Saturday, June 2, 2018

Knit-Sew or Stitch Through Fabrics
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Preamble
This is the seventy-seventh post in the "Art Resource" series, specifically aimed to construct an appropriate knowledge base in order to develop an artistic voice in ArtCloth.

Other posts in this series are:
Glossary of Terms
Units Used in Dyeing and Printing of Fabrics
Occupational, Health & Safety
A Brief History of Color
The Nature of Color
Psychology of Color
Color Schemes
The Naming of Colors
The Munsell Color Classification System
Methuen Color Index and Classification System
The CIE System
Pantone - A Modern Color Classification System
Optical Properties of Fiber Materials
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part I
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part II
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part III
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part IV
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part V
Protein Fibers - Wool
Protein Fibers - Speciality Hair Fibers
Protein Fibers - Silk
Protein Fibers - Wool versus Silk
Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Cotton
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Linen
Other Natural Cellulosic Fibers
General Overview of Man-Made Fibers
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Viscose
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Esters
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Nylon
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Polyester
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Acrylic and Modacrylic
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Olefins
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Elastomers
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Mineral Fibers
Man Made Fibers - Other Textile Fibers
Fiber Blends
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part I
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part II
Melt-Spun Fibers
Characteristics of Filament Yarn
Yarn Classification
Direct Spun Yarns
Textured Filament Yarns
Fabric Construction - Felt
Fabric Construction - Nonwoven fabrics
A Fashion Data Base
Fabric Construction - Leather
Fabric Construction - Films
Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins
Fabric Construction – Foams and Poromeric Material
Knitting
Hosiery
Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns
Weaving and the Loom
Similarities and Differences in Woven Fabrics
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part I)
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part II)
The Three Basic Weaves - Twill Weave
The Three Basic Weaves - Satin Weave
Figured Weaves - Leno Weave
Figured Weaves – Piqué Weave
Figured Fabrics
Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements
Crêpe Fabrics
Crêpe Effect Fabrics
Pile Fabrics - General
Woven Pile Fabrics
Chenille Yarn and Tufted Pile Fabrics
Knit-Pile Fabrics
Flocked Pile Fabrics and Other Pile Construction Processes
Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms
Napped Fabrics – Part I
Napped Fabrics – Part II
Double Cloth
Multicomponent Fabrics
Knit-Sew or Stitch Through Fabrics
Finishes - Overview
Finishes - Initial Fabric Cleaning
Mechanical Finishes - Part I
Mechanical Finishes - Part II
Additive Finishes
Chemical Finishes - Bleaching

The Glossary of Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, the Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, the Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns, Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements and the Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms have been updated in order to better inform your art practice.

If you find any post on this blog site useful, you can save it or copy and paste it into your own "Word" document etc. for your future reference. For example, Safari allows you to save a post (e.g. click on "File", click on "Print" and release, click on "PDF" and then click on "Save As" and release - and a PDF should appear where you have stored it). Safari also allows you to mail a post to a friend (click on "File", and then point cursor to "Mail Contents On This Page" and release). Either way, this or other posts on this site may be a useful Art Resource for you.

The Art Resource series will be the first post in each calendar month. Remember - these Art Resource posts span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist to that required by a final year University Fine-Art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource post may appear far too technical for your needs (skip over those mind boggling parts) and in other parts, it may be too simplistic with respect to your level of knowledge (ditto the skip). The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that Art Resource posts will hopefully be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately may not be satisfying to all!


Introduction
Machines, which are neither looms nor knitting frames, can produce fabrics that look like woven or knitted fabrics more quickly and with less labor than the traditional techniques. Chain stitches are made through fiber webs or around crosswise yarns to make drapable fabrics. It is estimated that one machine can replace 30 conventional looms in output. Because there is less tension on the yarns, lower twist yarns can be used and, if warp threads are used, they do not need to be sized.

Malimo
Malimo textile machines were invented in East Germany in 1958 and in 1965 the first American fabrics were introduced. The Malimo process consists of filling yarns laid as a sheet, warp yarns coming down from the creel, and a third set of yarns employing a chain stitch binds the yarn together.

Drawing illustrating basic technology of the Malimo machine.

Malimo P2, Raschel machine.

The warp yarns can be omitted in the process.

Malimo fabric with cotton/nylon/rayon fiber content. The construction method is a composite fabric/knit – through stitch-bonded fabric. This fabric is yarn dyed. It is distinguished by laid-in warp and/or filling yarns and is used in curtains, tablecloths and some apparel.
In the figure below the filling yarns are stitched with a tricot-type warp knit.

Section of a napkin made by the knit-sew method.


Maliwatt
Maliwatt has a similar history to Malimo.
Maliwatt machine.

Maliwatt is a nonwoven process in which a chain stitch sews through a fiber batt. Maliwatt is used in the following applications: soft furnishings, upholstery fabrics for mattresses and camping chairs, blankets, transportation cloth, cleaning cloths, fabrics for hygiene and sanitary purposes, secondary carpet backing, lining fabrics, interlining for shoes and apparel, adhesive tapes (e.g., those used for harnessing electric cables in automobiles),• velcro-type fasteners, laminating fabrics, coating substrate, insulating materials, geotextiles, filter fabrics, composites and flame-retardant fabrics.

Maliwatt fabric.


Malipol
Malipol has a similar history to the former two. It is similar to tufting in that a loop pile is stitched through a base fabric.

Malipol stitch bonding systems have the following main elements: pile yarn, ground fabric, stitched bonding head, fabric take down and batching. The compound needles penetrate the ground fabric and the stitching or pile yarn is overlapped in the needle hook. The pile yarn is also laid on top of the pile sinker at the same time so that a tricot movement is used to create the pile and knit the yarn into the ground structure.

Malipol process.

Malipol areas of application are as follows: blankets, cleaning textiles (wiping mop), pile fabric for velcro fastening strips, lining plush and soft-toy plush, bathroom sets and one-sided terry fabric.


Arachne Process
The Arachne process consists of stitching through a web of fibers. The fiber web is made by laying one layer of carded fibers across another layer and chain stitching with filament yarns by a series of needles place about 1.3 of an inch apart. The warp strength comes from the chain stitches, and the crosswise strength comes from the fibers in the web.

Arachne machine.

Fabrics made on this machine are a bit stiff for dress fabrics, but suitable for jackets and coats and for base fabrics.

DELE PIERRI 'Arachne' Gothic PVC studded ruffle jacket.

Analoop is a variation for making loop-like fabrics for towels, coatings and floor coverings.


Reference:
[1] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd Edition, MacMillan Company, London (1968).

No comments: