Saturday, May 25, 2019

History of the Kimono[1]
Wearable Art

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

For your convenience I have listed other posts on Japanese clothing on this blogspot:
The Basic Kimono Pattern
The Kimono and Japanese Textile Designs
A Textile Tour of Japan - Part I
A Textile Tour of Japan - Part II
The History of the Obi

The original model for the Japanese kimono, which has undergone many changes in its form from the eighth century, was the official costume of Chinese nobility and scholar-bureaucrats. It was a long robe in a single piece.

During the 8th century, the earliest forms of the kimono were influenced by the traditional Han Chinese clothing.

However, common people in China, who had to work, converted the costume into a two-piece garment that provided more mobility. The Japanese followed suit and even when Westernization increased greatly in the second half of the nineteenth century, the traditional form of workers' clothing remained largely unchanged.

The wearing of the kimono (which translates as clothing) is both a state of mind as well as making a statement of dress. Grace and serenity accompany its presence and the beauty, leaves a lasting image of the essence of Japan, while imprinting its elegant silhouette on our memories.

Semiformal yuzen kimono.

The History of the Kimono[1]
The silk kimono, is a highly prized heirloom, being passed down from generation to generation. It's unchanging style retains its beauty from year to year. Great care is taken in choosing the fabric from which it is made. The size and style of the motif, as well as the quality and color of the fabric, indicate the age, status and taste of its original owner. Bright colors and large motifs are worn by young girls. Their long sleeved kimono (called furisode) provide a great contrast with the subdued colors and smaller decorations of a married woman's short-sleeved kimono (named kosode).

These children have been dressed for the celebration of Shichigosan. The girls are wearing Yuzen kimono (furisode) and sandals of gold brocade. The boy’s crested coat (haori) perfectly matches his kimono, which is a woven patterned pleated skirt (hakama).

A married's woman's short-sleeved kimono.
A favorite kimono fabric is the very comfortable and well sought after Oshima tsumugi.

The kimono has a long history, reflecting influences felt from the cultures of India, Korea, and south-east Asia. While the early textile history of Japan is misty, archaeologists have determined that prior to 300 BC, wood or vegetable fibers were used to make fabrics, which were fashioned into belted two-piece garments. There is also evidence that silk was used in western Japan as early as the fourth century. Signalling the advent of Japan's written history, the Asuka period (sixth century) brought trade between Japan and two of its neighbours, China and Korea. From these exchanges came two valuable imports: clothing from China, including the basic kimono form; and the Buddhist religion from Korea, which had tremendous influence on Japanese art and textiles. The continuation of this exchange with China during the next two centuries brought elaborate textiles to Japan in the Nara period (seventh and eighth centuries.

The illustration to the left shows how kimono design has changed over the centuries. From around the Nara Period (710-94), a garment called a kosode (small sleeves) was worn, first as underclothes and later as an outer garment, by both women and men. The garment became known as a kimono from the 18th century.

Kyoto was the capital of Japan during the Heian period (794 - 1185). The aristocrats whose culture flourished in that era took a great interest in clothing. The junihitoe (twelve unlined robes), the official costume of the noble ladies of the day, consisted of twelve up to twenty layers of robes of different colors. The robes were worn so that a narrow band of each was visible at the neck, sleeves, and hem, and great importance was attached to the effect of the color combinations.

Junihitoe worn in Heian Period (794 - 1185)[1].
Tokyo National Museum.
Courtesy of reference[1].

In the twelfth century, the aristocratic Heian culture declined and the samurai warrior class assumed control of the government. They transferred the political capital to Kamakura in eastern Japan and placed restrictions on dress to control its extravagance. For themselves, they chose practical clothing of the commoners, as it was more convenient to wear in battle and coincided with the simplicity of the warrior life they followed. The ladies discarded the uncomfortable and bulky junihitoe and adopted the simple kosode and hakama, which had been the undergarment of Kyoto's court ladies and the basic outer garment of the commoners.

It is from the kosode that the present form of the kimono developed. This practical garment, closed only with a sash called an obi, fitted everyone. It was made from a piece of fabric nine yards long and fifteen inches wide. The fabric was cut into rectangular pieces of a predetermined length, selvages intact, and stitched into the basic kimono form. Initially, the plainest of the garment was relieved by the addition of an elaborately decorated outer robe, the uchikake.

Uchikake with bamboo blind, fans and cloth screen (kicho). Tie-dye clouds divide the typical Genroku-era design[1].
Edo period (1600 - 1868).
National Museum of Japanese History.
Courtesy of reference[1].

Noh costume. Motifs of eight-arched bridge, paper poem strips, flowers and grasses in embroidery and gold-leaf imprint on a silk red-and-white block design (dangawari background[1].
Momoyama period (1568 - 1600).
Tokyo National Museum.
Courtesy of reference[1].

As time went by, the desire for more decorative kosode emerged, and new and more elaborate techniques for decorating textiles, such as shibori (tie-dye) and gold- and silver-leaf imprint techniques (surihaku), were developed.

Fan, flower, and bamboo motifs in embroidery, gold-leaf imprint, tie-dye, and divided dyeing. Mounted on a folding screen[1].
Momoyama period (1568 - 1600).
National Museum of Japanese History.
Courtesy of reference[1].

In the middle of the fourteenth century a new line of shoguns, the Ashikaga family, abolished the Kamakura shogunate and returned to the capital of Kyoto. The Ashikaga rulers were men of cultivated taste and fervid patrons of the arts. Their rule is known as the Muromachi period (1388 - 1568) after the Muromachi district in Kyoto, where the third Ashikaga shogun, Yoshimitsu built his palace. Yoshimitsu is also known as the builder of the Golden Pavilion, Kinkakuji, where he planned to retire and live as a Buddhist monk. During this time, Zen Buddhism strongly influenced the arts. Not only did ink painting reach a new height, but the Not drama, supported by the shoguns, developed from an agricultural festival dance to a highly refined dramatic art. The Muromachi period was paradoxical in many ways: it was characterised by domestic unrest and civil war on the one hand and property, cultural development, and the resumption of trade with China under the Ming dynasty (1368 - ca. 1644) on the other. Japanese merchants became wealthy, and as the living standard rose, they demanded more elaborate clothing, leading to the development of even more ornate textiles. It was during this period that tsujigahana (stitched tie-dye combined with ink, painting, gold- or silver-leaf imprint embellishments, and embroidery on silk) began to evolve.

Another important development in the field of textiles at this time was the import of cotton from Korea and China in the fifteenth century. The plant flourished in Japan and was valued because it provided greater warmth, and was easier and cheaper to raise, process, and dye than the bast fibers used up to that time.

The Momoyama period (1568 - 1600) saw the unification of Japan under the warlord Oda Nobunaga. He was assassinated in 1582, and power passed to his leading vassal, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who continued to consolidate the country. Hideyoshi's death was followed by a seventeen-year struggle between his heirs and a rival general, Tokugawa Ieyasu, in which Ieyasu finals triumphed. In his brief period, artists and artisans were called upon to perform to the highest level of their ability.

Sleeve of a kosode in scarlet silk rinse (satin float pattern weave). Decorated with embroidery of paulownia and a small hexagonal chest of sort used for storing the painted clamshells of an ancient shell-matching game[1].
Edo period (1600 - 1868).
Tokyo National Museum.
Courtesy of reference[1].

During the Momoyama period (1568 - 1600) the art of tsuigahana reached the zenith of its short existence. Some of the most beautiful kimono ever created were made using this combination of techniques, but tsuigahana fell victim to the complexity that made it so special, and it disappeared as an art form during the sixteenth century. Along with the demand for dyed masterpieces came the need for more elaborately woven fabrics, and in Kyoto, a special area of the city, Nishijin, was established as a weaving center.

Kosode. Beautiful scenery on blue crepe (chirimen) in yuzen and embroidery. The Uji Bridge is embellished with couched gold thread[1].
Edo period (1600 - 1868).
Tokyo National Museum.

After Ieyasu's triumph over the descendants of Hideyoshi he moved the capital back to eastern Japan, to the village of Edo (now Tokyo), and the Edo period (1600 - 1868) began. His descendants ruled for more than two hundred years. During their reign they isolated Japan from any outside influences by prohibiting trade and cultural exchange with the rest of the world.

[1] S. Yang, and R.M. Narasin, Textile Art of Japan, Shufunotomo, Tokyo (1989).

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Hand-Sewn Patchwork
Art Essay [1]

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Patchwork is a fairly inexpensive and simple craft. The basic tools are a sewing machine, an assortment of fabrics and a lot of imagination. Before you know it, you've become an addict and so you spend countless of hours going from one fabric shop to another. In some cases you redefine yourself, buy white fabrics and lots of colorants - you've become a dyer and fabric designer to boot!

Marie-Therese Wisniowski's fabric length - AIVA (two meter length view).

On this blogspot is a range of Art Resources that will assist you into designing your own fabric. I have listed a few of them below and so this post will not repeat these resources.
Units Used in Dyeing and Printing of Fabrics
Occupational, Health & Safety
A Brief History of Color
The Nature of Color
Psychology of Color
Color Schemes
The Naming of Colors
The Munsell Color Classification System
Methuen Color Index and Classification System
The CIE System
Pantone - A Modern Color Classification System
Optical Properties of Fiber Materials

For example, in the post on the Psychology of Color the following diagram illustrates how we feel subconsciously when we encounter the color "red". Of course such feelings are tempered by the colors that surround it as well as the subject matter of the image itself.

Fabrics can be designed using dye bath techniques and various other techniques such as shibori (scrunching), printing blocks, screen printed images, transfer dyes as well as being hand painted, and stencilled etc.

Artist: Marie-Therese Wisniowski.
Tie Akash.
Technique and Media: Hand dyed and hand painted background colors, discharged, silkscreened and stencilled employing metallic paints on silk satin.
Size: 9.5 w x 142 h cm.

Hand-Sewn Patchwork [1]
Hand-sewn patchwork can be a very time-intensive artistic endeavor. However, hand-piecing is a very attractive technique in that it will not take up a significant part of your home (unless you're a fabric hoarder!)

If you are sourcing fabrics rather than designing them, the equipment you need is quite basic: scissors for cutting fabric and another pair for cutting paper or cardboard; needles that are now called quilting needles; fine pins; thimble; and lastly beeswax - used to wax sewing threads in order to strengthen them and so prevent tangles.

Mosaic pathwork is made up of single patches such as hexagons, diamonds, triangles etc. - sewn together to create a whole piece. The patches consist of fabric carefully turned and tacked together on paper, and then sewn together by hand. This craft was solidly embraced in Britain during the Victorian era, where the Lady of the house had a significant amount of leisure time.

A panel showing a variety of different types of patchwork, including strip patchwork, Folded Star, Cathedral Window, woven strips, blocks, mosaic patchwork and Clamshell[1].
Artist: Linda Cook.
Material and Techniques: The fabrics used are plain and hand-dyed cotton and silks[1].

The variety of fabrics to use is only limited by your imagination. However, if this is your first attempt Jenny Bullen suggests you use dress-weight cotton as it will crease beautifully. For more details of the technique please refer to reference[1]. The rest of the images below will inspire you to develop your art using this technique.

A panel using patchwork as a design source.
Artist: Anne Coleman.
Technique and Materials[1]: Hand-dyed silk patches glued to a background and held in place with stichery. Silk and paper patches are used in the border.

The design for this quilt was influenced by Indian patchwork[1].
Artist: Jean Draper.
Technique and Materials[1]: It is in strong plain colors and has been hand-quilted in a variety of colored threads so that the quilting pattern plays an important part in the surface design.

An assortment of different fabrics have been used in this wall hanging with a design of polar bears[1].
Artist: Valerie McCallum.
Technique and Materials[1]: The various fabrics were machine-pieced and hand-quilted.

Folded Star used to create a totally different effect[1].
Artist: Muriel Fry.
Technique and Materials [1]: Plain fabrics have been arranged to that they shade light at the edge of the artwork to a darker center.

Fabric paints were used to color a piece of plain silk fabric[1].
Artist: Jenny Bullen.
Technique and Materials[1]: The silk fabric was cut up and used in this small wall hanging of long hexagons. Hand-pieced over paper templates and hand-quilted.

A small quilt in various fabrics[1].
Artist: Valerie McCallum.
Technique and Materials[1]: Various fabrics including synthetics, based on the Windmill block. After it was made-up, the whole top was put in a pink dye bath. Hand quilted.

"Flotilla" (Detail View).
Artist: Muriel Fry.
Technique and Materials[1]: A wall hanging worked in the log-cabin method, using a triangular instead of a square block. All the fabrics were hand-dyed.
In the collection of Lord Walpole.

[1] Jenny Bullen, Patchwork - From Beginner to Expert. B.T. Batsford, London (1992).

Saturday, May 11, 2019

Paisley Patterns - Part II
Art Essay

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

For your convenience I have listed Part I of this series below:
Paisley Patterns - Part I

The "Paisley Pattern" has been actively used for some 2,500 years. The Oriental peoples have always appreciated the beauty of its design and once introduced into Europe some 200 years ago, it has also taken-in Western hearts. Fashions come and go and so undoubtedly Paisley will subside. Since the shawl itself went out of fashion in the 1870s, the Paisley pattern has never really disappeared - Paisley patterned items can be found in most shopping centres and districts.

11 Foot, Circa 1880 Victorian Jacquard Woven Paisley Shawl

The modern Paisley shawls (mostly printed in Italy) differ significantly from those worn in Victorian times, which were large, heavy and unwieldy. Today's shawls do not have to cover enormous crinoline skirts or perform the function of a coat. They are often more decorative than practical - in fact, they usually drape over the wearer's outdoor coat, so they do not have to be as warm as the originals. Consequently, they are lighter in weight and much smaller: on an average today's shawls measure about 1.3 square meters.

Valentino, Jacquard red tartan & paisley silk shawl 1990s.

But nowhere is the pattern more fully respected than in Paisley itself where a collection of Paisley shawls are on display at the Paisley Museum in Scotland, along with examples of original hand looms. The collection is a "Recognised Collection of National Significance to Scotland".

Paisley Museum in Scotland.

The Paisley pattern books are preserved at the Paisley Museum, not only as an archive of the history of Paisley's industry, but also as a research tool for present and future studies. The pattern books include many oddities; for example, some look as if they could never be a part of a shawl design, whilst others in the books appear more like the designs used on printed cottons from World War Two. However, some designs for printed head squares from the period immediately after shawl production, do exist amongst the collection.

Paisley Patterns - Part II

Comments[1]: A design very much in the style of the shawls exhibited at Crystal Palace in 1851.

Comments[1]: This design for a printed shawl (note the "twill weave effect" line) is stamped as being the work of George Haite of London. Other examples of his work are known from the Victoria and Albert Museum.

Comments[1]: Drawing on the squared-off paper, this design shows the stylized floral style.

Comments[1]: From the folder titled "Pulls for Paisley Patterns", this is a typical design for roller printing.

Comments[1]: This simple design appears to be intended for roller printing.

Comments[1]: Small scale design probably intended for roller printing.

Comments[1]: This Yuill and Houston registered design of 1875 lists twelve different color variations.

Comments[1]: A printed rig from the volume of Quill and Houston's registered designs of 1857. The book shows five color variations for this pattern, and also details of a matching border.

Comments[1]: A border design in an interesting variation of the "Harlequin" style. Probably dates to ca. 1830.

Comments[1]: From the unnamed book of French and English design the gauze prints of the 1850s. This is a design for the edge of an imitation plaid.

Comments[1]: From Print Sketches ca. 1857 comes this sophisticated design, where three small Paisley motifs are constrained within an oval.

[1] V. Reilly, Paisley Patterns, Portland House, New York (1989).

Saturday, May 4, 2019

Finishes: Flame-Proofed Fabrics [1-2]
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

This is the eighty-seventh post in the "Art Resource" series, specifically aimed to construct an appropriate knowledge base in order to develop an artistic voice in ArtCloth.

Other posts in this series are:
Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms
Units Used in Dyeing and Printing of Fabrics
Occupational, Health & Safety
A Brief History of Color
The Nature of Color
Psychology of Color
Color Schemes
The Naming of Colors
The Munsell Color Classification System
Methuen Color Index and Classification System
The CIE System
Pantone - A Modern Color Classification System
Optical Properties of Fiber Materials
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part I
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part II
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part III
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part IV
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part V
Protein Fibers - Wool
Protein Fibers - Speciality Hair Fibers
Protein Fibers - Silk
Protein Fibers - Wool versus Silk
Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Cotton
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Linen
Other Natural Cellulosic Fibers
General Overview of Man-Made Fibers
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Viscose
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Esters
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Nylon
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Polyester
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Acrylic and Modacrylic
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Olefins
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Elastomers
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Mineral Fibers
Man Made Fibers - Other Textile Fibers
Fiber Blends
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part I
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part II
Melt-Spun Fibers
Characteristics of Filament Yarn
Yarn Classification
Direct Spun Yarns
Textured Filament Yarns
Fabric Construction - Felt
Fabric Construction - Nonwoven fabrics
A Fashion Data Base
Fabric Construction - Leather
Fabric Construction - Films
Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins
Fabric Construction – Foams and Poromeric Material
Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns
Weaving and the Loom
Similarities and Differences in Woven Fabrics
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part I)
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part II)
The Three Basic Weaves - Twill Weave
The Three Basic Weaves - Satin Weave
Figured Weaves - Leno Weave
Figured Weaves – Piqué Weave
Figured Fabrics
Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements
Crêpe Fabrics
Crêpe Effect Fabrics
Pile Fabrics - General
Woven Pile Fabrics
Chenille Yarn and Tufted Pile Fabrics
Knit-Pile Fabrics
Flocked Pile Fabrics and Other Pile Construction Processes
Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms
Napped Fabrics – Part I
Napped Fabrics – Part II
Double Cloth
Multicomponent Fabrics
Knit-Sew or Stitch Through Fabrics
Finishes - Overview
Finishes - Initial Fabric Cleaning
Mechanical Finishes - Part I
Mechanical Finishes - Part II
Additive Finishes
Chemical Finishes - Bleaching
Glossary of Scientific Terms
Chemical Finishes - Acid Finishes
Finishes: Mercerization
Finishes: Waterproof and Water-Repellent Fabrics
Finishes: Flame-Proofed Fabrics
Finishes to Prevent Attack by Insects and Micro-Organisms
Other Finishes
Shrinkage - Part I
Shrinkage - Part II

There are currently eight data bases on this blogspot, namely, the Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, the Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, the Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns, Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements, Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms and the Glossary of Scientific Terms, which has been updated to Version 3.5. All data bases will be updated from time-to-time in the future.

If you find any post on this blog site useful, you can save it or copy and paste it into your own "Word" document etc. for your future reference. For example, Safari allows you to save a post (e.g. click on "File", click on "Print" and release, click on "PDF" and then click on "Save As" and release - and a PDF should appear where you have stored it). Safari also allows you to mail a post to a friend (click on "File", and then point cursor to "Mail Contents On This Page" and release). Either way, this or other posts on this site may be a useful Art Resource for you.

The Art Resource series will be the first post in each calendar month. Remember - these Art Resource posts span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist to that required by a final year University Fine-Art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource post may appear far too technical for your needs (skip over those mind boggling parts) and in other parts, it may be too simplistic with respect to your level of knowledge (ditto the skip). The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that Art Resource posts will hopefully be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately may not be satisfying to all!

Some fibers are naturally fireproof. Mineral fibers such as asbestos and fiber glass cannot support combustion. However, they are a threat to health when they become friable. The term "friable" means that the asbestos is easily crumbled by hand, releasing fibers into the air. Sprayed on asbestos insulation is highly friable. Because it is so hard to destroy asbestos fibers, the body cannot break them down or remove them once they are lodged in lung or body tissues. They remain in place where they can cause disease. There are three primary diseases associated with asbestos exposure: (i) Asbestosis; (ii) Lung Cancer; (iii) Mesothelioma.

Protein fibers and some thermoplastics are fire retardant, as they ignite slowly and burn only for a very short time. However, thermoplastics melt as they burn; this melted substance can cause a severe burn if it sticks to the skin.

Today's post centres on flame-proofed fabrics.

Finishes: Flame-Proofed Fabrics
Most textile materials burn readily and rapidly. Whilst wool textile materials tend not to support combustion once a flame is removed, cellulosic textile materials will burn readily once they are ignited.

Wool-polyester after being burned.

The great danger with cellulosic fibers is afterglow, which may remain if the flame has been incompletely extinguished. Afterglow may often re-ignite a flame in a textile material.

Cotton-polyester afterglow.

Synthetic fibers may melt rather than burn.

However, acrylics will burn readily.

Hot molten thermoplastic fibers will cause severe burns and intense shock to the victim wearing clothes composed of such fibers. In fact, one major identifier of any fiber is to initiate a "burn test".

The construction of fabric determines the degree to which oxygen is made available to the fiber. Thick dense fabrics burn slowly, whereas thin open fabrics burn very rapidly. Fabrics with a fuzzy surface burn along the surface, before the base fabric catches fire.

Fabrics are divided into three groups according to their flammability.
(i) "Safe" fabrics that do not burn - fibreglass, wool etc.
(ii) "Borderline" fabrics that should be tested for flammability are sheer fabrics, such as organdie, lawn, voile and napped fabrics with a short nap.
(iii) "Dangerously flammable" fabrics - very sheer fabrics and nets, lining and/or irregular napped and pile fabrics with loose base construction, and fabrics with certain flammable finishes as well as cellulose fabrics.

Brushed rayons are easier to ignite than other napped fabrics and burn with greater speed and intensity.

V back light denim blue soft brushed rayon top.

Blending fire-resistant fibers with cellulose fibers will lower the flammability of cellulose fibers.
The high flammability of cellulosic fibers, particularly when in the form of loose-fitting garments such as nightdresses, has resulted in research to reduce their ease of ignition and flame propagation. The research has concentrated on preventing the occurrence of afterglow. When any of the cellulose fibers burn, they produce water, carbon-containing char, a tarry substance, and non-flammable vapor as combustion products. If the char is still very hot, even when the fiber has been extinguished, the cellulosic material may re-ignite.

Although many compounds have been developed over the years to minimise the flammability of textile materials, and in particular cotton, the only ones which have achieved commercial success are those based on:
(a) THCP - tetrakis-hydroxymethyl-phosphoniumchloride;i.e. Proban; (b) Pyrovatex CP - a phosphonoalkylamide (Phew!).

Flame-proofing of cellulosic materials can be achieved by the application of certain chemicals. Suggested reasons of the effectiveness of flame-proofing treatments are as follows:
(i) These chemicals alter the course of decomposition of the cellulosic fibers on burning. Less flammable tars and a reduced volume of flammable carbonaceous materials produced is increased (i.e. diminishing the fuel solid load).
(ii) These chemicals, may, on heating, yield inert gases. As these inert gases are non-flammable, they will act as flame retardants by reducing the concentration of atmospheric oxygen around the flame, thus limiting propagation of the flame.
(iii) The heat generated by the burning of textile materials may be dissipated by endothermic changes in the chemical applied to impart flame resistance. In so doing, these chemicals will conduct the heat away from the fiber. In other words, the chemical can absorb considerable amounts of energy without causing its temperature, or that of its surroundings, to rise. The withdrawal of heat limits the propagation of the flame.

There are still problems related to the use of flame-resistant finishes for cellulosic materials and these are:
(i) A harshening of the fabric handle; (ii) A break-down of the flame-resistant finish by laundering and dry-cleaning.

The disadvantages may in part be overcome by the use of specially manufactured, fire-retardant, man-made fibers. The addition of organo-phosphorous compounds to the spinning solution of acrylics, acetates, polynosic, polyesters, polypropylenes and viscose will make them fire retardant. However, a reduction in fiber tenacity, and hence durability, tends to occur more or less in direct proportion to the percentage of organo-phosphorous compound added. This treatment is not applied to nylon.

The presence of chlorine in fibers also acts as a fire retardant. Unfortunately, the relatively low softening point of chlorine-containing fibers, which causes them to wrinkle and distort badly, precludes their general use.

The industrial nylon, Nomex, is fire retardant owing to the aromatic groups in its polymer structure and the highly crystalline arrangement of its polymer system.

BDUS 1/6 Nomex IIIA.

[1] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd Edition, MacMillan Company, London (1968).

[2] E.P.G. Gohl and L.D. Vilensky, Textile Science, Longman Cheshire, Melbourne (1989).