A8): Same as violet blue.


Reddish Brown (CI - 8E8): A general name typified by the sample indicated. Covers the color area with orange reds and reds of medium shading; colors that are more reddish brown than yellowish brown. Related examples: fox (CI - 8D7); mahogany (brown) (CI - 8E7); liver (brown) (CI - 8F6); oxblood red (CI - 9E7).


Reddish Golden (CI - 6C7): Redder than golden (CI 4C6). A general name typified by the sample indicated.


Reddish Grey (CI - 10B2): A general name typified by the sample indicated. Covers greyish whites with a tinge of reddish orange and red; greys with a tinge of bluish red.


Reddish Lilac (CI - 14B4): Colors that are redder than lilc, but of the same light greyish tone. A general name typified by the sample indicated.


Reddish Ochre (CI - 7D8): Same as Burnt Sienna.


Reddish Orange (CI - 7A8): A general name typified by the sample indicated. Same as fire red, flame red, flame scarlet.


Reddish Violet (CI - 16A8): A general name typified by the sample indicated. Strong colors between purple and violet.


Reddish White (CI - 10A2): Same as pinkish white. A general name typified by the sample indicated. Whites with a tinge of reddish orange, red and purplish red colors.


Reddish Yellow (CI - 4A8): Same as yellowish orange and orange yellow.


Red-haired (CI - 6C4): Refers to the color of hair; related to other hair colors as describe under blonde.


Red Lead (Pigment) (CI - 8A8): Copper complex. Same as coquelicot, ponceau, poppy (red); typical of a yellowish red and orange red. The color of pigment minmium, red oxide of lead, which was used in ancient times. The Latin minimum may be derived from the Celtic mine (ore) and is related to carmine and the Greek ammion. Both the Latin and the Greek words ave been used in reference to cinnabar; the Persian word for minimum, shangraf is related to sandarach, red orpiment. Compare with the Latin carum minimum "precious cinnabar", i.e. red lead. Note: It is composed of lead monoxide and lead peroxide. Very opaque, heavy, brilliant scarlet red. Its color darkens on exposure. No longer in wide use in the arts. (1289)


Red Ochre (Pigment): Native red clay containing oxide of iron. See Venetian red.

Red Oxide (Pigment): Manufactured iron (ferric) oxide. Many shades, all brighter, stronger, finer, and more permanent than native producers described under Venetian red. They replace the native iron oxides for most uses. Very opaque, absolutely permanent. The best bluish shades are called Indian red; the yellowish or scarlet shades, light red. A very bluish or purplish oxide known as Mars violet is lso available.

Reducing Agent: Reducing agents are chemicals that are used to destroy the background color in discharge printing. Reducing agents are potentially dangerous and should be handled with care.

Reflected Color: Wavelength of light that reflects from a surface and so gives that surface its distinctive color.

Refraction: The bending of light as it passes from one medium into another (e.g. light going from air into water is refracted or bent; hence fish appear to be shifted from their actual location).

Registration: A method used to ensure that colors line up correctly and are printed in the right place on each piece of paper or fabric in the edition.

Relative Value: A grey whose ability to absorb or reflect light matches that of a specific hue.

Relief Printing: Printing methods in which the image is obtained from a raised surface.

Reseda Green (CI - 2E6): The color of leaves of the plant Reseda odorata, whose name is derived from the magical incantation, which involved the use of this plant. (1875)


Resins: High molecular weight materials, which soften at high temperatures. Synthetic resins are formed by polymerization. Natural resins occur in vegetable products (rosin) or from insects (shellac).

Resist Printing: Application to a fabric in a pattern or image of a substance, which prevents dye uptake, resulting in a white or un-dyed pattern or image on a dyed ground.

Resists: A substance that prevents dye uptake or fixation of a dye on a substrate in areas where the resist has been applied. Resists may be physical or chemical barriers (e.g. physical - leaf of a plant; chemical - lack of a mordant for natural dyes).

Resist Salt L: A mild oxidizing agent that prevents the dye from decomposing during fixation and achieves a high color yield.

Resist Style: A pattern style in which the fabric is treated with a resist whereby on dyeing or developing, a white or colored pattern is obtained on a colored ground.

Retarder: An ingredient added to ink to slow the drying process and prevent the ink from clogging the screen while printing.

Retina: The sensory membrane lining the eye, continuing rods and cones and connected to the brain via an optical nerve.

Retouching: Methods of altering the image of artwork to make corrections, improve or change the character of the image.

Retsina: Resin-Flavoured Greek wine.

Rhodamine: Any one of a group of synthetic red or pink basic dyestuffs used for wool and silk. They are made from phthalic anhydride and aminophenols. Origin: 1885-90 from rhod- + amine.

Rhododendron (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Flowering every-green shrub - Rhododendron; (ii) Parts Used: Leaves; (iii) Processing: As for fresh leaves; (iv) Colors Obtained: Leaves pick early summer – beige (vinegar); bright yellow (alum); gold blue vitriol; bright rust (chrome); bright orange (tin); khaki to olive-green (iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Rhubarb (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Vegetable - Rheum; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh leaves; (iii) Processing: As for fresh leaves; (iv) Colors Obtained: Brilliant orange (tin); orange-yellow (alum); rust (chrome); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Rinman's Green (Pigment): Cobalt green.

Rinse: To wash in water without soap; to remove from dyed fiber any trace of the dye liquor or mordants, which may remain after dyeing.

Risalgallo: Realgar.

Roan Rouge: Roan rouge is a horse coat color pattern characterised by an even mixture of colored and white hairs on the body, while the head and "points"—lower legs, mane and tail—are mostly solid-colored. Horses with roan coats have white hairs evenly intermingled throughout any other color. There are many variations of roan colors. Middle French and Old Spanish based on German roan.


Rod monochromic (chromatopsia): Rod monochromic is an exceedingly rare, non progressive inability to distinguish any colors as a result of absent or nonfunctioning retinal cones. It is associated with light sensitivity (photophobia), involuntary eye oscillations (nystagmus), and poor vision.

Rods: The photoreceptors in the retina that are sensitive to low light levels and colorless vision.

Roman Ochre: Variety of ochre.

Rose (CI - 12A4): Same as pink. A general name typified by the sample indicated; this sample also represents flamingo. Light variations of the bluish reds and purplish reds; rose covers the bluest part of the areas for pale reds and pastel pink. This name was naturally derived from that of the flower (Latin: rosa; Greek: rhodon). The variations in color subsequently led to the following distinction in the color names: the light (whitish) variations of red were grouped under the general name, rose, while the stronger reds were grouped under the name rose red. German: rosa; French: rose. (1382)


Rose Dawn (CI - 7C4): See Aurora and Dawn.


Rose Madder (Pigment): Term applied to a grade of madder or alizarin lake very much weaker than the color sold as alizarin crimson or madder lake.

Rose (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Cultivated and wild flowering shrub - Rosa; (ii) Parts Used: Cultivated roses; faded petals, pruned stems; Wild roses – faded or fresh blooms, new shoots, fresh leaves picked as matures in summer; hips; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Mixed shades of hybrid tea petals, fermented – yellow (alum); medium brown (chrome); gold (blue vitriol); bright yellow-orange (tin); grey (iron); Fresh shoots (cranes) and leaves, wild rose – yellow-green (alum); gold (blue vitriol); greenish-bronze (chrome); medium brown (iron); bright yellow-orange (tin); (v) Fastness: Excellent for shades from cranes and leaves; good for shades from fresh petals; good to excellent for shades from fermented petals.

Rosenstiehl's Green: Manganese green.

Rose Pink (Pigment): Weak, fugitive lake made from brazilwood.

Rose Red (CI - 12B8): See Rose. A general name typified by the sample indicated. The color of red roses of the Rosaceae family. There are ca. 4,000 varieties, also include white and yellow. The red varieties range from light to dark red and from yellowish to bluish red in hue. The color given here is representative of many of the common garden varieties of roses. See rose. Since the rose was the first flower to be cultivated we may assume that the color name is very old. (About 1300)


Rosewood (or Bois de Rose) (CI - 9D5): The reddish brown color of rosewood. (1895)


Rosin: Resin of various pine trees used on bows of string instruments. Same as colophony.

Rouge (Pigment): Artificial red oxide of iron, very finest and smoothest grain, any shade. Polishing rouges may often be brownish off-shades, suitable for pigment use.

Royal Blue (Pigment) (CI - 19C7): Same as king's blue. It has been connected with precious stones and pigments, such as sapphire blue (CI - 23D7); Egyptian blue or enamel blue (CI - 21C7); lapis lazuli (blue) (CI - 20E8); cobalt blue (CI - 22B7); Berlin blue (CI - 21F7). It may be considered the supreme blue and a symbol of royalty. Sky blue, varying between (CI - 21B5) to (CI - 24A3) is another possible association. King Louis XIV has been mentioned in connection with royal blue, while the Illyrian king Gentius has been associated with gentian blue (CI - 21B7). Indigo blue (CI - 18F3) may once have been called royal blue; like royal purple it was used to dye king's robes or the uniforms of the "king's men". A relationship is sometimes indicated between royal blue and the Egyptian Hathor, goddess of the dawn sky, who corresponds to the Greek goddess Aphrodite. It is also a fancy name which has variously applied to a variety of artificial ultramarine, and to numerous synthetic organic lakes. French: bleu royale. (About 1550, 1892).


Royal Green: Chrome green.

Royal Purple (CI - 16D8): Originally it may have referred to crimson or carmine (CI - 11A8) or true purple (CI - 15A8). The latter color was first produced by the Phoenicians and used to dye the robes of Kings. (1661)


Royal Red (Pigment): A bright lake, made from eosin. Fades rapidly.

Royal Yellow: King's yellow.

Ruben's Brown (Pigment): A variety of Vandyke brown.

Ruben's Madder (Pigment): An alizarin red with a bright, clean, brownish-orange tone. See alizarin brown.

Rubiginous: Same color as rust. See rust.

Rubious: Color of a ruby. See below.

Ruby (CI - 12D8): Same as ruby red. A general name typified by the sample indicated. The stronger darker bluish reds. Two other names have been formed from ruby: greyish ruby and dark ruby. Within the area of ruby itself we also find the name cerise (CI - 12C8). German: rubin; French: rubis.


Ruby Red (CI - 12D8): See ruby above for color. Typical of the general name of ruby. The color of the precious stone which consists principally of aluminium oxide colored with small quantities of iron and chromic oxide. According to an Eastern legend, the ruby was formed from the blood of a queen which had spilled on a diamond. Ruby red is slightly more bluish than blood red (CI - 10C8), even though Siamese rubies are more like garnet (red) in color. The name is derived from the Latin: ruber. (1572).

Ruddle: Also known as reddle and raddle. A red ochre used to especially to mark sheep. Diminutive formed from Old English rudu meaning redness.

Ruddy (CI - 9B5): A vaguely defined name which refers to a facial complexion that has been affected by wind and weather. Related to maiden's blush (CI - 8B4).


Rufous: Same color as russet. See russet.

Russet: Same as rufous. Russet is a dark brown color with a reddish-orange tinge. As a tertiary color, russet is an equal mix of orange and purple pigments. The first recorded use of russet as a color name in English was in 1562.


Rust (CI - 6E8): Same as rust brown, hazel. Typical of brown. The color of rust that forms on the surface of iron through reacting with oxygen in the atmosphere. Because of its ferric oxide content, rust belong to the same family of colors as yellow ochre (side yellow) (CI - 5C7), and oxide red (CI - 8E8). It is related to the Sanskrit root for red, rudh. See blood red. Latin: robin; French: rouille; German: rost. (1590)


Rust Brown (CI - 6E8): Same as rust and brown. See above.

RYB System: A pigment system in which red, yellow and blue are the primary colors.

Sable Brush: Made from the hair of a sable. Good-quality paint brush.

Sable (Color): Named after the fur of the sable. A dark somewhat brownish black. Conor below is that of a sable paint.


Safflower (Pigment): Also known as dyer's thistle. A fugitive red lake made from dried flower petals of the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). This name was also a distortion of zaffer.

Saffron (Pigment): An obsolete bright yellow color obtained from dried petal of Crocus sativus. Fades badly in daylight.

Saffron Yellow (CI - 4A8): Same as cadmium yellow (deep) typical of yellowish orange, orange yellow, reddish yellow. The color of the dye obtained from the species of crocus, which has been used to color and flavor foods since ancient times. Sample below (CI - 4A8) corresponds to the color of the flowers of crocus. However, the classical interpretation of saffron yellow might be closer to golden yellow (CI - 5B7). From Arabic: zafaran; Italian: zafferano; Spanish: azafranado. (1200)


Sahara (CI - 6C5): A fashion name adopted from the color of the Sahara; exact designation uncertain. (1921)


St John’s Wort (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Perennial wild flower, weed - Hypericum perforatum; (ii) Parts Used: Flowering tops whole plant; (iii) Processing: As for whole plant; (iv) Colors Obtained: Flowering tops alone – give yellows and gold; The Whole plant – yellow-green (alum); bronze (blue vitriol); gold (chrome); medium yellow-green (iron and tin); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Sallow (or Wan) (CI - 4D3): Refers to a sickly facial coloring, particularly yellowish, pale or of greyish tones. On Madagascar, a sickly complexion is called "the color of a dead grasshopper", a greener color than sallow. Related to pale (CI - 2A2), pale yellow (CI - 2A3). French: divide, jaunt sale. (About 1000)


Salmon (CI - 6A4): The color of the flesh of a fresh salmon, Salmo salar. (1776)


Salt: Sodium chloride is common table salt. There are several forms: sea salt (contains other salts in smaller amounts such as magnesium chloride); coarse pickling salt and ordinary iodized salts (contains potassium iodide etc.) The addition of a salt to dye bath softens the colors and slightly retards the rate at which the fiber absorbs the dye. It is used to “draw” the color from certain dyestuffs, namely flowers, barks, lichens and roots, and is sometimes added to these when they are soaking out. A final hot water and salt rinse is beneficial when rinsing out some colors after dyeing. This adds in the fastness of these shades and prevents too much color “rubbing off” after yarns are dry. Note: it is used as an assistant in reactive and direct dyes.

Sand (CI - 4B3): Same as ivory, natural, platinum blonde. The color of sand, which may of course vary according to the impurities in it. (1627)


Sandalwood: Named after the sandalwood, the fragrant heartwood of any of certain Asian trees of the genus Santalum, used for ornamental carving and burned as incense. Sandal, from Medieval Latin sandalum, from Late Greek sandanon, from Sanskrit bandana sandalwood.


Sandaraca: This term is now applied to a varnish resin.

Sap Green (Pigment) (CI - 30B7): The color of buds starting to bloom in the spring. A lake made from unripe buckthorn berries. Fades rapidly. Related to spring green (CI - 30C7). It is sometimes used interchangeably with reseda green (CI - 2E6). German: saftgruen. (1578)


Sapphire Blue (CI - 23D7): The color of the precious stone, which is usually blue but appears in other colors depending on its mineral content. Many names has been applied to the blue color of this stone: king's blue, royal blue, cornflower blue and sky blue. Of these, sky blue as represented by (CI - 22A5) and (CI - 23A4) are closest to the color of sapphire blue. Derived from the Greek sappheiros, the Hebrew sappir, the Arabian safir, the Sanskrit sanipriya. (1430)


Saruk (CI - 6E3): Same as brownish beige. Typical of greyish brown. The mellow color of certain closely woven Persian rugs from the Iranian village of Saruq. French: saroque or saroq. (1925)


Satin White (Pigment) (CI - 2A1): A mixture of alumina hydrate and gypsum, used in the manufacture of coated paper. The color of uncolored silk or satin.


Saturation: The purity of color; that is, the degree of it intensity or vividness. See figure below.


Saturation Point: The point at which the fiber absorbs no further dyestuff.

Saturnine Red: Red lead.

Saxon Blue: Smalt. Sometimes called save blue. A light greyish-blue color. From French Saxe Saxony, a source of a dye of this color.


Scagliola: Material used to imitate stone, particularly marble; made of plaster mixed with glue.

Scarlet (CI - 9A8): Same as vermilion, cinnabar, Chinese red, calypso red. The color of the dye cochineal, obtained from the Mexican bug. A similar color, kermes, is the oldest recorded dye; it was called tola or tolaschani in Hebrew. The name scarlet was probably derived from the Persian words for clothes, which were dyed with this coloring matter, sakirlat, saqalat, siqalat, and from the Arabic siqillat. These developed into the middle Latin scarlatum, the old French escarlate, the German scharlach, and finally the English scarlet. This name can be found in all Roman and Teutonic languages as early as the beginning of the thirteenth century and is also present in Turkish and in the Slavic languages. The process involved in making this dye resulted in a color similar to cinnabar with which scarlet has often been confused. Another method of dye-making which also used cochineal resulted in more bluish red color, crimson or carmine (see these). Today, many organic and inorganic pigments are used in producing scarlet. (1250)


Scarlet Lake: The old scarlet lakes were semi-transparent compounds of cochineal lakes and vermilion; the modern ones are colors made from dyestuffs of the same name. Not permanent as pigments.

Scarlet Vermilion: Vermilion.

Scheele' Green (Pigment) Silk: A poisonous copper green. Color inferior to emerald green.

Schnitzer's Green (Pigment): A variety of chromium oxide green.

Schweinfurt Green (Pigment): Emerald green.

Screenprinting Inks: Most fabric paints can be used for screen printing, but it is more economical to use a thickening agent or a binder to spread the fabric paint so that it does not appear too thick on the fabric. In general screen printing inks are very concentrated and it is therefore only necessary to use few drops in order to produce a strong color. Always add the color to the binder, as it is difficult to make the color paler once it has been mixed. All printing inks are intermixable and water soluble, so that the printing screen can be washed with clean water.

Sea Blue (CI - 24E8): Same as ocean blue. The color of the sea which, of course, varies with differences in illumination, wind and weather. Related to water blue (CI - 24C5); aquamarine (CI - 24B3); Capri blue (CI - 24B7); ice blue (CI - 24C8); sea crest or ocean green (CI - 27C5). (1850)


Sea Crest (CI - 27C5): Same as ocean green and sea green. The green color of the ocean. See sea blue. Except for water green (CI - 30C3), the colors which are related to sea crest are listed under sea blue. (1598)


Sea Green (CI - 27C5): Same as sea crest and ocean green. See above.

Seasonal Colors (Rule-Of-Thumb for Fashion): (i) Summer: white, bright saturated colors; (ii) Holiday: Metallics such as silver, gold and bronze; champagne; ivory; black; jewel tones such as sapphire blue, ruby red, emerald green; (iii) Resort/pre-spring: soft pastels, hate, navy blue, cherry red, bright green, tan; (iv) Spring: bright colors such as yellow, kelly green, indigo, purple, navy, light khaki; (v) Transition: brown, olive green, pumpkin, cranberry ochre yellow, dark khaki, charcoal grey, taupe, black, chocolate brown, deep rich colors.

Seaweed (Natural Dye): See Dulse.

Secondaries: See Additive Secondaries and/or Subtractive Secondaries.

Secondary Colors: Green, orange and purple. Colors that can be mixed from primary colors. For example, yellow and red make orange. See figure below.


Selective Reflection: Specific wavelengths of light reflected from a surface, giving that surface an identifiable color.

Selenium Red: See cadmium red.

Semi-Wet Processes in Transfer Printing: It relies on the transfer of water soluble dye printed on paper to a controlled volume of interstitial liquid previously applied to the fabric. In this method, the design or motif is retained by utilizing a viscous aqueous medium, and careful regulation of pressure.

Sensitive Material: A material with the surface chemically treated to make it receptive to light.

Sepia (CI - 4F4): This color in reality lies between (I - 4F4) and (CI - 5F4) and for convenience only the former is shown. The color of the pigment obtained since ancient times are prepared from the ink-sacs of various cephalopods animals, principally cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis). Probably known to the early Egyptians. From the Greek word: sepia. Semi-transparent, very dark brown, powerful; may be diluted to a variety of tones and shades. Used only as in water-color or ink. Not permanent to light. From the Greek word: sepia; French: brun sepia; Italian: seppia. (About 1800)


Sfumato: The soft “smoky” treatment of contours, notably by Leonardo, to avoid edginess and to create an impression of rounded volume.

Shade: (i) Any hue or color mixed with black. Hence, it is below its “normal” value. For example, maroon is a shade of red that has a lower value. See figure below; (ii) To add a small quantity of dye to increase color shade.


Shade (Dyeing): To add a small quantity of dye to increase color shade.

Shale: See slate black.

Shasta Daisy (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Perennial, garden flower - Chrysanthemum various species; (ii) Parts Used: Blooms, any color; (iii) Processing: As for fresh flowers; (iv) Colors Obtained: Soft yellow (alum, below simmer); yellow-gold (chrome); bright yellow (tin); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Shellac: Resin in thin plates. Purified resin from various insects, used in making French polish, old gramophone records and the like.

Shell Pink (CI - 8A3): The color of the inner side of certain sea shells. Related to oyster white, oyster grey (CI - 2C2). (1865)


Siccative: Drying substance added to paints and inks, some medicines and the like.

Sicilian Brown: Raw umber.

Sienna: See raw sienna and burnt sienna.

Signal Green (CI - 26A8): The color of the typical green signal of traffic lights. The color indicated has been chosen with regard to its relationship to signal red (CI - 10A8) and the signal yellow (CI - 3A8); the complementary color of red is approximately bluish green (CI - 25A8) and primrose green (CI - 27A8). The color chosen is the mean of these two.


Signal Red (CI - 10A8): Same as primary red. Typical of red, vivid red, high red. The color of red traffic lights. A variety of para red. (1902)


Signal Yellow (CI - 3A8): Same as chrome yellow (light or lemon). The color of yellow traffic lights. The color indicated is the "psychological mean" between signal green (CI - 26A8) and signal red (CI - 10A8).


Sil: A Roman name for ochre.

Silex: Silica.

Silica: Native silicon dioxide, powdered quartz. An inert pigment, coarse texture, no coloring power. Permanent, but not ordinarily employed in artistic work. Used in grounds and in industrial paints to impart tooth and as an adulterant. Sold in many degrees of coarseness.

Silk Paints: These paints are transparent and have a translucent quality. The colors may be thinned by water and can be mixed together to create other colors. Silk paints can often differ in the way they are fixed – some are steam fixed, others need ironing and so need to be immersed in a fixative solution. Silk paints work well on wool as long as the wool is fine and smooth. Sometimes a diffusing agent is necessary to prevent the paint from drying too quickly and to stop any hard lines appearing when covering large areas with a coat of paint A diffusing agent can also be useful when merging colors into each other so that the paints gradually blend and do not have hard and definite edges where one color stops and another one starts.

Silver: A color same as old silver. The color of tarnished silver; slightly brownish. See silver white and argent. (1607)


Silver White (Pigment) (CI - 2B2): The clear color of shiny silver. May also be used in reference to hair color. See silver (grey). (1562)


Simmer: Liquid at a temperature of 95oC; the temperature at which a dye bath is processed when the fiber and mordant have been added.

Simultaneous Contrast: The phenomenon of an after image seen while the viewer is still looking at a color stimulus. The effect is demonstrated when complementary colors are placed side-by-side. At their shared edge each color appears more intense; that is, red appears redder and green appears green at their shared edge. See figure below.


Sinopia (also Sinope, Sinoper): The ancient Roman name for a red iron oxide pigment. By extension, the red preliminary outline painted on fresco plaster before applying the intonaco.

Size: Thick paint like sealer, filler or glaze, as used for coating paper, cloth or plastered walls.

Size of Dye Pots: Most standard enamel pots hold 4 gallons or 18 litres of fluid. Stock pots tend to be larger and are available in sizes up to 10 gallons or 45.5 litres. Copper boilers hold much more than that.

Skitteriness: The variation in depth of color between one fiber and another in dyeing (usually in wool dyeing).

Sky Blue (CI - 22A5): Same as bleu-ciel. The color of a sunny, cloudless, summer noonday sky viewed at an angle of about 30 degrees to the horizon. A change in any of these conditions can drastically change the color. The following color variations are caused by the changes in the incline of the viewing angle alone, all other factors being equal: 5o - horizontal blue (CI - 24A3); 10o - (CI - 23A4); 30o - sky blue (CI - 22A5); 90o (zenith) - (CI - 21B5). Thus there is a variation in hue from turquoise (Plate 24) to primary blue (Plate 21) accompanied by an increase in intensity from 3 to 5. The original name for sky blue, cerulean blue, deprived from the Latin caeruleum (sky), has changed in meaning to correspond to the color of a pigment; see cerulean blue (CI - 23C7). The Greek translation of sky blue, aeroides, represented a much whiter color than (CI - 22A5). German: himmelblau; French: bleu (de) riel. (1728)


Sky Grey (CI - 23B2): The color of an overcast sky on a rainless day. See sky blue. (1912)


Slate Black: Powdered slate or shale, one of the earliest pigments used in water mediums. A rather greyish black with poor opacity and low tinting power compared with the carbon or iron blacks. It is still obtainable, being used for some industrial processes, but is always very coarse and has poor physical properties. Its hardness destroys the surfaces of grinding mills; it is therefore never ground very fine. Red, green and grey slate powders are also known. Permanent - but of small value as a pigment. A shale black containing 15% of carbon is made by calcining bituminous shale.

Slate Grey (CI - 3F2): The color of the rock (aluminium silicate and carbon). The rock may vary in color; also designated as the bluish grey (CI - 20F2) rather than the olivine grey shown below. (1705)


Smalt (CI - 19A8): A kind of cobalt blue glass or fit, made by roasting a cobalt ore with other ingredients. It was improved from the Egyptian days by substituting cobalt for the more poisonous and less desirable copper. Before the introduction of artificial ultramarine, smalt was most carefully made in a number of different shades, but today it finds limited use in ceramics. Its faults were its coarseness and its lack of tinctorial power, and the presence of alkaline impurities. Color same as reddish blue and violet blue.


Smaragd Green: Viridian.

Smoke Blue (CI - 21C3): The color of smoke when viewed against a dark background. Since smoke consists of small articles it tends to reflect the short blue wavelengths and transmit the long yellow and red wavelengths. When viewed against a light background smoke appears grey or brown (1901).


Smoke Brown (CI - 4F2): The brownish color of smoke produced by coal when viewed against a light background. Since smoke consists of small particles, it tends to reflect the short blue wavelengths. When viewed against a light background, smoke appears grey or brown. See smoke grey (CI - 3C2) and smoke brown (CI - 4F2). It is mainly used in reference to glassware and certain precious stones. (1806)


Smoke Grey (CI - 3C2): The color of smoke when seen against a light background. Compare with smoke blue. This colorise almost a complementary of smoke blue. Related to smoke brown (CI - 4F2). French: fumée. (1805)


Snow White: Same as white, chalky, lily white. The color of snow; the whitest of whites. Zinc white.

Snuff (Brown) (CI - 5F6): Same as tobacco and Havana (brown). (1698)


Soak Out: To whet yarn thoroughly; to aid the extraction of pigment from dyestuff by soaking it in water for several hours longer.

Soap: A cleaning agent manufactured by reacting natural oils or fats, usually with sodium hydroxide. Soap is a surface active agent.

Soaping: Washing the fabric in nearly boiling soapy water; used to remove the excess dyes (e.g. especially in vat dyes) from the surface of the fabric. In the case of vat dyes it also promotes aggregation and orientation of the dye molecules with the fibers.

Soda Ash: Mild alkali, known as sodium carbonate (a form of washing soda) causes procion M dyes to react in fiber.

Sodium Alginate (Manutex): A gum extract from seaweed, used as a thickening agent.

Sodium Bi-carbonate (Baking Powder): A mild alkaline used in reactive dyeing for painting on color.

Sodium Bisulfite: A quick, inexpensive chemical for discharge dyeing. It contains chlorine.

Sodium Formaldehyde Sulfoxylate (Reducing Agent): Commercial names: Formosul and Rongalite C. It is a general purpose reducing agent. It is easy to handle and produces a good white on cellulose, cellulose acetate, triacetate and 100% silk fabric. It is rarely used on wool because it may cause fiber damage and shrinkage problems, because it functions best in an alkaline pH range. With some finer fabrics the production of a “halo” effect may cause some problems.

Sodium Hydrosulfite: A less powerful discharge agent than chlorine bleach.

Soga: Rich brown dye derived mainly from the bark of a tree.

Solferino (Pigment): A fugitive red-mauve lake made from magenta and named for the site of a battle in Italy in 1859.

Soluble Blue (Pigment): A variety of Prussian blue, which dissolves in water. Used for ruling lines on writing paper and as a laundry blue.

Solution Dyeing: See Dope Dyeing.

Solvent: (i) Usually toxic (but it can be non-toxic) chemical used to dissolve oily block out materials from the screen or used as a pressurized removing agent (e.g. water pressure); (ii) Part of oil-based paints that evaporates during drying.

Somalis (CI - 7E5): The skin color of the native population of Somaliland in East Africa. Related to negro (CI - 6F3). It racial connotations has rendered this name obsolete. (1892)


Soot Brown (CI - 5F5): The color of soot. (1600)


Sorrel (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Weed, perennial - Rumex acetosella; (ii) Parts Used: Whole plant; (iii) Processing: As for whole plant; (iv) Colors Obtained: Soft yellow-green (alum and blue vitriol); medium dull green (blue vitriol, saddened in iron); chartreuse (tin); tan (chrome); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Space Dyeing: A method of dyeing a yarn in which different areas of the yarn are dyed different colors so as to produce a pattern or image of the fabric on the fabric made from it.

Spanish Black: Charcoal made from cork; also slate black.

Spanish Brown: Burnt umber.

Spanish Green (Pigment) (CI - 27D4): Same as verdigris, green of Greece. The color of the pigment which was known in France as vert de gris, a name drives from the Old French vert de Gréce (green of Greece). Latin: viridi hispanicum. (About 1400)


Spanish Red: Venetian red.

Spanish White (Pigment): Paris white in lump form. The name was also used for the now obsolete bismuth white.

Spattering: Colors are simply flicked onto fabric, using a tooth brush or a stick depending upon the effect that is desired.

Spearmint (Natural Dye): See mint.

Spectral Hue Circle: A projection of the spectrum as seen as a circle – that is, a rainbow.

Spectral Sensitivity: The relative sensitivity of a photographic material to different wavelengths of light.

Spectrum Blue: The color of blue light rays of the spectrum of wavelengths around 440-485x10-9 meters. The most typical color represented by a wavelength of 472x10-9 meters corresponds in hue to a primary blue, but is more intense. Cannot be duplicated by printing inks.

Spectrum Green: The color of green light rays of the spectrum of wavelengths around 505-560x10-9 meters. The most typical color represented by a wavelength of 544x10-9 meters corresponds in hue to a primary green, but is more intense. Cannot be duplicated by printing inks. In the UK spectrum green is poison green (CI - 26A8).

Spectrum Orange: The color of orange light rays of the spectrum of wavelengths around 580-600x10-9 meters. The most typical color represented by a wavelength of 590x10-9 meters corresponds in hue to a primary orange, but is more intense. Can to some extent be duplicated by printing inks. In the UK spectrum orange is fire or flame red (CI - 7A8).

Spectrum Red: The color of red light rays of he spectrum of wavelengths around 600-700x10-9 meters. The most typical color represented by a wavelength of 614x10-9 meters corresponds in hue to a primary red, but is more intense. Can to some extent be duplicated by printing inks. In the UK it is nearer to carmine (CI - 11A8).

Spectrum Violet: The colors of purple and violet cannot be found in the spectrum. The shortest wavelengths of the spectrum 380-440x10-9 meters are often referred to as violet, but are actually bluish violet. Violet is composed of rays from both extremes of the spectrum - the blue short and the red long wavelengths. In the UK it is more intense than Clematis Blue (CI - 17D8).

Spectrum Yellow: The color of blue light rays of the spectrum of wavelengths around 568-580x10-9 meters. The most typical color represented by a wavelength of 573x10-9 meters corresponds in hue to a primary yellow, but is more intense. Cannot be duplicated by printing inks.

Speed: The water and dyestuff molecules have kinetic energy due to the temperature of the dye bath; that is, they move at a certain speed. The higher the temperature the greater the speed. Hence, at higher temperatures the dye molecules come into contact with the fiber more rapidly and so penetrate the amorphous regions of the fiber polymer system more rapidly. If the cloth is folded in the dye bath, surfaces may be protected or hidden from the dye molecules, causing uneven dyeing.

Spinach Green (CI - 29E6): The color of spinach leaves from the plant Spinach oleracea. (1896)


Spinach (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Annual, vegetable - Spinacia oleracea; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh leaves or seed stalks; (iii) Processing: As for leaves; (iv) Colors Obtained: Yellow (alum); bright yellow-green (tin); yellow-green (blue vitriol); gold (chrome); tan (vinegar); grey (iron); (v) Fastness: The yellow-greens have fair light fastness the tan and grey are quite fast to light and washing.

Spin Dyeing: The incorporation of pigment with a polymer solution (e.g. viscose dope) or molten polymer (e.g. polyamide) prior to extrusion through minute orifices (spinnerets) to produce a color fiber.

Spirit-Based Gutta: The most commonly available guttas are spirit-based, diluted with white spirit, Shellite or dry-cleaning fluid. Clear spirit-based gutta can be removed by washing the silk in white spirit or Shellite. There are also pre-mixed color guttas available with the most common colors being black, gold and silver. They are harder to use and they tend to dribble more.

Spirit Dyes: Dyes that are used to stimulate a distressed surface.

Splashing: The splash effect is achieved by dipping the brush or stick into the paint and flicking the paint onto the fabric by jerking the wrist downward.

Splattering: A technique by which a paint or resist (e.g. sugar syrup) is randomly flicked on a fabric, producing a splattered effect.

Split Complementary: A triad of hues (or colors) made up of a hue and the two hues that lie adjacent to its complement. For further information see post on - Color Schemes.


Sponging: Paint technique that uses a damp sponge to produce a mottled, patchy effect.

Spraying: Method of directing paint onto a surface in a fine spray.

Spray gun: Same as airbrush.

Spring Green (CI - 30C7): The color of the leaves of a beech tree in May. (1766)


Spruce (Green) (CI - 26F3): Same as fir (green) or pine needle. The color of the needles of fir trees, particularly those of the Norwegian spruce. (1916)


Spruce (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Coniferous ornamental, lumber tree - Picea; (ii) Parts Used: Needles, branch tips, cones, bark; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Fresh needles – yellow (alum); gold (tin); bronze (chrome); Branch tips – bright yellow (tan); green (iron); Cones – reddish-tan (alum and chrome); brown (iron); Bark – yellow-tan (alum); reddish-brown (chrome, strong bath); taupe (iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent for all.

Squash (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Vegetable - Cucurbita; (ii) Parts Used: Vines, skins, peelings; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Vines – an (vinegar); grey-green (iron); Fermented squash peelings – yellow (alum); yellow-orange (chrome); bright yellow (tin); yellow-grey (iron); rust (chrome and tin); (v) Fastness: Good for shades from the vines; excellent for shades from peelings.

Squeegee: A long polyurethane blade attached to a wooden handle used for screen-printing; this tool pushes the ink through the screen. It usually consists of one or two rubber blades mounted on a flat wooden handle.

Squeegee Support: Water proofed cardboard wedge, which is parcel-taped to the mesh behind the image area and used to rest the squeegee on during hand printing.

Stainers: Sometimes known as universal strainers. Used as an alternative to artist’s oil paints for coloring glaze. The range of colors is less extensive and less subtle than artist’s oils. See tinter.

Stains: Any discoloration of a fabric due to exposure to a foreign substance. Stains can be oil or water based.

Standardization: The dilution of concentrated dry dye with suitable solids (see cutting) or of high-strength pastes with water or other liquids to standard strengths that is acceptable to the user.

Starch: Starch is a homo-polymer of glucose (i.e. a sugar).

Starch Ethers: Solvitose C5 is the most common name for starch ether thickener, which is suitable in alkaline conditions and can be used in most print pastes except for acids. It is particularly useful for protein devoré printing.

Steaming (Fixation): Most dye processes need to be fixed by steam. Steam provides both the moisture and the heat required for the successful transfers of dyes from the thickener into the structure of the fibers. The moisture opens up the voids in the unstructured region of the fibers and so swells the cloth, enabling the dye molecules to readily enter into the fiber. Too much moisture will cause excessive bleeding. Steaming is often used to fix paints on silk. Steaming actually enhances the vibrancy of colors. There is less chance of color running while steam fixing.

Steel Blue (CI - 21F7): Same as Berlin blue, bronze blue, cyan blue (old), Milori blue, Paris blue, Prussian blue. Originally the color of tarnished steel; later corresponding to a color represented by the above names. (1817)


Steel (Grey) (CI - 20D1): The color of steel. See steel blue. (1493)


Stencil: A blocking material with a series of open areas through which ink can pass to produce an image underneath.

Stencil Brush: Short-haired brushes designed to hold small amounts of paint for stenciling. Available in a wide range of sizes and with long and short handles.

Stenciling: Method of decoration in which paint or dye is applied through a cut-out design to create images on a surface.

Stil-De-Grain: Dutch pink.

Stipple: Draw or engrave using dots or flacks.

Stock: Any material to be used for printing on.

Stock Dyeing: The dyeing of fibers before spinning.

Stock Solution: Prepared chemical or dye solution to a specific ratio.

Stone Green: Green earth.

Stone Grey (CI - 3E2): The color of grey stone. A vague color concept which can only be described as corresponding to a more or less natural grey. Related to cement (CI - 4D2). (1878)


Stopping Out: Painting screen filler onto the mesh to alter or edit (or create) an image.

Strawberry (CI - 10D8): Same as cardinal (red), fez. The color of ripe strawberries. Adapted from the French color name for strawberry, fraise (CI - 11C7), which is a bluer red. (1675)


Straw Yellow (CI - 3B4): The color of straw or dried hay. Related to flaxen (I - 4C3); bamboo (CI - 4C4); (golden) wheat and corn (CI - 4B5). German: strohgelb; French fashion name: paillé. (1589)


Stripping: The removal of unwanted dye from a fiber by chemical means.

Strontium White (Pigment): Both artificial and native strontinium sulfates have the same properties as blanc fixe and barytes, strontium being an element closely resembling barium. Entirely superseded by barium whites because they are much cheaper.

Strontium Yellow (Pigment): Strontium chromate. A pale bright yellow with a rather greenish tone. Permanent.

Sublime: The ability of a substance to go from the solid to a gas state, when applying heat, without needing to go through a liquid state (e.g. dry ice). These process are reversible at certain pressure-temperature regimes only; that is, on cooling the substance will go from a gas into a solid state without passing through a liquid state.

Sublimation Printing: What is termed "transfer printing" in reality should be termed sublimation printing. Sublimation describes a process that goes from a solid state to a gas state without passing though a liquid state. Dry ice has this property. In sublimation or transfer printing once the dye has been painted on a paper and is dry, the painted side of the paper is placed on top of the fabric surface that is to be dyed. Then heat is applied via an iron or a heat press to the back of the dry dyed paper. The dye vaporizes from the paper and infuses into the surface of the target fabric. The vapor dye reacts with the target fabric surface and adheres to it via dispersion forces and hydrogen bonding. The heat of the iron serves a dual purpose: (a) it vaporizes the dye; (b) it assists the dye to infuse into the fabric surface and adhere to it. That is why the temperature of the iron or heat press is so important since it determines the amount of dye that sublimates and that is finally adhered. The adhesion that the dye forms with the fabric surface is why the fabric automatically becomes color fast, wash fast, light fast and moreover, why it cannot change the hand of the fabric. Furthermore, it is a surface technique and so the reverse side of the fabric is unaltered. Also, image creating objects such as stencils, resist items etc. can be inserted between the paper and fabric surface as well as painted images that were resident on the surface of the original paper can be transferred directly onto the fabric surface.

Sublimed White Lead (Pigment): A basic lead sulfate which contains zinc. A dense white with many of the characteristics of flake white but inferior as a pigment due to low oil absorption, brushing qualities, color, and stability in pigments with other pigments. It surpasses flake white in opacity, is not so poisonous, and turns dark less readily on exposure to sulfur fumes.

Substantive Dyes: Natural dyes that do not need a mordant to fix the color to the cloth fiber (e.g. dyes obtained from certain lichens); also, sometimes used to refer to direct dyes.

Substantivity: The attraction between fiber polymers and dye molecules.

Substrate: (i) A material or fabric to which dyes or chemicals may be applied; (ii) Sheet of material (such as paper, plastic or clear PVC) which may be screen-printed, or which may be used for making positives.

Substrate Base: As applied to lakes or let-down pigments - under layer.

Subtractive Color Mixing: The reproduction of colors by overprinting primary colors in different relative densities, thus gradually subtracting the reflection of light from the white of the material. See figure below.


Subtractive Complementary Mixtures: Complementary mixtures of colorants.

Subtractive Mixing: Color mixing using colorants such as paints, dyes and inks.

Subtractive Primary: One of three colors (cyan, magenta, yellow, cyan – CMY system) produced when light corresponding to a light or additive primary color is absorbed (or subtracted) and hence one of three colors of pigment that cannot be obtained by mixing, but which can be combined to give all other pigment colors. Also called pigment primary.

Subtractive Secondaries: The products of mixing any two subtractive primaries.

Successive Contrast: The phenomenon of an after image seen after the viewer looks away from color stimulus.

Sugar Syrup: The use of sugar syrup in fabric painting has only recently been introduced by the French. A syrup of sugar and water is cooked up and then painted onto silk, which is usually painted on a pale background or on a white background. Paint is then applied next to the sugar, or onto it or both. The sugar acts like an antifusant, thereby preventing the paint from bleeding evenly. Where the paint meets the sugar syrup, it eats away at it and enters the fabric in unpredictable ways. Different effects can be achieved depending on how hot and how thick the syrup is, how it is applied (in lines, splattered etc.), where the paint is placed (next to it, or on it etc.) and how many layers of sugar and paint have been applied.

Sulfur Blue (CI - 22B3): The color of flame produced by burning sulfur.


Sulfur Dyes: A class of dyes that contain sulfur groups. They give a dark, dull wash fast dyeings but generally with poor light fastness.

Sulfur Yellow (CI - 1A5): The color of refined sulfur. (1805)


Sumac (Natural Dye): Also known as sumach. Plants: any temperate or subtropical shrub or small tree of the anacardiaceous genus Rhus, having compound leaves, clusters of green flowers, and red hairy fruits. See also poison sumach. Dyeing: a preparation of powdered leaves of certain species of Rhus, especially R. coriaria, used in dyeing and tanning. Tanning: a preparation of powdered leaves of certain species of Rhus, especially R. coriaria, used in dyeing and tanning. Via Old French from Arabic summāq.

Sun Brown (CI - 6D5): Same as sunburn. See below.

Sunburn (CI - 6D5): The color of skin that has been tanned by the sun (a rather loose definition). Related to flesh (CI - 6B3); negro (CI - 6F3); tan (CI - 6E6); leather (brown) (CI - 6E6). The French basin refers to the color of leather; the French bronze refers to bronze brown (CI - 5E5).


Sunburst Circles (Dye Pattern): Circles and especially “sunburst” patterns re always effective and can be varied in size and complexity according to the number and position of the string bindings. A part of the fabric should be chosen to form a peak (this will be the center of the circle) and the fabric should be arranged into even folds as it falls away. For circle measuring 2.5 cm in diameter, the fabric should be bound tightly 1.5 cm from the top of the point and for one measuring 5 cm it should be bound 2.5 cm from the point and so on. To create specific design, mark out the position of each circle beforehand. Add more circles with each dyeing or alter the bindings to create a more colorful pattern. Two evenly spaced sets of bindings will produce a circle within a circle and by developing this technique a stage further, it is possible to create large radian circles called “sunbursts”. The fabric is picked up to form a pearl and furled like a closed umbrella and bound tightly at regular intervals. The bindings are re-folded or re-positioned through several dyeings. Note: The effect on the fabric is shown in the background.


Sunflower (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Annual, domestic and wildflower - Helianthus annuus; (ii) Parts Used: Flowers; stalks and leaves; seeds; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: From fresh flowers – yellow (alum and tin); gold (chrome); yellow-green (alum, after rinse in baking soda); chartreuse (alum, after rinse in iron, no heat); Stalks and leaves – yellow-green (alum and tin); grey (iron); bronze (blue vitriol); Seeds – tan (chrome); (v) Fastness: Good for all.

Sunflower (Yellow) (CI - 4A7): Same as buttercup yellow. The color of the flower that turns to face the rays of the sun. (1892)


Sunproof (light-fast) Colors: A modern synthetic pigment that is of superior resistance to fading. It is a manufacturer's description and so care must be taken in terms of its actual permanence.

Sun Yellow (CI - 2A5): Same as sunshine yellow. Typical of a light yellow. The color of sunlight which has passed through the earth's atmosphere, dispersing the short able light waves. See smoke blue. (1928)


Sunshine Yellow (CI - 2A5): Same as sun yellow. See above.

Swatch: A color specimen.

Swedish Green: Cobalt green.

Swimming Tub: A wooden tub or box used to ink up printing blocks. It is half filled with old gum or printing paste to give resilience, over which is stretched a water proof membrane upon which rests a sieve. This is known as a tiering tray and consists of a frame that has been stretched with a woolen cloth. Print paste is spread on the sieve and the block pressed against it before printing.

Swiss Chard (Natural Dye): See chard.

Synthetic Dyes: The early man-made dyes made from aniline contained in coal tar were not particularly successful. It was not until 1868 with the discovery of synthetic alizarin that they replaced the natural product commercially.

Tack: The adhesive quality of a medium (e.g. printing ink, and of adhesives and adhesive tape).

Tackiness: Adhesive stickiness, such as that of the surface of incomplete dried varnish.

Tactile: Pertaining to the sense of touch; in painting, the use of textured materials or the treatment of surfaces to induce the sensations of touch. “Tactile Values”: an expression of the connoisseur Berenson to designate the convincing or authentic qualities of a painting.

Talc: Hydrate magnesium silicate. Often used as a resist in the dyeing of fabric. Its slippery or soapy effect is useful as a filler for various industrial purposes.

Tamarack (Natural Dye): See Larch.

Tan (CI - 6E6): Same as cocoa (brown), leather (brown). The brown color produced by tanning leather. From Latin: tanum, perhaps of Celtic origin. Sometimes used in place of sunburn (CI - 6D5). French: tan. (1590)


Tangerine (CI - 6B8): Same as mandarine orange or orange peel.


Tannic Acid (Mordant): Works well to draw out color on cellulose fibers. It acts as a mordant for cellulose fibers or as a fixer in combination with other mordants. It was originally obtained from a number of plant sources such as sumac, oak galls and myrobalans, but is now readily available in the pure form as a powder. Tannic acid, in combination with ferrous salts, will produce brown/black color. The shade of the color will depend on how much iron is present and the purity of the tannic substances.

Tannin: Also called: tannic acid (see above). Any of a class of yellowish or brownish solid compounds found in many plants and used as tanning agents, mordants, medical astringents, etc. Tannins are derivatives of gallic acid. From French tanin, from tan.

Tansy (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Wildflower, herb, weed - Tanacetum vulgare; (ii) Parts Used: Flowering heads; leaves, whole plant; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Flowers give strong yellows, gold and warm yellow-tans; leaves give yellow-green and green; the whole plant gives yellow-green, bronze, and olive-green. Keep the temperature of the dye bath below simmer for light yellows, and use a strong bath and iron for greens; (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Tar Black: Black as tar. See black. The color is due to the particles of charcoal formed in the process of distilling wood.

Taupe (CI - 4F1): The color of the fur of the average mole. From the French word for mole, taupe. This color is sometimes called mole. (About 1800)


Tawny: Of an orange-brown or yellowish-brown color, "tawny eyes". Middle English tauny from Anglo-French taune from Middle French tané, the past participle of taner to tan.


Tea (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Herbal beverage - Thea sinensis; (ii) Parts Used: Used or fresh tea leaves, bags, or left over beverage (without milk added to it); the addition of lemon or sugar will not matter; (iii) Processing: Collect tea; add sufficient water if necessary to keep bags wet; add a small amount of white or cider vinegar to reduce odour; cook out for one or two hours strain off bags (or leaves); (iv) Colors Obtained: Generally, a medium bath of Orange Pekoe bags – beige (alum); light tan (vinegar); tans medium browns (chrome); taupe (blue vitriol); grey or beige (iron); rose tans (alum and chrome); (v) Fastness: Variable. Fibres left to cool overnight after dyeing in a tea or coffee bath seem to fast more than those rinsed immediately.

Tea Rose (Color):The color tea rose is the color of an orange rose called a tea rose. The first recorded use of tea rose as a color name in English was in 1884.


Teak (Brown) (CI - 6F5): The color of teakwood. From the Portuguese tech; the Malaysian tikka. Related to cocoa (brown) (CI - 6E6). (1902)


Teal: Teal is a deep blue-green color; a dark cyan. The first recorded use of teal as a color name in English was in 1917.


Temper: (i) A conditioning process such as the heat treatment of steel and other materials, whereby strength, flexibility, ductility or other desirable properties are imparted; (ii) As for painting the term denotes the conversion of an intractable, non-plastic substance into a material that has desirable properties for the purpose for which it is intended (e.g. making dry colors or stiff paste paints brushable etc.)

Tempera: A type of paint whose medium or binder is egg yolk, glue or casein; water soluble until it dries.

Temperate Colors: Hues that fall between red-violet and green-yellow on the hue circle (color wheel).

Temperature of Hue: The characteristic of color that describes its comparative warmth or coolness.

Tendering: The deterioration in mechanical strength, which develops in cotton goods dyed with certain dyes, specifically with sulfur dyes (blacks).

Terra Alba: Gypsum.

Terracotta: A reddish brown baked clay used for earthen ware, sculpture and building construction, as in terra cotta titles, pies and fire insulation.

Terracotta (CI - 7D7): Same category as tile red, brick red and burnt Sienna. A mixed pigment composed of burnt umber, red oxide, and chalk, in varying proportions: barytes, zinc oxide, or lithopone may replace chalk; the color is intended to imitate the natural reddish color of terra cotta clay. See oxide red (CI - 8E8). From the Italian terra (earth or clay) and cotta (baked). (1882)


Terra Merita (Pigment): A fugitive yellow lake made from saffron or curuma root. Now obsolete.

Terra Ombre: Raw umbre.

Terra Rosa: Venetian red.

Terre Verte (Pigment) (CI - 27(B-E) (4-6)): Green earth. Resembles the color of unripened apples. A hydrate oxide of iron.

Tertiary Colors: Yellow-orange, red-orange, red-purple, blue-purple, blue-green and yellow-green.Combination of primary and secondary colors. This are formed by mixing a primary and secondary color. See figure below.


Tetrad: A system of colors or hues found by placing a rectangle or square or trapezoid within the hue circle.

Tetradic (Double Complementary) Color Scheme: The tetrad (double complementary) color scheme is the most varied because it uses two complementary color pairs. For further information see post on - Color Schemes.


Thalo Blue and Green (Pigments): American proprietary names for phthalocyanine blue and phthalocyanine green.

Thalo Red Rose: American proprietary name for quinacridone red of the "scarlet" or yellowish shade.

Thenard's Blue: True cobalt blue.

Thermofixation: This fixation process relies upon high temperatures (using dry heat) to achieve the fixation of colorants or chemical finishes. It is mainly used for pigments, but some reactive dyes can also be fixed in this manner. Thermofixation can also be achieved by pressing on the wrong side of the cloth with hot iron set on a cotton setting. It is often known as baking.

Thermography: Technique in which heat-treated ink image produces raised effect (note: not complete printing process).

Thermo-set Resins: Resins which do not become plastic when heated.

Thickeners: (i) Thickeners are important in discharge printing as it controls the illuminating dyes and the reducing agents. The thickener relies on a high solid content to reduce problems of flushing – the halo effect that often occurs; (ii) A gel-like substance used to increase the consistency in painting on the dye.

Thioindigoid Dyes: A dye class that is a sub-set of vat dyes. See vat dyes.

Thiourea Dioxide (Reducing Agent): Commercial name: Manofast. This seldom used now but is employed successfully when discharging nylon. It is chemically inert with many reagents, but if heated with an alkali and water mixture an irreversible reaction takes place producing formamidine sulfinic acid which on decomposition releases sulfoxylic acid, an active reducing agent.

Thio Violet (Thio indigo red-violet B): An intense and brilliant synthetic organic pigment whose very good resistance to accelerated fading tests indicate that it is a desirable pigment for artist's paints.

Thixotropic: Descriptive of mixture, which as it is agitated or moved around, becomes more fluid; when left still, it thickens.

Three Color Process: Similar to four color process except that there is no separate black printing; also called trichromatic system.

Thunder Blue (CI - 21F3): The bluish grey color of the sky when there is thunder. The color may vary, of course, depending on illumination and the severity of the storm.


Tie and Dye (Tie Dyeing): A process in which the cloth is tied in knots or wrapping parts of it with thread in order to make these tied sections a resist to the dye, when the fabric is placed in the dye pot. See plangi.

Tile Red (CI -7D7): Same as brick red, terra cotta.


Timonox: See antimony white.

Tin (Mordant): “Tin” is actually stannous chloride. It is perhaps the most difficult mordant to use successfully as tin-mordanted and tin–dyed fiber often streaks and feels “crimpy” and harsh. Great care must be taken to follow a few basic procedures. The following describes the mordanting process for all mordants, although only with tin is a dyer’s "carelessness" so obvious after the fiber is dry. First, thoroughly wet the fiber to be mordanted or dyed; make certain the tin crystals are thoroughly dissolved in boiling water; turn the fiber over in the pot every two or three minutes; set a stainless steel rack in the bottom of the dye pot so that the fiber will not touch the “hot spots” on the pot’s bottom; keep the temperature below simmer (200oF or 95oC); and rinse after dyeing in several baths of water, each slightly cooler than the last. Tin is a popular mordant, as it produces the most dramatic shades of any chemical additive. It turns pale yellows into brilliant yellows, yellow-gold to bright orange, beige to russet (e.g. brilliant yellows are achieved by adding tin to fresh hemlock tips dye bath). Tin in this form is poisonous and it is also costly.

Tinctorial Power: A colorant’s ability to change the character of another color.

Tint: Any hue or color mixed with white. See figure below.


Tinter: Also known as universal tinter. Highly concentrated coloring agent. See stainer.

Tin White: Stannic (tin) oxide, used to produce opaque whites in ceramics.

Tippy: An adjective describing the variations in depth of shade in wool dyeing caused by differences in the fiber itself (i.e. between the lower or root portion and outer end or tip).

Titanium Dioxide (Auxiliary): It is sometimes added to a print paste to act as a buffer, thereby improving the color of the final discharge by giving it a white pigment appearance.

Titanium Green (Pigment): A dark green, analogous to Prussian blue, made with titanium or a mixture of iron and titanium compounds instead of with pure iron salts. Not in use.

Titanium Oxide (Pigment): Titanium dioxide. An extremely dense, powerful opaque white of high refractive index and great hiding power. Absolutely inert, permanent.

Titanium Pigment: Titanium dioxide 25%, blanc fixe or other inert pigment 75%. Composition similar to lithopone. Opaque, permanent.

Titanium White: A pigment used in painting, consisting chiefly of titanium dioxide and noted for its brilliant white color, covering power, and permanence. (1920 - 1925)

Titanolith: Trade name for composite pigment, titanium white plus lithopone. Suitable for use in grounds.

Titanox: American trade name for titanium whites.

Titian Red (CI - 7D6): The red hair color used by painter Titian (1477-1576) in his portraits. Similar to ginger and burnt Sienna (CI - 7D8) to Venetian red (CI - 8D8) and to other hair colors discussed under blonde. The French titien represents a somewhat lighter color. (1896)


Tobacco (Brown) (CI - 5F6): Same as Havana (brown) and snuff (brown). The color of the dried leaves of the tobacco plant, Nicotiana tabacum, among others, or of the cigar made with these leaves. From the Haitian name for a cigar, tabac. This color is regarded as identical with that of tobacco from Havana. See Cuba (CI - 9E8). (1789)


Toluidine Red: Paratoluidine toner. Brilliant rather yellowish fired-red. A semi-permanent synthetic pigment of the azo class used in industrial products but not by artists.

Tomato (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Fruit - Solanum lypcopersicum; (ii) Parts Used: Tomato vine (after harvesting fruit); (iii) Processing: As for cucumber and squash vines; (iv) Colors Obtained: Fresh vines – yellow-tan (vinegar); good soft yellow (alum); bright yellow (tin); Vines and green fruit – yellow-green (alum and blue vitriol); medium dark green (iron); Frost-bitten vines and mature fruit – good brown (chrome); (v) Fastness: Good to excellent, somewhat variable using fresh vines.

Tomato Red (CI - 8C8): The color of the ripe fruit of the tomato plant. Adopted from the Spanish word, tomato, which was derived from the Aztec tomatl. (1891)


Tonality: The feeling of mood that the organization of value in a work produces.

Tonal Range: The total range of values within a work.

Tonal Value: The relative densities of tones in an image.

Tone: Any hue or color mixed with its relative value. Generally, a term used to describe the level of shade or tint.

Toner: A synthetic organic color that is insoluble and so can be used directly as a pigment. It is much stronger than a lake. It is used in photocopy machines and in printers.

Topaz (CI - 5C5): The color of the precious stone; usually yellow in color but may also be blue, orange, rose - or even colorless. From the Greek: topazos. French fashion name: topaze. (1572)


Topping: The expedient of adding a small proportion of bright dye to a dull dye to improve its shade.

Tortoiseshell: A color named after the shell of a tortoise; that is, a mottled or variegated colors like tortoiseshell, especially with yellow and brown and sometimes of other colors. Below is shown the major brown component of the shell.


Traction: A defect of paint or varnish coatings, where the film cracks an the edges of the cracks recede to form wide, open fissures, disclosing the underlying surface. Colloquially called creeping or crawling. See also Crissing.

Transfer Crayons: They look like conventional crayons and are used in much the same way, but they are dull in appearance until they re transferred onto the fabric using an iron. When ironing, cover the iron with paper or fabric so that the soft crayons do not mark the surface of the iron.

Transfer Paints: These paints are only successful when used on man-made fabrics. When used on polyester cotton colors will be pale but on 100% polyester colors will be vivid. All colors can be mixed together and diluted to form other tones and colors, but they are not compatible with other fabric paints. Both can be used on separate areas of the one design. They appear much duller in appearance in the bottle and on the paper etc. than on the actual fabric.

Transfer Printing: There are four distinct processes by which transfer printing can be achieved: melt-transfer; film-release transfer; semi-wet processes; sublimation printing. See each for appropriate definitions. The dye adheres to the hydrophobic fiber molecules via dispersion forces and hydrogen bonding.

Translucent: The description of materials that transmit light but are not fully transparent; that is, an image cannot be seen clearly through the material.

Transparent Brown (Pigment): Burnt green earth.

Transparent Color: Color through which light or another color can be seen.

Transparent Copper Green: An obsolete fused copper resinate.

Transparent Gold Ochre (Pigment): See ochre.

Transparent Oxide of Chromium (Pigment): Viridian.

Trapping: The method of printing underlying image areas slightly so the overlaying color will overlap and cover the edge of the underlying color, making registration a little easier.

Triad: Any combination of three colors or hues within a work.

Triadic Color Scheme: The triadic color scheme uses three colors equally spaced around the color wheel. For further information see post on - Color Schemes.


Trichromatic System: Color reproduction by three-color, instead of four color separation; same as three color process.

Tritanomaly: Tritanomaly is a rare, hereditary color vision deficiency affecting blue–green and yellow–red/pink hue discrimination. It is related to chromosome "7".[14] The difference is that the S-cone is malfunctioning but not missing.

Tritanopia: Tritanopia is a very rare color vision disturbance in which there are only two cone pigments present and a total absence of blue retinal receptors. Blues appear greenish, yellows and oranges appear pinkish, and purple colors appear deep red. It is related to chromosome 7. Unlike protanopia and deuteranopia, tritanopia and tritanomaly are not sex-linked traits and can be acquired rather than inherited and can be reversed in some cases.

Tritik Circles (Dye Pattern): Sewing or “tritik” is used to produce a precise and controlled design. To create a circle using this method, pencil the shape onto the fabric. Knot a length of strong thread firmly at one end and then stitch around the pencil outline on the fabric. The fabric is then gathered tightly along the stitches and secured with a knot. Random thread bindings are added to some of the gathered fabric and then dyed. The fabric is rinsed, the bindings are removed and the fabric is rinsed again. When dry, the stitches are removed and the fabric is rinsed and washed. Note: The effect on the fabric is shown in the background.


Tritik Stitching (Dye Pattern): For more intricate designs, such as paisley shapes, flowers, geometric patterns, names or initials, draw onto the fabric in pencil either freehand or with the aid of s stencil. A double row of stitching is made around the outline, using strong thread. For an outline design, the fabric is gathered along the stitches and secured tightly. To produce a bolder relief design the gathered fabric is bound. After dyeing, rinse the fabric and remove the binding and rinse the fabric again. When dry, remove the stitches and rinse and wash the fabric. Note: The effect on the fabric is shown in the background.


Trompe-L’Oeil: “Fool the eye” in French; a highly illusionistic method of painting as in the works of Harnett and Peto.

True Purple (CI - 15A8): Typical of the general name purple. Generally speaking the color of ancient purple dye. See purple.


Tulip (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Flowering bulb - Tulipa; (ii) Parts Used: Faded flowers; (iii) Processing: As for flowers; (iv) Colors Obtained: Yellow and white tulips mixed with daffodils – yellow (tin); gold (chrome); yellow-grey (iron); Red and maroon tulips – reddish-tan (alum and vinegar); grey (iron); warm brown (blue vitriol and chrome); (v) Fastness: Good.

Turbith: Turpeth mineral.

Turkey Blue (CI - 20E4): Same as Turkish blue, Delft blue. (See the latter).


Turkey Brown: Raw umber.

Turkey Red (Pigment) (CI - 10C8): Same as Turkish red, blood red, bronze red, Orient red.


Turkish Blue (CI - 20E4): Same as Turkey blue, Delft blue. (See the latter). Supposedly the name of a porcelain color from Turkey or from the Orient in general. Related to turquoise blue (CI - 24A6), which is, however, of a different origin. (1662)


Turkish Red (CI - 10C8): Same as Turkey red, blood red, bronze red., Orient red; typical of a brownish red. The color of clothes dyed with maddest (or crimson) in a special Turkish dyeing process of Indian origin. See madder red (yellowish). Of the same hue but darker than madder red (medium) (CI - 10B7). (1747)


Turpentine: Paint-thinner made of thin resinous oil.

Turnbull's Blue: Potassium ferrous ferricyanide. A pale blue color produced as an intermediate stage of one process of Prussian blue manufacture. Not used as a pigment.

Turner's Yellow (Pigment): Lead oxychloride. Obsolete.

Turpeth Mineral: Basic sulfate of mercury. Bright yellow. Not permanent; turn black; highly poisonous, no longer in use.

Turquoise (CI - 24A8): Same as greenish blue. A general name typified by the sample given (which also represents Indian blue). Includes strong colors in transition between green and blue. Adopted from a specific name, turquoise blue (CI - 24A6), which represents the cold of the precious stone. The following general names have been fashioned from turquoise, pale turquoise, turquoise white, turquoise grey, turquoise green, dark turquoise, deep turquoise, greyish turquoise. Within the area of turquoise are: turquoise blue (CI - 24C8); Capri blue (CI - 24B7); ice blue (CI - 24C8); Azure blue lies between (CI - 23A7) and (CI - 24A7) and is designated so. From the French turquoise and the Old French turcois, turquois or turqueis (Turkish). German: türkis; Italian: turchina; Spanish: turqueza.


Turquoise Green (Pigment) (CI - 25A5): The color of the greenish variety of the turquoise stone. See turquoise blue. Compound of aluminium, chromium and cobalt oxides. A rather pale, clear green of a very bluish variety. Permanent for all uses. Quite rare and expensive; imitated by colors which do not resemble it very closely. Finds small use in ceramics. (1845)


Turquoise Grey (CI - 24D2): A general name typified by the sample given. Colors between greyish turquoise and grey. See turquoise.


Turquoise White (CI - 24A2): A general name limited to the sample given; whites with a tinge of turquoise (or greenish blue). See turquoise.


Tuscan Red: A rich maroon lake made on a red oxide base. When expressly stated to be composed of alizarin and Indian red it is permanent; otherwise it may contain impermanent colors and inferior earths. This pigment is principally employed in industrial processes.

Tyrian Purple (Pigment): The celebrate imperial purple of the Romans and Greeks was prepared from shellfish (Murex trunculis and Murex brandaris). The synthetic equivalent was manufactured from purple coal tar color. The most desirable shades varied from the reddish or pinkish to the bluish or violet. The bluish shade was also known as Byzantium purple. The synthetic color nor murex purple is in use today since other purples superior in every aspect can be made at lower cost.

Ultramarine Ash (Pigment): A delicate blue-grey pigment of slight tinting power. Consists of lapis lazuli mixed with the greyish rock with which it is found in nature. Permanent but of limited value.

Ultramarine (Blue) (Artificial) (CI - 20A8): Same as Azure (Heraldic). The color of the artificial ultramarine pigment which has the same composition as the genuine pigment but is a clearer color. See ultramarine (blue) (genuine). (1826)


Ultramarine (Blue) (Genuine) (Pigment) (CI - 21C8): The color of the genuine ultramarine pigment, composed of sulfuric sodium aluminium silicate, which was originally made by grinding semi-precious stone, lapis, lazuli, and purifying it with a complex and using a difficult process to remove all grey rock with which it is usually associated. Genuine lapis marine is a rich deep "true blue" of practically uniform hue. See azure blue, lapis lazuli (blue) (CI - 20E8). The name is derived from the Latin ultramarinus (beyond the sea); in ancient times the mineral was transported over the sea from Asia. The prefix ultra is sometimes interpreted as meaning strong or deep. The pigment is now artificially manufactured. See ultramarine (blue) (artificial) (CI - 20A8). (1598)


Ultramarine Green, Red, Violet, Yellow etc. (Pigments): By variations in the ingredients and process, ultramarine pigment of many hues can be produced. They are all very pale and of slight tinctorial power, and although they equal the blue in permanence and resistance to heat, they find far fewer application in the painting process. The red and violet are pinkish and lavender colors, their use in oil limited to glazes and pale tints; in aqueous media they are somewhat more useful. Their physical, chemical and pigment properties are similar to those of the blue. Barium yellow was formerly misnamed yellow ultramarine.

Ultraviolet (UV or U/V): Light waves beyond the visible portion of violet waves in the electromagnetic spectrum, which can be absorbed by some photosensitive materials. It is not a true color name, They rays are not visible to the human eye since the wavelength are shorter than 380x10-9 meters. Related to infra-red and spectrum violet. Derived from the Latin ultra (beyond).

Umber (Pigment): See raw umber and burnt umber. Clay or natural earthy substance used as a coloring agent in paints, ink and the like.

Undercoat: Matt paint applied to a surface before the base coat.

Underlay: Color, tone or pattern effect laid in underneath artwork.

Underlying Color: A color printed first that becomes partially or totally hidden by a subsequent layer of color.

Undertone: The color effect of a hue when tinted; the result might look like the body tone or it may show a temperature change.

Union Dyeing: The simultaneous dyeing by different means of different fibers in a blend.

Universal Stainer: See stainer.

Universal Tinter: See tinter.

Uranium Yellow (Pigment): Uranium oxide. A permanent, expensive color. Obsolete in paint use.

Urea (Auxiliary): A mild alkali synthesized from natural gas, used as a moisture retaining agent. It is also often included to stabilize and protect some of the illuminating dye pastes.

Urine (Mordant): Human or animal urine is suitable to use as a mordant, and improves with “ageing”. It is available in urban areas from hospitals etc. Urine may be used instead of ammonia to produce approximately the same results in fermentation of Umbilicaria, but it is weaker than ammonia, so more must be used. Traditionally used in indigo dyeing. Animal urine is easier to process than human urine. The odor is such that only a few dedicated dyers use it today.

UV Curable Ink: Ink used in commercial screen-printing, which is hardened by exposure to UV light.

UV Sensitive Ink: This is a water-based pigment sharing the same binder as a regular pigment, and is charged by ultraviolet (UV) light, which creates a “glow in the dark” effect.

Value: A color’s relative degree of lightness or darkness. That is, the lightness or darkness of a color. In aesthetics: any perceived quality; any source of appeal in a work of art; the artistic satisfaction of a human interest.

Value Scale: A scale of greys ranging to and limited by black and white.

van der Waals Forces: These forces are really due to intermolecular forces but have been named after the Dutch physicist who investigated their effects on the properties of gases. They are weak attractions or repulsions that operate at close range between all types of atoms and molecules and in the cases of attractions are the principal reason that dyes will bond in hydrophobic fibers. See intermolecular forces.

Vandyke Brown (Pigment) (CI - 6F6): Same as burnt umber. Pigment used by Flemish painter Antonius Van Dyck (1599-1641). Natural earth, composed of clay, iron oxide, decomposed vegetation (humus) and bitumen. Fairly transparent. Deep-toned and less chalky than umbers in mixtures. One of the worst driers in oil. Some specimen fade, and in oil this pigment always turns dark, cracks and causes wrinkling, exhibiting the same defects as asphaltum, but to somewhat lesser degree. Not for permanent oil painting. Some of the light-proof grades may be used in water color and pastel. (1850)


Vandyke Red (Pigment): Copper (cupric) ferrocyanide. A poisonous color with a composition similar to that of Prussian blue, copper replacing the iron. It is fast to light, but blackens when exposed to sulfur fumes. Brownish-red, reddish-violet, or reddish-brown shades can be made. Not in very wide use. The brown shades are known as Hatchett's or Florentine brown.

Varnish: A transparent solution mixed with ink or printed over ink to produce a glossy surface finish.

Vat: A vessel or a tank, or a liquor, containing a reduced (leuco) vat dye.

Vat Dyes: They are a large and very important group which comprises of the following subsets: (i) Indigoid and thioindigoid dyes; (ii) anthraquinonoid dyes. A class of dye with large flat insoluble molecules, extremely water fast and with an affinity for cellulosic fibres. These dyes are insoluble in water and must be dissolved chemically before being applied to the fabric. Color develops by exposure to heat and light or an oxidizing agent. Suitable for cotton and silk.

Vatting: To dissolve a vat dye by the combine action of an alkali (base) and a reducing agent.

Vegetable Violet (Pigment): Bright violet lake made from logwood. Very fugitive.

Vehicle: A liquid used as a carrier of pigments in a paint; the dispersal ensures that each particle of pigment is wetted. The three main vehicles are water, oil, and polymer acrylics. The term is interchangeable with the medium. Also, the binder or glue that holds the coloring matter in pigment and makes it adhere to a surface.

Velvet Brown: See fawn brown.

Venetian Pink (CI - 10A3): Typical of pale red. The association with Venice is obscure. (1902)


Venetian Red (Pigment) (CI - 8D8): Same as English red. The color of the pigment which is based on the oxide of iron belongs to the same family as burnt Sienna. See oxide red (I - 8E8); burnt Sienna (CI - 7D8). Originally a native earth containing 15 to 40% iron oxide, the present material is artificially produced like the pure red oxides, but from 60 to 85% calcium sulphate is added during its manufacture. Although fairly satisfactory as a permanent color, the calcium sulfate it contains is liable to cause trouble in oil, and for artist's use is best replaced by a light red, which is stronger, purer and brighter. A bluish shade of the native iron oxide, comparable in hue to Indian red, is known as Spanish red. Venetian red is an average drier in oil, but it produces a very hard and brittle film. (1753)


Venice Red: Venetian red.

Verdaccio: A neutral, brownish color used in underpainting, outlining or shading; no specific composition.

Verdeazzuro: Malachite.

Verderame: Verdigris.

Verdet (Pigment): Brilliant, dark green crystals of copper acetate; soluble in water; poisonous; formerly used in water-color painting. Permanence doubtful.

Verdetta: Green earth.

Verde Vessie: Sap green.

Verdigris (Pigment) (CI - 27D4): Same as Spanish green, green of Greece. Hydrated copper acetate. Light, bluish green, permanent to light, but unreliable for painting. Reacts with some other pigments and is affected by them and by the atmosphere. Obsolete.


Vermiel: Same as vermillion. See vermilion.

Vermilion (Pigment) (CI - 9A8): See cinnabar red. Mercuric sulfide. A very opaque bright, pure red which works well in oil. It is the heaviest pigment in use. Erratically permanent, some grades are liable to turn black. This change is a reversion to a black form of mercuric sulfide, the cause of which is still unknown. In oil painting it will not react with other permanent colors, including white lead. Recently it has been largely supplanted by cadmium red.


Vernalis (Pigment) Name to a ceramic pigment formerly sold as Victoria green. Made by heating chalk and viridian. Permanent. Not ordinarily available.

Vernet Green: Bremen green.

Verona Brown: Burnt green earth.

Veronese Green (Pigment): Because this term has been so loosely applied to emerald green, Verona green earth, viridian and chrome green, the term has little meaning. The color of the usual material sold under this name resembles a rather pale viridian.

Vert Antique (Pigment): Copper carbonate. Pale green. Permanent only if used alone and well bound in oil or varnish. Its principal use is for stippling over a brown undercoat to imitate the patina of copper and bronze, with which it is chemically identical.

Vert Emeraude: Viridian.

Vestorian Blue: Egyptian blue.

Vetch (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Wildflower, weed - Vicia cracca; (ii) Parts Used: The whole plant; (iii) Processing: As for whole plant; (iv) Colors Obtained: Soft yellow (alum); tan (chrome); bright yellow (tin); gold (blue vitriol); green (iron). A strong bath is recommended; (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Vibrating Colors: When complementary colors of equal value are placed together, they cause a visual intensity exceeding their actual intensity. This is also known as “Simultaneous Contrasts”. See figure below.


Victoria Green (Pigment): A mixture of 80 parts viridian, 40 parts of zinc yellow and 10 parts of barytes, gypsum, lithopone, or zinc oxide. The cheaper grades are likely to contain inferior colors and additional filler. The name is not a reliable designation. See vernalis and permanent green.

Vienna Blue: A variety of cobalt blue.

Vienna Green: Mittis green.

Vienna Lake: Carmine.

Vienna White: Chalk made by air-slaking lime, as in the production of bianco sangiovanni. Used more as a polishing powder than a pigment.

Vinegar (Mordant): Vinegar is actually a weak solution of acetic acid. When added to dye baths it helps to soften hard water and somewhat brightens and darkens colors. It also neutralizes alkaline bath and is used as a final rinse to neutralize fibers dyed in indigo. The addition of vinegar to an offensive smelling dye bath somewhat reduces odor. White vinegar is preferred, but when dyeing rich browns try using cider or malted vinegars. It is used in dyeing silk and wool.

Violaceous (CI - 16C5): The colors of the flower of violets. In particular used in reference to the color of eyes - but with some exaggeration of the strength of their color. From the Latin: viola related to the Greek word for flower, ion. French: violet (from the French name for flower violette). The name violet can be traced to violaceous. (1657)


Violet (CI - 17A8): Typical of vivid violet. A general named typified by the sample given. Strong colors in transition between red and blue. Between red and blue we also find purple and variations of purple and violet, such as purplish red, violet blue etc. Originally a specific name for the color of the flowers of the violet (see violaceous). Examples of names within this area: heliotrope (CI - 17B7) and campanula violet (CI - 17C7). Italian: violet; Spanish: violets; German and French: violet. (1370)


Violet Black: A general name which corresponds to a typical colors which is darker than (CI - 17F8) shown below. See black.


Violet Blue (CI - 19A8): Same as reddish blue. A general name typified by the sample given. Covers strong colors between bluish violet and blue.


Violet Brown (CI - 11F8): A general name typified by the sample given. Covers colors between brownish red (brownish violet) and blackish brown. Related example: garnet (red) (CI - 11E8).


Violet Carmine (Pigment): A lake made from the coloring extract of a tropical wood. Fairly clear, very reddish, transparent violet. Very fugitive, it first turns brown, then colorless.

Violet Grey (CI - 17D2): A general name typified by the sample given. Covers greys with a tinge of violet. Within this area is lilac grey.


Violet Madder Lake: Alizarin violet.

Violet (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Wildflower - Viola various species; (ii) Parts Used: Leaves and flowers; (iii) Processing: As for flowers; (iv) Colors Obtained: Yellow (alum); bright yellow-green (tin); tan (chrome); gold (blue vitriol); grey-green (iron); (v) Fastness: Good.

Violet (Psychology): The shortest wavelength is violet, often described as purple. It takes awareness to a higher level of thought, even into the realms of spiritual values. It is highly introspective and encourages deep contemplation, or meditation. It has associations with royalty and usually communicates the finest possible quality. Being the last visible wavelength before the ultra-violet ray, it has associations with time and space and the cosmos. Excessive use of purple can bring about too much introspection and the wrong tone of it communicates something cheap and nasty, faster than any other color. For further information see post - Psychology of Color.


Violet Red (CI - 14A8): Same as purplish red.


Violet Ultramarine: Ultramarine violet.

Violet White (CI - 17A2): A general name typified by the sample given. Covers whites with a tinge of violet.


Viride Aeris: Verdigris.

Viridian (Pigment): Hydrated chromium hydroxide. Very bright, clear, transparent, cool emerald shade; absolutely permanent except when roasted to more than a dull red heat, when it is converted into anhydrous chromium oxide green.

Viridian Green (CI - 29A5): Originally synonymous with emerald green (CI - 27B8), which was sometimes also used as the name of the pigment Schweinfurt green. There color of this pigment has also been known as viridian green which, to add to the confusion, has also been used as the name of the pigment hydrated chromium oxide (see chrome green). The linguistic association of viridine can be seen in the Latin viride aeris (the green of copper) and viride hispanicum (Spanish green). Viridis was derived from the Latin verbs meaning to grow green, virescere and virere. Viridian green can be grouped in the same category as spring green (CI - 30C7), and sap green (CI - 30B7). (1899)


Visible Light Spectrum: The region of radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum that generally is perceived by human beings.

Vivid Blue (CI - 21A8): A general name typified by the sample given. (CI - 21A8) is also typical of blue and represents primary blue. Related to vivid green, vivid yellow etc.


Vivid Green (CI - 27A8): A general name typified by the sample given. (CI -27A8) is also typical of green and represents primary green.


Vivid Red (CI - 10A8): A general name typified by the sample given. (CI - 10A8) is also typical of red and represents primary red. Synonymous with high red.


Vivid Violet (CI - 17A8): A general name typified by the sample given. (CI - 17A8) also represents typical violet.


Vivid Yellow (CI - 2A8): A general name typified by the sample given. (CI - 2A8) is also typical of yellow and represents cadmium yellow (light) and chrome yellow (primrose) as well as primary yellow.


von Bezold Effect (Spreading Effect): The phenomenon in which by adding or changing one color in a design, alters the total color effect.

Walnut (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Deciduous ornamental tree - Juglans nigra; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh leaves, nuts, green nut husks or hulls, bark; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Leaves – yellow (alum); bright yellow (tin); gold (chrome); brown (chrome and iron); Hulls – brown (chrome); dark brown (chrome and iron); taupe (blue vitriol); warm tan (alum); bright rusty brown (alum, bloomed in tin); The nuts give beige to tan Bark – brown (chrome) – not as rich as shade from hulls; (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Warm Colors: Red, orange and yellow and colors that contain them - such as warm neutrals.

Wash: A thin, semi-transparent film of paint, highly diluted with turpentine or water (as in water color paintings) and applied with a broad, continuous sweep of the brush.

Wash Fast of a Dye: The dye cannot be removed from the fiber even after repeated washing.

Washing Off: To wash off surplus dye or ingredients out of cloth, which will interfere with further dyeing of the cloth or the natural finished texture.

Washing Soda (Natural Dye): Washing soda is hydrated sodium carbonate. It is also called sal soda. An alkaline substance, it is very strong and should be used with care in order not to damage the fiber. When added to an Umbilicaria pot, washing soda swings the red colors toward bluish purple. Stronger than baking soda, washing soda should be thoroughly dissolved before adding it to the dye bath and the temperature of the pot must not must be kept below simmer. Alkalines may impair the quality of the fiber when in contact with it above temperatures exceeding 200oF or 95oC.

Water-Based Guttas: Water-based metallic guttas are both dry-cleanable and washable and result in a line that is clear and full of richness and color. The gum content in water-based gutta can be removed or softened by washing: the color from the gutta remains behind.

Water Blue (CI - 24C5): Originally the color of water 40 inches deep, but is now more generally identified with the pigment Bremen blue (copper hydroxide). The name Bremen blue, however, is also used in reference to basic copper carbonate. The German name for water blue, wasserblau, has been used in reference to Berlin blue. Related to sea blue, ocean blue (CI - 24E8); ice blue (CI - 24C8); Capri blue (CI - 24B7). (1905)


Water Green (CI - 30C3): The origin of this name is uncertain.It is probably not related to the appearance of deep water (as is water blue (CI - 24C5)), and is more comparable to ocean green and sea crest (CI - 27C5). It may also have been associated with green water plants and thus related to foliage green (CI - 30D6) and sap green (CI - 30B7). (1892)


Wax Prints: Wax prints are produced by covering the patterned areas of the fabric with a wax resist and subsequently dyeing the areas left free. The resist agent is usually a rosin obtained from certain pine trees and, like wax, it must be applied in a molten state.

Wax used in Art Marking: For batik or for any resist method, wax may be used as the resist medium. Wax obtained from candles or paraffin wax may be used so long as a brush or implement can apply the wax to a fabric surface. Using a tjanting tool or similar drawing implement, beeswax is often employed since it does not crackle. Most batik is done using mixtures of paraffin and beeswax. For example, a pre-mixed crackling wax will contain 30 percent beeswax and 70 per cent paraffin wax and for a non-crackling wax it is approximately 40 per cent beeswax and 60 per cent paraffin wax. More recently, environmentally friendly soy wax has been used as the preferred resist medium by several ArtCloth artists.

Wax White (CI - 2B3): The color of bleached wax. Refers to facial complexion. Compare with pale (CI - 2A2). (1842)


Wax Yellow (CI - 3B5): The color of wax, especially beeswax. When bleached it appears whiter. See wax white (CI - 2B3). (1805)


Weld: An obsolete yellow vegetable color (luteolin) obtained from dyer's rocket (Resesda luteola).

Well: The interior portion of the screen where the ink is applied.

Wet Development (Fixation): This method of fixation is used with hand painting and resist techniques such as batik. Some specialist dye systems require a liquid fixer into which the dyed fabric is immersed, before being washed and dried. Other dyes, like Azoic dyes use one bath to apply a color salt to the fabric and another to form the dye. Soluble vat dyes are often developed and fixed in a bath of sulfuric or hydrochloric acid.

Wet-On-Wet: Printing technique in which one color is printed on another, whilst the first one is still wet.

Wetting Agent (Auxiliary): A specific surface-active agent primarily formulated to assist water to wet out more efficiently. A wetting agent is not a cleaning agent. There are a number of wetting agents such as glycerols, ethylene glycerols and ethoxylated alcohols that are included to aid the penetration of the discharge paste on various low absorbency fiber types.

Wetting Out: The full penetration of a solution into a fiber in order that dyeing or printing will take place evenly. That is, to assure more even and level color the cloth is dampened before dyeing.

Wet-Treatments: A general term applied to those aqueous processes to which dyed textiles are subjected in the course of manufacture and use. It is a term often used with reference to the fastness properties of individual dyes.

White: A general name for the achromatic or neutral precept, lightest of all visual sensations, the terminal color of the grey scale; the opposite to black. Note: It is the reflection of transmittance of all colors in the visible range. In practice, colors which are immediate neighbours of white are also considered white. Plate A1 also represents these specific color names: chalky, lily white or snow white. Satin white (CI - 2A1) has a slight tinge of yellow. The immediate neighbours of white has the general color names yellowish white, orange white, reddish (or pinkish) white etc. through to greyish white and pale (CI - 2A2), together with specific names such as milk white (CI - 1A2). The origin of the name "white" can be traced to the concept of light or in some languages to the color of wheat. The Greek leukos meant white or light. The Latin condidus (white) was derived from the Sanskrit candra (light). The following words for white are all related to wheat; the Old Norse hvitr, the Danish hvid, the Swedish vit, the German weiss, the Dutch wit, the Sanskrit sveta and the English white. See (golden) wheat. The names for white in the Romance languages are: Italian bianco,; Spanish: blanco; French blanc. (About 950 AD)

White Binder: A binder that can be used on its own to make strong luminous white effect on dark colors.

White Discharges: The print paste is usually clear and if the basic fabric is a dark color it is hard to visibly trace where the discharge paste was placed. Hence to avoid this problem, a white pigment such as zinc oxide can be added to the paste to add visibility and also to improve the whiteness of the discharge areas.

White Earth (Pigment): A pure white clay whose general composition and physical characteristics are the same as those of green earth. Not the same material as tera alba. It is highly absorbent to dyestuffs and therefore finds limited use as a base for certain lakes.

White Lead: See flake white.A white, heavy powder, basic lead carbonate used as a pigment, in putty, and in medicinal ointments for burns. The putty made from this substance in oil. Origin: 1400-50; late Middle English.

White Light: Visible radiation that contains all components of light in the visible spectrum – natural light or daylight.

Whiteprint: A reproduction method producing copies at the same size of the original by direct contact, the image being formed by a light sensitive dye. The original for this process must be transparent or translucent material.

White (Psychology): White is a symbol of innocence, chastity, purity and so on. It is also associated with peace - a white flag symbolises a truce or a surrender.

Note white is also associated with purity, surrender, truth, peace, innocence, simplicity, sterility, coldness, death, marriage (Western cultures), birth and virginity.

White Spirit: White spirit is a mixture of saturated aliphatic and alicyclic C7-C12 hydrocarbons with a maximum content of 25% of C7-C12 alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons (Henriksen, 1980). This ordinary white spirit is designated white spirit, type1, regular grade, as three different types and three different grades exist. The type refers to whether the solvent has been subjected to hydrodesulfurization (removal of sulfur) alone (type 1), solvent extraction (type 2) or hydrogenation (type 3). The hydrodesulfurized type contains less than 25% aromatic hydrocarbons, the solvent-extracted less than 5%, and the hydrogenated less than 1%. Each type comprises three different grades: low flash grade (flash point: 21-30°C; initial boiling point: 130-144°C), regular grade (flash point: 31-54°C; initial boiling point: 145-174°C), and high flash grade (flash point: 55°C; initial boiling point: 175-200°C). The grade is determined by the crude oil used as the starting material and the conditions of distillation. Type 0 white spirit is defined as a distillation fraction with no further treatment, consisting predominantly of saturated C9-C12 hydrocarbons with a boiling range of 140-220°C. The low flash grade possesses the highest vapor pressure of approximately 1.4 kPa (10.5 mmHg) at 20°C. A USA variety of type 1 is called Stoddard solvent and is a petroleum distillate defined according to its boiling range of 149-204°C and the absence of rancid or objectionable odors.

Whitewash A simple mixture of dry hydrated lime and water; more recent expensive whitewash will contain opaque white pigments and additional binder or are wholly of the calcimine or cold water paint type. Common whitewash is not water-resistant and rubs off easily.

Whiting (Paint): Paint ingredient prepared from chalk.

Whiting (Pigment): Natural calcium carbonate, ground, washed, and refined. An inert pigment of considerable bulk, of use in oil painting only as an extender or adulterant. When ground in oil to a stiff paste, it does not retain its white or creamy-white color, but the paste is yellowish brown and forms the familiar plastic cement known as putty. When used with aqueous media and glue sizes it retains its whiteness; it is valuable for such products as gesso etc. The best grade is known as Paris white; the second best (usually paint store variety) is called "Extra gilder's"; and a third grade, used mainly for putty, is called "Commercial".

Willow (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Deciduous tree, wild and ornamental - Salix various species; (ii) Parts Used: Leaves,; twigs and bark; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: Leaves of a weeping willow – yellow (alum, strong bath); yellow-green (alum); bright yellow (tin); greenish-yellow (blue vitriol); gold (chrome); soft light grey (iron); (v) Fastness: Good for leaves,; excellent for twigs and bark.

Winch: A dyeing apparatus consisting of a large vat through which is pulled ropes of fabric sewn in continuous loops.

Wine Red (CI - 11D8): Same as Bordeaux (red) and claret. Typical of brown violet. The color of red wine made from the grapes of the vine. When affected by acid, the dark blue coloring matter in the skin of the grape turns into more or less strong red, which is characteristic of red wine. Names which represent colors typical of red wine are: Bordeaux (red) (CI - 11D8), the color of wine from Bordeaux Frence, which may vary in the direction of ruby red (CI -12D8); Burgundy (CI - 12F5), the color of wine from Burgundy, France. (About 1700)


Wine Yellow (CI - 3B3): Typical of a dull yellow. The color of white wine, which is produced without the dark blue grape skin retained in the making of red wine. May be paler or stronger in color. Specific names under this heading are: champagne (CI - 4B4) and chartreuse yellow (CI - 2C6). (1805)


Winsor Blue: Propriety name for phthalocyanine blue.

Witt’s Theory: A dye molecule is a combination of an unsaturated kernel with certain groups called chromophores and one or more characteristic substituent called auxochromes, the latter of which intensify color and improve the affinity of the dye to the substrate (e.g. fiber, yarn, fabric etc.)

Woad: Blue woad dyes were made from a plant which was cultivated in England. The color was used as a pigment which has now been replaced by indigo.

Woad (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Biennial - Isatis tinctoria; (ii) Parts Used: Fresh leaves; (iii) Processing: As for leaves; (iv) Colors Obtained: The blues from woad require no mordants. They are softer and less strong than those of indigo; (v) Fastness: Good.

Yarn: Spun fiber, of any content; available in various sizes and weights, from one-ply (singles) to two; three; four; or five-ply.

Yarn Dyeing: Yarn is often dyed before being made into cloth. Yarn dyed fabrics also tend to have a high degree of colorfastness because the dye easily penetrates the yarn. This method is often used for plaids and checked fabrics. Yarn dyeing is less costly than stock dyeing, but more expensive than piece dyeing.

Yarrow (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Perennial, wild and cultivated flower - Achillea various species; (ii) Parts Used: Flowering heads or whole plant; (iii) Processing: As for each category; (iv) Colors Obtained: A. millefolium, whole plant – bright yellow (alum); brilliant yellow (tin); strong clear gold (chrome); yellow-tan (blue vitriol); yellow-grey (iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Yeast Black: See vine black.

Yellow (CI - 2A8): A general name typified by the sample given. It represents primary yellow, cadmium yellow (light) and chrome yellow (primrose). This sample is also typical of vivid yellow. The area contains strong yellows. In most languages yellow is usually the second color to be named, usually in connection with ochre, the yellow earth, used as a pigment in cave paintings. The Chinese word for yellow wung, represents a yellow between plates 1 and 3. The basis for this color name, yellow, is first of all based on the Indo-German root ghel (to glisten and shine). The Germanic word for yellow, gelwa, developed into the old High Greman gelo and Middle German gel, the German gelb, the Dutch geel, the English yellow; the Old Norse gulr became the modern Scandinavian word gul. The Latin galbus developed into the Italian giallo, which is probably directly related to the English word. Yellow is also related to the Anglo-axon word for egg yolk. Another Latin form, galbinus became the Rumanian galben, and the French jaune. The Spanish amarillo and Portuguese amarelo are probably related to the name of the yellow cherry, morello. Such substances of man's environment and body as gold, ochre and gall bladder are related to the various names of this color. Botanical references are also an important source such as saffron, lemon, banana and straw have also been important. Examples of color names within this area are as follows: mimosa (yellow) (CI - 2B8); genet (or dyer's broom) (CI - 3A7); chrome yellow (light) (CI - 3A8).


Yellow Carmine (Pigment): A yellow lake of vegetable origin; olive tone, transparent, very fugitive. See Dutch pink.

Yellowish Brown (CI - 5E8): A general name typified by the sample given. Covers medium shaded oranges. Related examples: golden brown (CI - 4D7); bronze (brown) (CI - 5E5); tobacco (CI - 5F6).


Yellowish Green (CI - 30A8): A general name typified by the sample given. Covers the area of strong colors between yellow and green but closer to the latter. Related example: sap green (CI - 30B7).


Yellowish Grey (CI - 3D2): A general name typified by the sample given. Represents those yellows which lie on the horizontal row nearest to the grey scale. Related examples: silver white (CI - 2B2); lead grey (CI - 2D2); putty (CI - 4B2).


Yellowish Orange (CI - 4A8): Same as orange yellow, reddish yellow. A general name typified by the sample given. See orange yellow.


Yellowish Red (CI - 8A8): Same as orange red. A general name typified by the sample given. (CI - 8A8) also represents coquelicot, ponceau, poppy (red), red lead. See orange red.


Yellowish White (CI - 2A2): A general name typified by the sample given. (CI - 2A2) also represents pale. It represents whites with a tinge of yellow. Related example: milk white (CI - 1A2).


Yellow Lake (Pigment): Used for a number of transparent pigments. Cobalt and Hansa yellows are reliable substitutes.

Yellow Ochre (Pigment) (CI - 5C7): Same as oxide yellow. The color of the earth with ferric oxide content. One of the oldest known pigments, it was used in the cave paintings in Altamira, Spain, and Lascaux , France, as well as many works of art of classical and medieval antiquity. Now artificially manufactured under the name oxide yellow, which may vary in color depending on its composition and ingredients. Related to Pompeian yellow (I - 5C6); clay (CI - 5D5); raw umber (CI - 5F8); raw Sienna (CI - 6D7). Oxide red and its variations are also related to these ochre yellows. From the Greek ochros make yellow. German: ocker; French: core jaune; Italian: ocria giallo; Spanish:ocre amarillo. (1398)


Yellow Oxide of Iron (Pigment): Mars yellow. Artificially produced by a patent process, this pigment is permanent for all uses except at high furnace temperatures, when it is likely to be converted into red oxide. It is made in a limited variety of shades corresponding to those of natural ochres, which it replaces, but it is always more brilliant than ochre, and has much greater tinting power. See Mars colors.

Yellow (Psychology): While yellow is not gold, it has a close association with it. Nevertheless, associations in color are not necessarily associations in symbolism. Hence, gold symbolizes preciousness, value, wealth and perfection, whereas yellow indicates jealousy, inconsistently, cowardice. In medieval paintings, Judas was often depicted in yellow robes as a symbol of betrayal. It is important to note the shading of yellow used in such paintings. For further information see post - Psychology of Color.

Note yellow is also associated with joy, happiness, summer, cowardice, illness, hazards, greed, femininity, friendship. (During the time of war, yellow ribbons symbolised the hope for troops to return home.)

Yellow Ultramarine (Pigment): Obsolete name for barium yellow.

Yolk Yellow (CI - 4B8): The color of the yolk of a chicken's egg; may vary from pure yellow to an orange yellow. From the Anglo-Saxon word for yellow geolu. (1905)


Yuzen: Yuzen is a start resist dyeing technique that was invented by Miyazaki Yuzen, a famous Kyoto fan-painter during the Genroku era (1688-1704) of the Edo period. The technique uses glutinous rice as the resist. It is a particular fine dye painting style, contained by resist-paste outlines.

Zaffer Or Zaffre (Pigment): Partially finished smalt; smalt in a stage before its final process.

Zinc Chrome (Pigment): Zinc yellow.

Zinc Formaldehyde Sulfoxylate (Reducing Agent): Commercial names: Decrolin, Arostit ZET. It is mainly used for the discharging of 100% wool, white discharges on synthetics, and pigment discharges on cellulose. It requires slightly acidic conditions and consequently fiber damage and shrinkage problems are reduced on wool. However, it can cause yellowing with white discharge effects. This can be overcome by adding zinc oxide or titanium dioxide to the discharging solution to improve whiteness.

Zinc Green (Pigment): Cobalt green. Also a mixture of zinc yellow, Prussian blue (steel or Milori, not reddish shades), and barytes.

Zinc Oxide (Auxiliary): It is sometimes added to a print paste to act as a buffer, thereby improving the color of the final discharge by giving it a white pigment appearance.

Zinc Oxide (Pigment): Zinc white.

Zinc White (Pigment): Pure zinc oxide. This material is used in painting because it does not have the two defects of flake white (it is not poisonous and it does not darken on exposure to sulfur fumes). It has much less hiding power than white lead, being only slightly better than semi-opaque. See White Pigments.

Zinc Yellow (Pigment): Zinc chromate. A pale, semi-opaque yellow with greenish tone. Permanent, but best grades are rare. Rather poisonous. Somewhat soluble in water; therefore generally considered to be not so good as barium and strontium yellows for artist's use. Some of the best and palest primrose shades contain much zinc oxide; few are pure chromate.

Zinnia (Natural Dye): (i) Classification: Annual, garden flower - Zinnia; (ii) Parts Used: Flowers, separated by clors or used in a mix; (iii) Processing: As for each flowers; (iv) Colors Obtained: In a strong bath of mixed colors – yellow (alum); bronze (chrome); bright gold (tin); khaki (blue vitriol); grey-green (iron); (v) Fastness: Excellent.

Zinnober (Pigment): Vermilion. When the term zinnober is applied to any other color - for instance, to chrome green - it is being used merely as a fancy name for an inferior product.

Zircon White: Zirconium oxide. Used to impart whiteness and opacity to ceramic glazes; not in use as a paint pigment.


References:
[1] A. Fritz and J. Cant, Consumer Textiles, Oxford University Press, Melbourne (1986).

[2] P. Lambert, B. Staepelaere and M. G. Fry, Color and Fiber, Schiffer Publishing Ltd., Pennsylvania (1986).

[3] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd edition, Collier-Macmillan Ltd, London (1968).

[4] Ed. L.W.C. Miles, Textile Printing, Dyers Company Publication Trust, West Yorkshire (1981).

[5] E.N. Abrahart, Dyes and Their Intermediates, Pergamon Press, Sydney (1968).

[6] A. Kosloff, Textile Screen Printing, The Signs of the Times Publishing Company, Cincinnati (1966).

[7] D.W.A. Sharp, The Penguin Dictionary of Chemistry, Penguin Books Ltd, New York (1983).

[8] A. Stromquist, Simple Screenprinting, Larks Books, New york (2005).

[9] R. Adam and C. Robertson, Screenprinting, Thames & Hudson, London (2003).

[10] A. Campbell, The Designer's Handbook, MacDonald & Co., Sydney (1983).

[11] K.L. Casselman, Craft of the Dyer, University of Toronto Press, Toronto (1980).

[12] E.P.G. Gohl and L.D. Vilensky, Textile Science, Longman Cheshire, Melbourne (1989).

[13] G.H. Aylward and T.J.V. Findlay, SI Chemical Data, John Wiley and Sons, Elwood (1983).

[14] R. Mayer, The Artist's Handbook, 4th Edition, Faber and Faber, Norfolk (1982).

[15] K. Wells, Fabric Dyeing And Printing, Conrn Octopus Ltd., London (2000).

[16] A. Kornerup and J.H. Wanscher, Methuen Handbook of Colour, 3rd Edition, Eyre Methuen Ltd, London (1983).

[17] C. E. Kicklighter and R.J. Baird, Crafts - Illustrated Designs And Techniques, The Goodheart-Willcox, Company, Inc. South Holland (1986).

[18] K. Skinner, The Paint Effects Bible, Gary Allen Pty Ltd, Smithfield, Australia (2003).

[19] E.J. Gawne, Fabrics For Clothing, 3rd Edition, Chas. A. Bennett Co. Inc., Peoria, USA (1973).

[20] M.E. Ratcliffe, Fabric Painting, Salamandar Books Ltd, New York (1988).

[21] Editors A. Jeffs, W. Martensson and and P. North , Creative Crafts Encyclopedia, Octopus Books, London (1984).

[22] L. Wauchope, Silk Painting, Simon and Schuster, Sydney (1992).

[23] E.B. Feldman, Varieties Of Visual Experience, 2nd Edition, Prentice-Hall, New York (1982).

[24] J. Fish, Designing and Printing Textiles, The Crowood Press Ltd., Ramsbury (2005).

[25] A.H. Barr, Cubism and Abstract Art, Arno Press, New York (1966).

[26] D. Piper, The Illustrated History Of Art, Bounty Books (2000).

[27] N. Dyrenforth, The Technique of Batik, B.T. Batsford Ltd., London (1988).

[28] W. Caruana, Aboriginal Art, 3rd Edition, Thames & Hudson, London (2012).

[29] S. Faerm, Fashion Design Course, Barron's Educational Series, New York (2010).

[30] Editor J. E. Kahn, Reader'd Digest - Reverse Dictionary, Reader's Digest Association Limited, Sydney (1989)>

[31] M-T Wisniowski, personal communication (2016).

2 comments:

Lesley Turner said...

You are compiling an invaluable reference - a treasure. Thank you for the time and effort you are putting into the research and compilation required to make and maintain such a large database.

Art Quill Studio said...

Thanks for your kind comments Lesley ! I am pleased to hear that you enjoy the content of the database resource. It has been compiled for students, artists, educators and others who may find the information useful for their work/research/other topics. The database will include additional information over time so come back and visit when you have a moment.