Saturday, January 12, 2019

Glossary of Scientific Terms
Version 3.5 [1-31]

Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

There are currently eight data bases on this blogspot, namely, the Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, the Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, the Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns, Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements, Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms and the Glossary of Scientific Terms, which has been updated to Version 3.5. All data bases will be updated from time-to-time in the future.

The Glossary of Scientific Terms is highly focused, containing scientific definitions and terms used generally, but not exclusively, in textiles, fabrics and prints on paper.

If you find any post on this blog site useful, you can save it or copy and paste it into your own "Word" document etc. for your future reference. For example, Safari allows you to save a post (e.g. click on "File", click on "Print" and release, click on "PDF" and then click on "Save As" and release - and a PDF should appear where you have stored it). Safari also allows you to mail a post to a friend (click on "File", and then point cursor to "Mail Contents On This Page" and release). Either way, this or other posts on this site may be a useful Art Resource for you.

Generally the Art Resource series will be the first post in each calendar month. Remember - these Art Resource posts span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist to that required by a final year University Fine-Art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource post may appear far too technical for your needs (skip over those mind boggling parts) and in other parts, it may be too simplistic with respect to your level of knowledge (ditto the skip). The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that Art Resource posts will hopefully be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately may not be satisfying to all! The references - that were invaluable in this compilation - are given at the end of the glossary.

Glossary of Scientific Terms

Absolute Zero: Lowest temperature that can be theoretically reached; 0oKelvin or -273.15oC or -459.67oF.

Acarology: Study of mites and ticks.

Acerose: In the shape of a needle.

Acetic Acid: Found in vinegar.

Molecular Structure of Acetic Acid.

Acetone: A solvent. One of its uses is to remove rosin from metal.

Molecular Structure of Acetone.

Acetylate: To introduce an acetyl group (CH3CO-) into an organic compound. In textile chemistry this may be due to the reaction between a hydroxyl group(s) (-OH) with acetic acid and/or acetic anhydride.

Acetylcholine: Chemical that transmits a signal from one muscle nerve cell to the next.

Acetylene, Ethyne: Used for producing a hot flame for welding and cutting metal such as in metal sculptures.

Molecular Structure of Acetylene.

Acicular, Setiform, Styliform: in the shape of a bristle.

Acid: When dissolved in water, an acid is a proton donor; on the pH scale, it has a pH lower than 7. Rainwater, sourced from the ocean, is slightly acidic with a pH ca. 5.0 - 5.6.

Litmus Test for an Acid.

Acid Demand: A measurement of the amount of acid needed to be added to say, swimming pool water, in order to lower the pH and the total alkalinity to acceptable levels.

Acid Dyes: A large group of chemical dyes usually (but not always) applied from an acid dye bath. They are called acid dyes because an acid chemical group is present in each dye of the molecule.

Acid Free: Material and paper without acidity; also termed "pH neutral".

Acidic: Describes water with a pH below 7.

Acinaciform: In the shape of a scimitar.

Acinaciform leaf.

Aciniform, Botryoidal: In the shape of a bunch of grapes.

Actinometer: Instrument that measures radiation.

UV Actinometer.

Aerobic: A term defined by Pasteur in 1863 to denote bacterial processes occurring only in the presence of oxygen; opposite is anaerobic.

Aetiology: Study of causes, especially of diseases.

Affinity: Affinity usually denotes the attractiveness or drawing power that exists between a dyestuff and fiber.

Aflatoxins: A very toxic group of substances formed by mould, Aspergillus flavus.

After Image: Any phenomenon that is seen as a response to a visual image but that does not actually exist.

Agar (agar-agar): A glatinuous substance obtained from red seaweed (Rhodophyceae); used in bacterial cultures and foods.

Aging: Variety of techniques for simulating the effect of time and wear on new paint, wood or plasterwork.

Aggregate: The coarse or inert ingredients which are mixed with cement in the making of concrete.

Alary, Aliform: In the shape of a wing or wings.

Albumin/Albumen: Protein found in blood serum and in milk, egg white, and the like.

Alchemy: Pre-chemistry stage, where the chief aim was to transmute base metals into gold.

Alcohol: Organic compounds containing one or more -OH groups.

Aldehyde: A compound containing the group -CHO. Coined by Liebig in 1837.

Alembic: Distilling flask or retort used by alchemists in former times.

Algacide: A chemical that is capable of killing algae.

Alginates: The principal carbohydrate component of brown seaweed is alginic acid. Neutralizing the acid with sodium hydroxide gives sodium alginate, which is important for pastes of reactive dyes, because the extent of the interaction with the dye is very small.

Brown seaweed used to produce alginate.

ALGOL: Algorithmic Oriented Language - an arithmetical computer language.

Algorithm: Method of calculation by the use of a detailed step-by-step procedure.

Algorithmics: The study of problem-solving by use of predetermined set of procedural instructions; an algorithm is a set of fixed instructions for carrying out a process and may either be in analog form (e.g. cooking recipe or Multisperse Dye Sublimation (MSDS) technique notes) or digital in form (e.g. a computer program to play a board game such as chess).

IBM Algorithmics Investment Design.

Aliphatic: Term introduced by Hjelt, ca. 1860, to distinguish carbon compounds found in fats from those found in aromatic substance; i.e. open chain hydrocarbons and derivatives, as distinct from derivatives of benzene. {Greek: aleiphar meaning "oil, fat".}

Aliquot: A portion taken for analysis and which is known as a fraction of the whole sample. { From Latin aliquot meaning "some, so many".}

Alkali (Base): A water-soluble base yielding a caustic solution, i.e. ph > 7. {Arabic alkali, the roasted - product of roasting marine plants.} Hence any substance having properties similar to those of roasted calcium carbonate.

Alkalinity, Total: A measure of the total amount of dissolved alkaline compounds in say, swimming pool water. Total alkalinity is a measurement of the resistance of pool water to a change in pH. Better called buffer capacity.

Alkaloid: Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more double bonds, such as ethene (ethylene), propene, etc. The position of the double bond(*s) is indicated by a chain number, i.e. but-1-ene and but-2-ene.

Alkanes: Hydrocarbons conforming to the general formula CnH2n+2, where n= 1 or more. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons and are therefor stable and relatively unreactive. The liquid and solid alkanes are hydrophobic and water repellant.

Alkyd Resin: A group of adhesive and coating resins made from glycerol and unsaturated organic acids.

Long Oil Alkyd Resin at Rs 86.

Alkylation: Replacing a hydrogen on a cyclic compound with an alkyl (e.g. CH3 or longer chain) group.

Alkyloamide: An alkylolamine is an alkyl (fatty alcohol) in which one of the hydrogens (on carbon) has been replaced by an amine group. The product from the reaction of this amine part with an organic acid gives alkylolamide.

Alkyl Radical: The radical of an alkane e.g. methyl radical.

Alkynes: Acetylenes; unsaturated hydrocarbons with one or more triple bonds. The most common is acetylene (ethyne) C2H2.

Allantoid: In the shape of a sausage.

Allergen: A substance often, a protein, that elicits an allergic reaction.

Allotrope: Any of the different physical forms that an element may take, such as diamond and graphite in the case of carbon.

Alloy: An intimate association (which may be a compound, solution or mixture) of two or more metals (also used in reference to plastics) {Latin ad meaning "to", + ligature, meaning "bind".}

Almucantar: Instrument that measures bearing and altitude of celestial bodies.

Almucantar staff.

Alphanumeric Set: Strictly speaking, a set of alphabetic letters and numerals. However, it may also be stretched to include other signs such as “+” and “=” etc.

Alpha Particle: Helium nucleus (2 protons plus 2 neutrons) emitted from heavy atoms during one radioactive decay processes.

Alternating Current (AC): A current that changes direction continually.

Alternator: Generator producing alternating current.

Altimeter: Instrument that measures the height of an aircraft above the ground.

Alum: Name give to certain double salts that crystallise readily as octahedra; e.g. KAl(SO4)2.12H2O, common alum. {Latin alumni meaning "bitter salt".}

Alum lumps.

Amide Group: It has the chemical formula -CONH-. When found in nylon polymers it is called an amide group; when found in wool polymers it is called the peptide group.

Amino Acid: A building block of proteins. There are approximately 22 amino acids available for protein construction. Amino acids contain a basic amino group and a carboxylic acid group.

Amino Group: A radical with the chemical formula -NH2. This group is found in amino acids.

Ammeter: Instrument that measures electric current.

Ammonia: Ammonia is a colorless gas. However, the public has incorrectly associated the name with ammonium hydroxide (which is the aqueous solution of ammonia). Hence in the latter form, it is often used as a cleaning agent and also in natural dyes as an additive when fermenting orchil-yielding umbilicate lichens. An alkali, it used sparingly in dye baths, otherwise copious use of it will impair the quality of the fiber. A small amount added to a yellow bath (such as goldenrod) will result in a yellow-green color.

Amorphous: Amorphous regions do not have an ordered structure and so the fiber molecules do not pack tightly. Amorphous regions are characterized by weak intermolecular bonding and contain voids in which dye or water molecules can fill.

Ampere/Amp: Unit of electric current.

Amphibole: A group of rock-forming minerals of variable composition; Haiiy (1743 - 1822). {Latin amphiboles meaning "ambiguous".}

Amphoteric, Amphiprotic: Able to react as both acid and base.

Amyl: The group C5H11. {Greek amylon, Latin asylum meaning "starch".} Coined by Balard, 1844.

Amygdaloid: In the shape of an almond.

Anaerobe: A microbe that thrives only in an oxygen-deficient environment.

Analog Computer: Former type of computing operating with numbers represented by corresponding voltages, rotations or other physical quantities.

X-15 Analog computer.

Anemology: Study of wind.

Anemometer: Instrument that measures wind speed; flow rate of a fluid.

Angiology: Study of blood and lymph vessels.

Ångstrom: 10-10 of a meter; unit of wavelength of light.

Anguiliform: In the shape of an eel.

Aniline: Oily liquid from a nitro-benzene base used in preparing dyes and aniline ink, a volatile, quick drying printing ink.

Aniline Black.

Anion: A negative charge carrier.

Annular, Toroid: In the shape of a ring.

Anode: Positive electrode, as in battery.

Anthropology: Study of humankind.

Antibody: Protein essential to the immune system, produced in the plasma specially in response to bacteria, viruses and other substances. The agent causing this response is called an antigen. Each antibody has a name relating to its specific activity.

Antimetabolite: Chemical that mimics (replaces) a neutral substance produced (and needed) by an organism but which then causes damage.

Antistatic Agent: A polar or a small charge molecule that is added to the fiber in order to negate its static electric charge.

Aquiline: In the shape of an eagle's beak.

Arabic Numerals: Symbols 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0 - as distinct from Roman numerals. These numerals are more accurately reflected by the name “Hindu-Arabic Numerals” since they originated in India about 500 AD and were later adopted by the Arabs about 900 AD, entering Europe via Spain by 1000 AD.

Arachidic: Arachidic acid, C19H39COOH, found in peanuts (ground nuts, genus Arachis).

Aramid: Aromatic polyamide; e.g. Kevlar, Nomex; contrast aliphatic polyamide, nylon.

Aramid: A high strength and/or flame resistant polyamide that contains aromatic components.

Archival: Long term stability and resistance of a material to ageing; generally, it also described by being an acid-free material.

Archimedes' Principle: Principle that a bodies' apparent loss of weight when it is immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.

Arcuate: In the shape of bow, arch.

Argon: A colorless, odourless, chemically inactive, monoatomic gaseous element found at a level of 1% in the air, used in incandescent light bulbs, lasers and for welding. {Greek argos meaning "inactive".}

Noble Gas Discharge: He = Helium, Ne = Neon, Ar = Argon, Kr = Krypton, Xe = Xeon.

Arithmetic Progression: Sequence in which each number differs from the preceding one by a constant amount such as 2,5,8,11,14...etc.

Armature: Rota, wound with wire coils, of an electric motor or generator; vibrating part of a loudspeaker, electric bell, or other electromagnetic device.

Aromatic: A compound containing a benzene ring system.

Artificial Light: Any light produced by incandescence, fluorescence, phosphorescence, or any other means than natural radiation.

Aryl: The term used to refer to a derivative of an aromatic group such as benzene or naphthalene {ar(somatic) + yl.}

ASA: American Standards Association.

Asbestos: A group of fibrous silicate minerals {Greek meaning "unquenchable".}

Ascorbic Acid: Vitamin C.

Aspect Ratio: A term used in computer graphics to denote the ratio of width to height in a figure or letter.

Asprin: Synthetic acetylsalicylic acid {'A' for acetyl and Latin spiraea plant source of salicylate}; coined by Dreser in 1899 for synthetic but nature-identical substance found in Spiraea ulmaria (willow tree).

Astrology: Study of heavenly bodies.

Atactic: Isotatic, syndiotactic or atactic refer to the packing of polymer chains and describes situation of maximum, intermediate and random regularity. This is turn affects the physical properties of the material.

Atmometer, Evaporometer: Instrument that measures the rate of evaporation.

Atom: The smallest particle of an element (e.g. hydrogen).

Atomic Number: Number of protons in the atomic nucleus of an element.

Atopic: Hereditary tendency to develop an immediate allergic reaction, such as asthma, dermatitis, hay fever, because of the presence of an antibody in the skin.

ATP: Adenosine triphosphate is a molecule that acts as the "currency" of chemical energy processes in the body. It allows the extraction of energy from food in a manner that the body can utilize, by cycling between a second form called ADP, adenosine diphosphate.

Atropine: Poisonous alkaloid found in deadly nightshade (belladonna). Used medicinally; e.g. to widen pupils for eye examination.

atto-: Prefix for one trillionth.

Auguiform: In the shape of a snake.

Auriculate: In the shape of an ear.

Austenite: Iron in a face-centred cubic (fcc) crystalline form. Above around 700oC it can dissolve up to 1.7% carbon to form a non-magnetic steel.

Autoclave: Chamber for heating substances under high pressure, as in sterilising and cooking.

Auxochrome: A polar group or a negative atom, which intensifies the absorption of light by a dye. In some cases it will alter the hue of the dye.

Avogadro's Law: Law stating that the equal volumes of all gases under the same temperature and pressure conditions contain the same number of atoms or molecules.

Azeotropic Mixture: Mixture of liquids that cannot be separated by distillation.

Azoic Dyes (also known as Naphthol Dyes): A group of dyes consisting of two chemically reactive colorless compounds (a diazonium compound and a phenolic compound) that combine to form a colored dye molecule inside the fiber.

Bacciform: In the shape of a berry.

Bacillary, Bacilliform, Virgate, Virgulate: In the shape of a rod.

Bactericide: A chemical that is capable of killing bacteria.

Balthazar: 12,000 ml.

Band-pass Filter: Filter that blocks all signals except those within a selected frequency range.

Bar, Barye, Pascal: Units of pressure.

Bar Code: A pre-printed pattern of vertical lines, which is read by computer-linked optical sensor, used mainly for stock control, pricing and ordering. The pattern is devised to conform with the Universal Product Code (UPC) which identifies country of origin, manufacturer and type of product.

Barleycorn: 85 mm (the length of a barely grain).

Baroscope: Instrument that measures atmospheric pressure.

Barostat: Instrument that maintains constant pressure.

Barrel: 1 barrel is 143-159 liters or 31.5 - 35 gallons.

Base: In chemistry an alkaline or alkaline forming substance that has a pH in solution greater than 7; the inert pigment used in the manufacture of lakes.

BASIC: Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) - a computer language.

Basic Dyes (also known as Cationic Dyes): The first of the synthetic dyes, the chromophore is positively charged and attracts a negative group to form the molecule - the opposite situation to acidic dyes.

Bathometer: Instrument that measures depth of water in the sea.

Baume Scale (abbr. Be): A scale of specific gravity of liquids.

Beckmann Thermometer: Instrument that measures small temperature changes.

Becquerel, Curie: Unit of radioactivity, symbol Bq, corresponding to one nuclear transformation per second.

Bel: See decibel.

Bell Jar: Bell-shaped cover used to protect delicate instruments or to maintain a controlled environment.

Benzol Black: See carbon black.

Bessemer Process: Process for converting pig iron from a blast furnace into steel by blowing air (or pure oxygen) into the molten impure metal, which converts impurities into a separating slag, and also controlled amounts of carbon.

Beta Particle: Emission of an electron (or positron) by a nucleus as one of the processes of radioactive decay.

Bicentenary: 200 years.

Bicorn, Lunular: In the shape of a crescent.

Roman Bronze Lunular Pendant.

Bifunctional: Describing a molecule with two reactive groups.

Bifurcate, Furcate: In the shape of a fork.

Billion: One million million; 1 followed by 12 zeros; or, increasingly, one thousand million, 1 followed by 9 zeros.

Binary Code: System which can convert anything expressible as numerals of zero (0) and one (1) or as symbolic logic into a sequence of “yes” (1) or “no” (0) questions and answers for storage in, and retrieval from, a computer.

Binary Digit: In computer usage it is the basic unit of zero (0) or one (1) (two numerals and so binary) of a binary code system.

Binary Notation: Computers are devices that can sense “on” (assigned to numeral “1”) and “off” (assigned to numeral “0”) conditions within their logical circuitry. Hence any set of conditions within their electronic circuits can be translated in digital form via the value. For example, if numeral 8 is typed into the computer, it will place its circuitry in the following states: position 3 “on”; position 2 “off”; position 1 “off”; position 0 “off”. This translates as: 1 x 23 + 0 x 22 + 0 x 21 + 0 x 20 = 8. In general the binary notation can be translated as follows.
Number = an x 2n + ... + a2 x 22 + a1 x 21 + a0 x 20
where 2n cannot exceed the number that is represented.

In the Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) system groups of four bits are employed for each order of magnitude. Hence the number 8219 would translate as:
Thousands Hundreds Tens Units
8219 = 1000 + 0010 + 0001 + 1001

Binary System: A number system, as used by computers, representing all numbers as combination of the digits zero (0) and one (1).

Binder: In colorants, a glue substance that holds paints to the surface.

Book Binder glue.

Biocide: Pesticide.

Biodegradable: The property of a complex chemical compound able to be broken down into simpler components under naturally occurring biological processes, such as those which form part of the normal life cycle in a river or soil.

Biological Half-life: The mean time required for half a quantity of specified material in a living organism to be biologically eliminated.

Biological Priming: Transformation of an inactive chemical in an organism to an active form.

Bioluminescence: Light produced by living creatures; usually cool in color temperature.

Multitude of marine organisms are bioluminescent, able to generate “living light” through chemical reactions.

Biomorphic: Having the qualities of living form.

Birefringent: Having a different refractive index for light in different directions.

Bit: Useful contraction of “Binary digit”.

Blackdamp, Chokedamp: Mixture high in carbon dioxide, found in coal mines after a fire or explosion.

Bond: The linkage between atoms in a molecule and between molecules and atoms in a crystal. It is also referred to as a chemical bond.

Bonding: Molecules are composed of atoms held together and arranged to satisfy the rules of valency. The forces holding the atoms together in a particular way are the chemical bonds and they arise from the sharing of electrons between atoms. Thus, in a molecule of hydrogen, H2, the two atoms are bonded together by sharing two electrons, one from each atom. We write it as H:H, where the two dots represents electrons, or more commonly H-H, where the dash represents an electron pair or the chemical bond between the two atoms. A bond of this type is called a covalent bond, which is by far the most common kind.

Bonding Covalent: The bond in hydrogen chloride is a covalent (or sharing) bond, albeit a polar one, but when the molecule dissolves in water, the chlorine atom takes the bonding electron completely from the hydrogen atom, assuming in the process a full unit negative charge (there charge of one electron) and becomeing what is called a negative ion or anion. Similarly the hydrogen atoms has become a positive ion or cation.

Bonding Ionic: Compounds composed of ions are called ionic compounds and are said to be held together by ionic bonds. As a general rule, ionic compounds are water soluble and fat insoluble, while the reverse is true of covalent compounds. Hence table salt is an ionic compound and readily dissolves in water, whereas oils are covalent molecules and do not dissolve in water. Where a molecule has both types of bonds, intermediate behaviour is to be expected.

Bonding, Polar: For hydrogen chloride, we can write H:Cl or H-Cl, but because the two atoms of the molecule are different, the bonding pair is not shared equally; rather, the chlorine has more that its fair share. Because the chlorine not only has its own electron but a share of the electron from the hydrogen as well, it has gained a slight additional negative charge: H(𝛿+)-Cl(𝛿-). Because this molecule has positive and negative ends or poles, it is said to be a polar molecule, the bond is called a polar bond, and the molecule possesses a dipole. This uneven distribution of electrons can have can have most important consequences for the behaviour (or properties) of the molecule.

Borax: Sodium tetra borate decahydrate. {Arabic, Persian.}

Borosilicate Glass: Addition of borate allows the formation of glass that melts at a lower temperature than silica, and expands less on heating than soda (window) glass, as we'll as more plastic over a wider temperature range. Examples are Pyrex and wool glass.

Boyle's Law: Law stating that at constant temperature the volume of a gas varies inversely with its pressure.

B.P.: In chemistry it is an abbreviation for boiling point.

bpi: Bits per inch – measurement of density with which data can be stored on storage devices such as on DVDs.

Brass: Metal: An alloy of copper and zinc of varying proportions.

Brass guitar slides.

Bremsstrahlung: X-rays are emitted when a charge particle is rapidly slowed down near an atomic mnucleus. Thus electrons are shot at metal targets to produce broad frequency spread of X-rays.

Brightness: A synonym for the intensity of color.

Brilliance: A synonym for the intensity of color.

Broad Spectrum: Non-selective.

Bromine: A halogen, intermediate between chlorine (gas) and iodine (solid); a dense, fuming liquid at room temperature. {Greek bromos meaning "stink".}

Brownian Motion: Random motion of microscopic particles suspended in a liquid or gas.

Bryology: Study of mosses.

Sarah Moss studying moss.

Buchner Funnel: Device for filtering by suction.

Buffer Solution: Any solution that is formulated to a specific pH and that has the ability to oppose any pH change by the small addition of acids or bases. For example, human blood is buffered at a neutral pH (i.e. pH 7).

Bug: Fault in a computer system or program.

Bunsen Burner: Small burner that uses a mixture of gas and air, producing a single concentrated flame.

Burette: Graduated glass tube with a stopcock, used for dispensing known volumes of liquid.

Bursiform, Saccate: The shape of a pouch or a sac.

Bushel: 1 bushel is equal to 4 pecks or 0.036 cubic meters.

1,3-Butadiene: CH2=CH-CH-CH=CH2, butane with two double bonds, bivinyl.

Butane: Used in cigarette lighters and domestic fuels.

Butyric Acid: C3H7COOH {Latin Butyrum meaning "butter".} The acid from rancid butter.

Byte: In computer parlance, a group of bits – usually 6 or 8 – that make up one alphabetic, numeral or special character.

Cable: 1 Cable is about 185 meters (608 feet).

CAD: Computed aided design.

Caesin: The phosphoprotein of milk and cheese. {Latin cases meaning "cheese".}

Calceolate: In the shape of a slipper.

Calculus: Branch of mathematics dealing with continuously changing quantities; method of calculation in which symbols are used.

Callipers: Instrument that measures diameters of rods or tubes.

1920s callipers.

Calorie, Therm: Units of heat.

Calorimeter: Device for measuring heat output:

Campanology: Study of bell ringing.

Campanulate: In the shape of a bell.

Candela: Unit of luminous intensity.

Cantilever: The free part of a horizontal member that projects into space, seemingly without support, while its internal end is anchored in the main structure.

Capacitance: Ability to store electric charge; measure of this ability, the ratio of induced charge to potential difference.

Capacitor, Condenser: Circuit element used to store charge temporarily.

Capitate: In the shape of a head.

Carat: 1 carat is 1/24 or 4.2% gold.

Carbamate: Ester of carbonic acid; from car(onic) and am(ice).

Carbolic Acid/Phenol: Used in disinfectant soap.

Carbon Dioxide: Used as a refrigerant and in fizzy drinks and aerosols.

Carbon Monoxide: Formed by incomplete burning of coal, petrol or the like; known as white damp or afterdamp on coal mines; highly toxic.

Note: Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide emissions.

Carboxylic Acid: Organic acids having th functional group -COOH.

Carcinogen: An agent capable of inducing cancer.

Cardinal Numbers: “One, two, three” and so on, as distinct from ordinal numbers, “first, second, third...” etc.

Cardiology: Study of heart functions and diseases.

Carinate: In the shape of a keel.

Carpology: Study of fruits and seeds.

Carragheen: The seaweed carragheen, is commonly used as an emulsifier in food, can also be used to thicken the floating bath for marbling techniques.

Cartography: Map-making.

Cartography of Europe.

Catalyst: A chemical that speeds up a reaction, without it being altered by the reaction. In time, side products usually poison its catalytic activity.

Catecholamines (Biogenic Amines): A series of biologically active amines; e.g. dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine), noradrenaline, adrenaline.

Catenation: Formation of chains of atoms.

Cathetometer: Instrument that measures distances between fluid levels in vertical tubes.


Cathode: Negative electrode, as in a battery.

Cation: A positive charge carrier.

Cationic Dyes: See basic dyes.

Catty/Kati: 1 catty is about 0.6kg or 1.333 pounds (China).

Caustic: Very alkaline; capable of dissolving skin, fat etc. to form soap.

Caustic Soda: Sodium hydroxide. It is the effective agent for mercerizing cotton. It is used in naphthol as an alkali.

Caustic Soda - According to Market Use.

Cellophane: Transparent cellulose acetate film that is thin and very flexible.

Cellulose: The main constituent of the cell wall of all plants. It is a polymer of glucose (a natural sugar). It is the basic material of all vegetable, cotton, flax and new Viscose Rayon.

Cellulose Acetate: Plastic sheet material, usually transparent or translucent, available clear or colored and with shiny or matt finish. It is used as the basis of artwork and overlays.

Cellulose Ethers: Cellulose is not soluble in water but by modifying their chemical properties they can become useful thickeners. Cellulose is treated by etherification, a process that enables it to dissolve in water or in other solvents. The thickener – Celacol - is a cellulose ether. It is very stable in acidic conditions. It tends to be used as a component in pigment print resist pastes and as thickener with acid resists.

Centenary: 100 years.

centi-: Prefix for one hundredth.

Centillion: 1 followed by 600 zeros.

Centrifuge: Machine that separates particles from a suspension by means of high-speed rotation.

Cerenkov Radiation: Bluish light emitted when a high energy charge particle passes through a transparent medium at a speed greater than the speed of light in that medium (but not faster than the speed of light in a vacuum). (Pavel Cerenkov 1934). Analogous to the sonic boom shock wave produced by a supersonic jet.

Cestoid: In the shape of a ribbon.

Cetology: Study of aquatic mammals, especially whales.

Chain: 1 Chain is equal to 4 rods or 20 meters.

Chalk: Artificially prepared calcium carbonate in its whitest, finest, and purest form, usually called precipitated chalk. It is used in glues and other aqueous media as a ground for oil and tempera paintings - it retains its brilliant color. It is the basis of most pastels. It has the same chemical composition as limestone, whiting, and marble, but contains no impurities, and is much whiter, being one of the whitest substances in use. Older reference to chalk are to native chalk (whiting).

Chalk Sticks.

Chalking: Loose pigment powder on the surface of a weathered paint film left by erosion of the outer layer of binder under the action of ultraviolet light. Some chalking is desirable to give a self-cleaning surface.

Chalky: Same as white, lily white, snow white. The color of calcium carbonate mineral - chalk. Related to marble white.

Chalk drawing.

Chamois Leather: Leather that can absorbed and desorbed large volumes of water. it is an oiled-tanned sheepskin.

Character Set: (i) Set of letters, numerals, punctuation marks, reference marks and other signs, chosen or designed for particular system or keyboard; (ii) In typesetting, character set is known as “fount”.

Charcoal: Charred wood used for drawing. Its powdery quality means a fixative needs to be applied to the drawn line to make it permanent. See vine black.

Charles' Law: Law stating that at constant pressure the volume of a gas varies directly with its absolute temperature.

Checking: Slight fine breaks in the surface of a paint film visible directly or under x10 magnification.

Chemical Active: Active ingredient in a formulation which may contain other chemicals (misleadingly often called inserts) such as solvent (adjuvant), spreading agent, granulated absorbent, preservative etc.

Chemical Affinity: In chemical physics and physical chemistry chemical affinity is an electronic property by which dissimilar chemical species feel an attraction toward each other and so are capable of forming chemical compounds (e.g. electron deficient systems are attracted to electron rich systems). It can also refer to the tendency of an atom or compound to combine by a chemical reaction with atoms or compounds of unlike composition.

Chemical Bond: Force that holds atoms or ions together.

Four chemical bonds.

Chemical Equations: Equations are chemical sentences, composed of words (i.e. molecules) and conveying information about the transformation of chemical substances; that is, they describe chemical reactions ' Thus 2H2 + O2 = H2O tells us that two molecules of hydrogen combine with one molecule of oxygen to give two molecules of water. The chemical equations are statements of the overall change and make no attempt to indicate how the change occurs.

Chemical Resist: The use of a wide range of chemical compounds (e.g. alkalis, acids, salts, reducing and oxidizing agents etc.) in order to prevent the fixation or development of a ground color.

Chemical Water (Calgon): Chemically known as sodium hexametaphosphate, it acts as a sequestering agent, neutralizing any interference in water to the normal reaction of dyes.

Chemistry: From alchemy, the art of transmutation of elements. {Arabic al-kimiya.}

Glass Chemistry Set.

Chiral: Any geometrical figure which like a hand, cannot be brought into coincidence with its mirror image, is said to be chiral (or exhibit chirality). {Greek cheri meaning hand.} Coined by Lord Kelvin in 1894.

Chloramphenicol: A broad-acting powerful antibiotic, natural and synthetic {named from chlorine-amide-phenyl-nitro-glycol.} One of the very few natural products containing a nitro group. It can have severe side-effects.

Chlorine: A yellowish green gas. Pool chlorine is a compound of chlorine and calcium hydroxide. It is approximately 70% calcium oxychloride. {Greek chloros meaning pale green.}

Chlorine Combined: Chlorine that has combined with ammonium compounds or organic matter containing nitrogen to form chloramines. Bacterial properties of combined chlorine (i.e. chloramines) are only approximately one one hundredth that of a similar level of free chlorine in water.

Chlorine Free: Chlorine that is not combined with ammonia but is free to kill bacteria and algae in a pool and o destroy organic contamination introduced into the pool water. Free chlorine is also known as "free available chlorine" and "free residual chlorine".

Chlorine Total: The sum of combined and free chlorine.

Chlorosis: Plant abnormality in which chlorophyll production is stopped, resulting in a pale yellow coloration.

Cholesterol: A fat-like molecule (chemically not a fat, but an alcohol) with a structure on which all steroids (e.g. sex hormones, bile acids, vitamin D and cortisone) are based. Produced by the body. {Greek chole meaning "gall, bile" + stereos meaning "solid".}

Choreography: Mappings of regions.

Chorology: Study of geographical regions; plant and animal distribution.

Chroma: A synonym for intensity of color; coined by Munsell at the turn of the twentieth century.

Chromatic Neutral: A low-intensity color produced by modulations of complementary hues; also any low-intensity color that approaches grey but has a warm/cool character.

Chromatic Reflection: The reflection of specific wavelengths of light, producing a color sensation. A red surface absorbs all colors that compose of white light except red.

Chromatic Transmission: The transmission of specific wavelengths of light, producing a color sensation. Orange glass allows only orange light to travel through it, and so on.

Chromatography: Literally, the separation of colors. Now a general technique of separation of chemicals based on a difference in the strength of adsorption onto another phase (solid or liquid). {From Greek chroma meaning "color" + graphe meaning "writing".}

Chrome Tanning: Conversion of skin to leather through the action of chromium salts.

Chromophore: The basic skeleton system of conjugated bonds in a dye molecule that is responsible for the absorption of light.

Chronograph: Instrument that records short time intervals.

Chronograph watch.

Chronology: Study of dates.

Chronometer: Instrument that measure precise time.


Chrysotile: Chief asbestos mineral, a magnesium silicate. {Greek christos meaning "gold"; iron impurities give it a yellowish color.}

Circinate: In the shape of a coil.

Cis: On this side of {Latin}; cf. trans on opposite sides.

Citric Acid: Found in lemons and other citrus fruits.

Citric Acid Cycle: Also called Krebs cycle after its principal discoverer. A cyclic set of biochemical reactions in which ADP is recharged to ATP as part of the energy conversion processes in the body.

Classification of Living Things: From the broadest to the most detailed: (i) Kingdom; (ii) Phylum, Division; (iii) Class; (iv) Order; (v) Superfamily, Stirps; (vi) Family; (vii) Genus; (viii) Species; (ix) Subspecies, stirps, variety, race, stock, strain, breed; (x) Individual.

Clavate, Claviform: In the shape of a club.

Clay Plaster: Versatile, natural “breathing” material.

Clinometer: Instrument that measures angle of an incline.

Invicta Plastics MK1 Clinometer.

Clostridium Botulinum: Spore-forming bacterium that grows anaerobically (in the absence of air) and causes the rare, but often fatal food poisoning called botulism. The spores are heat stable at 100oC and several minutes at higher temperature are required to destroy them.

CNS: Central nervous system; includes the brain and spinal cord which produces rapid responses to stimuli.

Cobalt: A silent of silver ores. The ore could not be made to yield a useful material. {Greek kobalt meaning "evil spirit, a goblin".}

COBOL: Common Business Oriented Language (COBOL) - a computer language.

Coefficient: Numerical factory in an elementary algebraic term, such as 3 in 3x for example.

Collagen: A protein in animal connective tissue that gives structural support to the skin. Yields gelatine on boiling. {Greek colla meaning "glue" + gennan "to generate".}

Colligative: Describing properties of a solution which depend on the number, but not nature, of dissolved particles. {Latin colligare meaning "to bind together".}

Colloid: Mixture or suspension of very fine particles with a fluid, as with fog or paint.

Colorant: Any substance that produces a color change in or on another substance, such as a dye, a paint or stain.

Plastic Colorants.

Colorimeter: Instrument that measures colors; concentration of solution by comparison of colors.

Digital Photoelectric Colorimeter.

Color Temperature (of Light): The color quality of light measured in degrees Kelvin.

Command: Operating instruction to a computer.

Computer commands in the computer language BASIC.

Communication Theory: Mathematical theory relating to the least number of decisions required to identify one message from a given set of messages.

Commutator: Device as on a electric motor or generator, for reversing the direction of a current, or converting alternating current into direct current.

Complement/Alexin: Substance in blood serum combining with antibodies to destroy bacteria, foreign cells, and the like.

Compline: Just before bedtime.

Compounding: A polymer is formed from monomer units and is sometimes called a resin. In order to make a useful plastic material, the resin must be mixed with other materials or compounded.

Compounds: Substances formed by specific combinations of different elements. The basic combination of atoms characteristic of each compound is called a molecule, for which a formula can be written using the symbols of the elements making up the compound. The formula also includes s number to indicate the number of each type of atom present (but not "1" if only one atom is present). For example, C, forms two compounds with oxygen O: carbon (mon)oxide, CO, and carbon (di)oxide, CO2. Water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen, H2O.

Computer Aided Design (CAD): The use of software packages such as Adobe’s Photoshop in order to create designs that can be translated onto fabrics by such companies as Spoonflower.

CAD of a car.

Computer Graphics: The use of computers to output information in graphic form.

Computer Languages: ALGOL (ALGOrithmic Language); COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language); FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator); PL/1 (Programming Language One); BASIC (Beginners’ All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code); PHP (Php Hypertext Processor); HTML (Hypertext Mark-up Language).

Conchology: Study of sea-shells.

Condenser: Device for converting vapour into liquid during distillation.

Surface Condenser.

Conductance, Conductivity: Property of transferring, or measure of the ability to transfer, electric current in a circuit.

Cones: The photoreceptors in the retina that is sensitive to green, blue-violet and red wavelengths of light.

Conjugated Bond Systems: A chemical system of alternating double and single bonds. These systems absorb strongly in the ultraviolet and in certain cases can absorb in the visible region of the light spectrum.

Conservation of Energy: Law stating that in a closed system the total energy is constant; the universe is a closed system.

Constant: Quantity retaining a fixed value throughout a series of calculations.

Constellations: Andromeda; Aquarius/Water Bearer; Aquila/Eagle; Aries/Ram; Auriga/Charioteer; Bootes/Herdsman; Cancer/Crab; Capricornus/Goat; Cassiopeia; Cepheus; Cetus; Crux/Southern Cross; Cygnus/Swan; Draco/Dragon; Gemini/Twins; Leo/Lion; Libra/Scales; Orion; Pegasus/Flying Horse; Perseus; Pisces/Fish; Sagittarius/Archer; Scorpius/Scorpion; Taurus/Bull; Ursa Major/Great Bear; Ursa Minor/Little Bear; Virgo/Virgin.

Continuous Phase/Outer Phase: The continuous "outside" liquid that surrounds a second liquid (its droplets being discontinuous) in an emulsion.

Conversion Factors: (i)Area - 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2; (ii) Volume - 1 gallon(US) = 3.785 litres (l); 1 cubic foot = 28.317 litres; (iii) Pressure - 1 atmosphere = 101 325 Pa; 1 milli-meter (mm) of mercury ( or mm Hg) = 133.32 Pa; (iv) Energy - 1 erg = 10-7 Joules (J); 1 calorie = 4.184 J; (v) Temperature - Centigrade to Fahrenheit: oF = oC (9/5) + 32; Fahrenheit to Centigrade: oC = (oF -32)x(5/9); (vi) Length - 1 mile = 1.609 x 103 meters; 1 yard = 0.9144 meter; 1 inch = 2.54 cm; 1 foot = 12 inches = 30.48 cm; (vii) 1 pound (lb) = 0.4536 kg or 453.4 g; 1 ounce (oz) = 28.35 g; 1 kg = (1/0.4536) lb = 2.2046 lb.

Cool Colors: Green, violet and blue and colors that contain greens, violets and blue, such as neutral neutrals.

Coordinates: Set of numbers used to determine the position of a point, line or curve.

Coplanar: In one plane. A coplanar molecule is one where all atoms are contained in one plane.

Copolymer: A polymer consisting of two or more different monomers.

Copper: The copper ores of Cyprus were the Romans' main source of the metal. {Latin cuprum from the island of Cyprus.}

Cordate: In the shape of a heart.

Cornual: In the shape of a horn.

Corpuscle: Free-moving blood cell.

Corrosion: An example of slow oxidation caused by oxygen or other oxidising agents on a metal.

Rusted iron metal.

Cosmic Rays: High energy particles that enter the Earth's atmosphere from space.

Cosmology: Study of the universe.

Cotyloid, Cupulate: In the shape of a cup.

Coulomb: Unit of electric charge.

Covalent Bond: A chemical bond in which electrons are shared between the atoms.

C.P. Chemically pure, or a grade of material as free as possible from all traces of impurities. Sometimes applied to commercial pigments designated a grade free from extender or added inert pigment.

cps: characters per second (cps); rate at which characters can be transmitted or received by a device.

CPU: Central processor unit (CPU); that part of a computer comprising of its main memory, control unit and arithmetic unit.

Craniology: Study of skulls.

Criminology: Study of crimes and criminals.

Crocidolite: Blue asbestos. {From greek crocydos meaning "a nap of woolen cloth" + lithos meaning "a stone".}

Crooks Radiometer: Instrument that measures the intensity of radiated light.

Heebie Jeebies Crookes Radiometer - Spins in the Sun!

Crore: 10 million (India).

Crucible: Small ceramic cup used for calcining and melting substances at high temperatures.

Cruciform, Cruciate, Decussate: In the shape of a cross.

Cryometer: Instrument that measures extremely low temperatures.

Picture of Type 20 Cryometer For benzene Solutions.

Cryptology: Study of codes and ciphers.

Crystallinity: The degree to which fiber molecules are parallel to each other (and not necessarily) parallel to the longitudinal axis.

CS Gas: Tear gas, used in riot control.

Cubit: 1 cubit is 45.7 cm or 18 inches.

Cucullate: In the shape of a hood, cowl.

Cultrate: In the shape of a knife blade.

Cuneal, Sphenic: In the shape of a wedge.

curie: The former unit of radioactivity based on one gram of radium. Symbol Ci.

Curing: The application of heat, usually to polymerise and/or set resins applied to textile Materials.

Curser: Moving spot, cross or other symbol highlighting the next input point on a display.

Cyanogen: Used in welding and as a chemical weapon and rocket propellant.

Cybernetics: Study of control, communication and self-correction in mechanisms.

Cyclometer: Instrument that measures distance travelled by a wheel.

120 Wireless Cyclometer.

Cylpeate, Peltate, Scutate, Scutellate: In the shape of a shield.

Cytology: Study of plant and animal cells.

Dactylology: Study of fingerprints.

Dalton, Atomic Mass Unit: Unit mass of an isotope.

Data: Factual information; used in data processing, especially of information held in memory store of a computer; though properly plural (singular - datum) many authorities now treat "data" as a singular collective noun.

Data Bank: Factual information store in a computer.

Database: In computer usage, large store of information organized so that all users draw on one common body of knowledge, typically accessed by a combination of key words.

Data Carrier: In data processing, any medium such as a USB, used for recording data (becoming obsolete).

Data Processing: Handling of information in analog or digital systems.

Data Matrix: Array of quantities set out in columns and rows, representing variables and values they may take.

Datum: Known or given fact (singular of "data").

Daughter Products: Resulting from the decay or fission of another atom (parent).

Daylight Bulb: An incandescent bulb with blue coating that serves to neutralise the warm color temperature of a filament.

deca- : Prefix for ten.

deci-: Prefix for one tenth.

Decibel, Phon: Units of loudness.

Decillion: 1 followed by 60 zeros.

Dedicated: Referring to a computer or program designed or set apart for a particular function.

Degree of Polymerization: The average number of monomer units in a polymer chain. More specifically, it is the average molecular weight.

Deltoid: In the shape of a triangle.

Demography: Study of population statistics.

Denature: Destroy structure. The tertiary structure of a protein collapses or is "denatured" by heating, acid or by agitation in air.

Dendriform, Dendroid: In the shape of a tree.

Dendrology: Study of trees.

Denominator, Divisor: Quantity that is divided into another; quantity below the division line in a fraction.

Densimeter: Instrument that measures density.

Solid Densimeter.

Densitometer: An electronic precision instrument used to measure quantitatively colors or density in a color transparency.

Density: The ration of mass to volume: in gm/ml. Numerically equal to specific gravity.

Dentiform: In the shape of a tooth.

Deontology: Study of moral responsibilities.

Dephlegmator: Instrument that condenses the constituents having high boiling points of a mixed vapor.

Dermal Toxicity: Poisonous nature when applied to the skin.

Dermatology: Study of human skin.

Desiccator: Drying chamber, containing chemicals that readily take up water or water vapour.

Glass desiccator.

Detergent: Synthetic surfactants, not including soaps (which are the sodium salts of natural fatty acids). {Latin detergere meaning "to cleanse, wipe away".}

Develop: To treat with an agent to cause color to appear.

Dewey Decimal Classification: Devised by Melvil Dewey in 1876 to classify areas of knowledge, it is divided into ten main, numbered classes (e.g. philosophy = 100), each of which is further divided into ten sub-classes, and so on; still in use (in modified form) in libraries all over the world.

Diastereoisomer: Stereoisomer that are not identical and yet not mirror images e.g. the "d" form of tartaric acid and the meso form. {From Greek dia meaning "through", stereos meaning "solid", isos meaning "equal", meros meaning "part".} Not an easy concept!

Dichroism: The property of a substance which exhibits two different color effects when viewed under two different circumstances or sets of circumstances. An example is alizarin crimson, which displays a deep maroon color when painted opaquely and a transparent ruby-red color when spaced out in a thin layer and viewed by transmitted light. The so called suede effect - that is a definite difference in color between vertical and horizontal fiber or in painting with respect to brush strokes on an area of flat color - is due to this property.

Dielectric: Nonconductor of electric current, insulator.

Diffusion Pump, Condensation Pump: Pump for producing a high vacuum.

Digital Computer: One which operates on information presented to it in binary digits, to make calculations of the kind required.

Digital Positive: Positive created and output using a computer.

Digitate: In the shape of fingers.

Digitizing Pad/Tabulate: An on-line input device to a digital computer, on which a free-handing drawing is translated immediately into digitized form, visible on a tablet.

Dilatant: See Newtonian fluid.

Dilatometer: Instrument that measures volume of expansion of liquids with temperature.

Optical dilatometer.

Diode: Component with two terminals, typically allowing current to flow in only one direction.

Dioxan: The cyclic ether 1,4-dioxan is a solvent miscible with water. Not to be confused with dioxin.

Dioxins: Generally refers to a series of chlorinated dioxins such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD).

Dipstick: A test strip for fast convenient chemical analysis, such as for glucose in the urine.

Dipstick Urine Analysis.

Direct Dyes (also known as Substantive Dyes): A group of dyes that are absorbed directly into the fiber structure without the aid of complicated application procedures or chemical substances.

Direct Modulation: The addition of one complement to another, usually done in steps, in order to visualize the change more clearly.

Disk (or Disc): Information storage device consisting of a flat rotating circular disc with a magnetic coating.

Disk Drive: Device for "playing" a disk to transfer information to or from it.

Disperse Dyes: Dyes (developed from azoic dyes) that disperse in water and migrate from a suspension into the fiber.

Dispersion Force: It is a force that is caused by an induced dipole – induce dipole contribution to more general force called the intermolecular force. That is, a dispersion force is when one neutral molecule (dye) can induce a dipole (negative and positive charges separated within it) in another neutral molecule (fiber) and vice-versa, thus causing a cohesive interaction between the two. It is the second strongest force between neutral molecules after the hydrogen bond.

Disulfide Bond: Sulfur-sulfur bond linking different part of a protein (as in wool protein chain) and so adds considerable strength to the macro molecule.

DNA/Deoxyribonucleic Acid: Basis of chromosomes, and hence of genetic transmission.

Dolby: System for reducing hiss and unwanted noise in a sound system.

Dopant: Impurity added to a pure substance, such as a semiconductor, to alter its properties.

Doppler Effect: Apparent change in the frequency of a wave when the observer and the source re moving relative to each other, as in the changing pitch of a train's whistle as it approaches or moves away.

Dram: 1 dram is 1.64 grams or 27.34 grains.

Drachm: 1 drachm is 3.6 grams or 3 scruples.

Dyad: Any pair of complementary hues.

Dye: A colorant that will go into solution (dissolve in water or another solvent).

Fabric Dyes.

Dynamics: Branch of mechanics concerned with forces that produce or alter the motions of bodies.

Dynamo: Generator, especially for direct current.

Dyne, Newton, Poundal: Units of force.

Ecology: Relationships between living things and their environment.

Effective Half Life: The tie required for the activity of a radionuclide (in a living organism) to fall to half of its original value as a result of both biological elimination and radioactive decay.

Efflorescence: Process by which crystals are turned into powder by the loss of water.

Elastomer: A polymer material with elastic properties, namely the ability to snap back to the original dimension after distortion.

Electrodeposition: Depositing paint by attracting charged paint particles to an oppositely charged (metal) surface to be painted, thus avoiding the use of solvents. Used for cars and whitewoods.

Electrolyte: A compound, which in a water solution (i.e. aqueous solution) or in a molten state, conducts an electric current and is simultaneously decomposed into ions; compounds which dissociate into ions and/or radicals in a water solution.

Electromagnetic Radiation (Spectrum): The complete range of wavelengths that constitute light.

Electrode: Conductor of electric current, as in a battery.

Electrolysis: Decomposition of a chemical compound by passing an electric current through it.

Electrolyte: Solution that conducts electricity, as in battery.

Element: In chemistry elements are substances that only contain atoms with the same number of protons. Consequently there are only about 90 natural elements. Familiar examples are copper, tin, iron, aluminium, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon. Each element is denoted by a symbol - e.g. O for oxygen, H for hydrogen, C for carbon and so on. These symbols may be regarded as the letters of the chemical alphabet.

Electrometer: Instrument that measures the potential difference and charge.

Electromyograph: Instrument that records electrical activity in the muscle.

Electron: Negatively charged particle orbiting the atomic nucleus.

Electronegative: A property of atoms, ions or molecules that have a strong attraction toward electrons (e.g. fluorine or chlorine).

Electropositive: A property of atoms, ions or molecules in which they readily give up electrons (e.g. lithium as in the lithium battery).

Electroscope: Instrument that measures the presence of an electric charge.

Electroscope from about 1910 with grounding electrodes inside jar.

Electrostatic Processes: Those involving phenomenon of static electricity.

Ell: 1 ell is 1.14 meters or 45 inches (a measure used in cloth).

Emollient: A substance that softens and smooths the skin.

Empirical Formula: A formula that lists only the and proportions of atoms present in a molecule. For example, the empirical formula for acetic acid is C2H4O2 also written in a group formula notation as CH3COOH.

Emulsion: The suspension of one liquid as fine droplets in another with with which it does not mix. Hence also emulsifiers. See also glycerides.

Enantiomer: One of a pair of molecules which are optical isomers of each other. See chiral.

Endocrinology: Study of glands.

Endoscope: Tubular device for looking or sampling inside the body.

Endothermic: Describes a chemical process, such as a reaction, that absorbs heat in order for it to occur.

Energy: The capacity to do work. There are various form of energy: electrical, mechanical, heat, nuclear, chemical, potential, kinetic, translational, rotational and vibrational etc.

Ensiform, Gladiate, Xiphoid: In the shape of a sword.

Entomology: Study of insects.

Entropy: Measure of the change from more or less useful forms of energy. Measure of randomness only in the sense of a ratio more probable to less probable arrangements (of say, polymer chains). Measure of ack of information about a microscopic situation.

Enzyme: A biological molecule that can promote or catalyse a particular reaction (to the exclusion of others). {From the Greek en meaning "in", + cyme meaning "yeast". Coined by Kuhne, 1878.}

Enzyme: lock-and-key-model.

Eosin: Tetrabromofluorescein. {Greek eos meaning "dawn".}

Epidemiology: Study of incidence and risk of disease.

Epigraphy: Study of ancient inscriptions.

Epistemology: Nature of knowledge.

Epoxy: Oxygen directly link to two adjacent carbon atoms forming a triangle. {Greek epi meaning "beside".}

Equilibrium: In chemistry, this has a very specific meaning and refers to reactions in which the forward and reverse rates are matched so that the composition of the mixture appears unchanged in time. {Latin aequus meaning "equal" + libra meaning "balanced".}

Equation: Mathematical statement in which two expressions or numbers are connected by an equal sign, such as 3x + 2y = 17.

Erg, Joule, Kilowatt-Hour: Units of work or energy.

Ergot: A disease of rye caused by a fungus that causes bread made from diseased rye to become poisonous. The word also refers to a toxic substance, which is used medicinally.

Ergonomics: The study of people in their working environments in relation to design of machine controls, work spaces and methods, informing devices and all such factors affecting efficiency, comfort and health.

Erythema: Surface inflammation of the skin. {Greek erythema meaning "be red".}

Erythrocyte: Red corpuscle, in which oxygen is transported to the body's tissue.

Eschatology: Study of death, destiny.

Essential Oils: Natural oils with pleasant distinctive scent secreted from the glands of certain aromatic plants - often terpenes (unsaturated hydrocarbons).

Ester: The organic compound formed from a reaction between an alcohol and an organic acid. It has a general formula of, R-COO-R', where R and R' are various chemical groups.

Esterification: Forming an ester; reaction of an (generally organic) acid(s) with an alcohol. The reverse process is ester hydrolysis or saponification (the making if soap from fat, because fat is the ester of glycerol and three fatty acids).

Esters: Combination of (organic) acids and alcohols. The carboxylic esters with short chains are often pleasant smelling. Fats and oils belong within the classification of esters. {German esig meaning "vinegar" + ather meaning "pure upper air".}

Ether: Used as an anaesthetic and in many industrial processes.

Ethology: Study of animal behaviour.

Ethylene: Made from natural gas or petroleum, used in making plastics.

Etymology: Study of the origin of words.

Eutectic: A mixture of two or more substances at the composition yielding a lowest (local) melting point. {Greek eu meaning "easily" + tekein meaning "melt".} See also azeotrope.

exa-: Prefix for one trillion.

Exothermic: Describes a chemical process, such as a reaction, that releases heat in order for it to occur.

Exponent, Index, Power: Symbol indicating the number of times a quantity is to be multiplied by itself, such as in 23 = 8.

Factor: Any of the quantities that cn be divided into a given quantity exactly: 7 and 5 are factors of 35.

Factorial: Product of all the whole numbers from a given number down to 1: 4 factorial is 4 x 3 x 2 x 1= 24.

Falcate: In the shape of a sickle.

Farad: Unit of electrical capacitance.

Faraday Cage: Screen used to insulate apparatus from outside electrical interference.

Faraday's Law: Relate the amount of chemical reaction required to produce a certain amount of electricity and vice versa.

Fastigiate: In the shape of a cone.

Fat Bloom: White deposit of fat formed on the surface of chocolate that has not been stored properly.

Fathom: 1.83 meters or 6 feet.

Fatty: Having a long chain of carbon atoms, usually 10-18 members. These chains are the backbone of the fatty acids in fats.

Feedback: In electronic transmission, return of some part of output of the system to input; positive feedback reinforcing input; negative feedback, reducing it; in information sciences generally, negative feedback forms an essential element of self-correcting control systems.

femto-: Prefix for one thousand million millionth.

Ferrite: (Pure) iron without carbon (or iron carbide). Ferritic means having the same structure as ferrite but not necessarily pure iron or iron at all.

Fiber Optics: Technique of transmitting an image through flexible bundle of fine, tubular fibers.

Fiber Optic Cable.

Fibonacci Sequence: Infinite series of numbers, each of which is the sum of the preceding two. For example, 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, and so forth.

Firkin: 1 firkin is 41 liters or 9 gallons.

Firmware: Computer programs embodied in components, which cannot themselves be altered by user, but which may be removed and replaced by licensed authority.

Flabellate: In the shape of a fan.

Flagellate: In the shape of a whip.

Flagon: 2250 ml.

Flammable: Easily set on fire. "Inflammable" (derived from inflame is philologically more correct, but is no longer used.) The opposite is non-flammable.

Flammability (explosion limits): Outer limits for the ratio of fuel to air within which the mixture will burn.

Flash Point: The flash point is the lowest temperature at which a flame above the solvent will cause the solvent's vapor to ignite. Obviously, the lower the flash point the more readily the solvent's vapor will ignite at room temperature. In general those solvents with a flash point below 21oC are considered the most dangerous, while any solvents with a flash point below 32oC are still considered dangerously flammable. For example, methanol and ethanol have flash points of 11oC and 12oC, respectively. On the other hand butanol has a flash point of 36oC.

Flocculate: To coagulate in fluffy lumps. {Latin flocculus meaning "a little flock of wool".} Hence flocculant.

Floppy Disk/Diskette: A no longer used flexible plastic disk built for home computers.

Fluid Drachm: 1 Fluid Drachm is equal to 60 minims or 3.55 milliliters.

Fluorescence: Absorbing ultraviolet light and then re-emitting light in the visible spectrum.

Emission after excitation with UV light.

Flux: A substance added to lower the melting temperature in metallurgy (and soldering). {Latin fluere meaning "to flow".} Hence also flux as a measure of particles flowing per second through a surface of one meter square.

Format: Arrange data in a form that is usable by a computer.

Formatting: Setting up command codes for computer aided composition, based on typographic mark-up.

Formic Acid: Naturally occurring in ants.

FORTRAN: Formula translation - an algebraic computer language used mainly by scientist in the 1960s-80s.

Fractionating Column: Condenser used to collect components of a mixture as they boil off at different temperatures.

Fractions (Prefix) {Symbol}: 10-1 (deci) {d}; 10-2 (centi) {c}; 10-3 (milli) {m}; 10-6 (micro) {μ}; 10-9 (nano) {n}.

Free Radical: See radical.

Fresnel, Hertz: Units of frequency.

Froth Flotation: Use of adsorption of chemicals on solid particles along with a foam of preferentially float off certain minerals and leave others behind.

Fuel Cell: Device with a cathode and anode, which converts a fuel directly into electricity without burning. The simplest case is hydrogen bubbled over a porous sintered nickel anode in an alkali solution, while oxygen is bubbled over a similar cathode separated by a porous membrane. An electric current is produced in an external circuit. Like a battery, except that fuels (methanol) rather than metals are consumed, and the reaction is not reversible.

Full-Spectrum of Light: Artificial or natural light that contains all wavelengths of visible light.

Function: Variable connected with another variable in such a way that a change in one produces a corresponding change in the other.

Furlong: 10 chains or 201 metres.

Futurology: Study of the future.

Galvanic, Voltaic: Relating or referring to electric current produced by chemical action, as in a battery.

Galvanize: To cover metal by electrodeposition of zinc. Incorrectly used when referring to covering steel with zinc by other means. {After Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) who investigated electric effects on frogs' legs - jerking their muscles - hence galvanise into action.}

Galvanometer: Instrument for detecting or measuring small electric currents.

Gamma Globulin: Protein, often an antibody, helping immunity.

Gas Chromatograph: Analytical instrument based on chromatography in the gas phase.

Gauss, Tesla: Unit of magnetic flux density, the capacity to store an electric charge.

Gaussmeter: Instrument that measures magnetic flux, density.

Tesla Meter Gaussmeter.

Geiger Counter: instrument that measures radiation.

Gel: A hydrophilic colloids, capable under certain conditions (such as lowering of the temperature) to produce a pseudo-solid (like a jelly) that may be easily deformable.

Gelatin: See collagen, protein from animal tissues; used as glue. {Latin gelare meaning "to freeze, set solid"; hence Italin gelato.}

Genealogy: Study of ancestry.

Generic Classification (Chemistry): Classification by chemical nature.

Geometrical Progression: Sequence of numbers in which each term is obtained by multiplying the preceding term by a constant factor, such as 2,6,18,54...

Gerontology: Study of old age.

giga-: Prefix for one thousand million.

GIGO: Initials for "garbage in - garbage out"; name given to a principle which holds that no computer program can produce good output from bad input. For example, a poor aerial image of a cave may be digitally processed and enhanced to yield an in-ground missile silo.

Galeate: In the shape of a helmet.

Gill: 1 gill or noggin is 142 milliliters or 5 fluid ounces.

Glass Transition Temperature of a Polymer: The glass transition temperature (Tg) of polymer is an accurate measure of its softness. A polymer that is too soft will lead to a cold flow in an adhesive and pick up dirt in a coating or fabric. A polymer, which is too hard, may crack when stressed or may not be able respond to movements in a fabric. Most polymers in fabrics have a glass transition temperature around room temperature.

Globular, Guttate, Stilliform: In the shape of a droplet.

Glottochronology: History of language.

Glove Box: Chamber with protective gloves sealed into the side, in whicgh dangerous radioactive or toxic substances can be handled.

Glucose (D form): A common sugar present in many plants and in human blood. It is a constituent of starch, cellulose and sucrose etc. and can be obtained from the latter in the hydrolysis with acids or enzymes.

Glue: A colloidal mixture of proteins prepared from animal or fish wastes treated first with milk of lime, acidified and them heated with water ca. 60oC.

Glycerides: Esters of the tri-alcohol glycerol; sometimes call triglycerides (fats). Monoglycerides are made synthetically and used as emulsifiers. {Greek glyceros meaning "sweet".}

Glyco-: Sugar attached.

Glycosides: Natural compounds linked to glucose, which are easily broken off.

Goniometer: Instrument that measures angles, as of crystals.

Googol: 1 followed by 100 zeros.

Grade: Metric unit for one-hundredth of a right angle.

Grain: 1 grain is 0.06 grams or 1/480 ounce Troy.

Gram: Metric unit about 0.002 pound avoirdupois.

Graphite: (i) An allotropic form of pure carbon. Principal uses: pencils, stove polish, anti-corrosive paint, lubricant. Greyish black, semi-crystalline, flaky, greasy. Permanent but really used in pigments in fluid paints; (ii) the color of the mineral graphite. From Greek graphein (to draw) - (1915).

Graph Theory: One dealing with geometric figures (graphs) , consisting of points (vertices) and lines (edges), used to express relations and connections.

Gravimeter: Instrument that measures gravitational field.

Schematic diagram of the FG5 absolute gravimeter.

Gray: Unit of absorbed dose of radiation corresponding to one joule per kilogram of matter. Symbol Gy.

Group Formula: Places atoms together in a groups that correspond to the grouping in the actual molecule, and uses prefix symbols to give some indication on how the groups fit together. For example, aspirin, CH3CO.O.C6H4.COOH.

gsm: Gram per meter square (also gm-2).

Gutta-Percha: Latex of the family Sapotaceae, obtained mostly from the Palaquium species. Same chemical composition as natural rubber (polish-rene) but with a trans rather than cis geometry of bonding.

Gynaecology: Study of women's disorders.

Gypsum: Native calcium sulfate, an inert pigment only used in painting as an adulterant. Very white and sufficiently permanent in water vehicles it is used extensively in paper and textile finishing trades and sometimes to prepare painting grounds.

Hacker: A person who gains unauthorised access to a computer system.

Haematology: Study of blood.

Haemoglobin: Red iron-containing protein in red corpuscles, that transports oxygen to the body's tissue.

Half-Life: Time taken for half the nuclei in a sample of radioactive material to decay.

Halogens: The chemical family: fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine (and astatine).

Hand: 1 hand is 10 cm or 4 inches.

Hardness: For main measures of hardness of a material are: resistance to indentation; scratch resistance; damping of a pendulum; flexibility.

Hardness of Water: The property of water conferred by the presence of salts that prevent formation of a lather, with soaps.

Hardware: Used to describe computer equipment as a category (as distinct to software).

Hard-Wired: Those functions which are incorporated so that they cannot be re-programmed except by altering the wiring of the device.

Hastate: In the shape of a spearhead.

Heat: Energy possessed by a substance in the form of kinetic energy of atoms or in the case of molecules due to their translational, rotational, and vibrational energies.

Heat Setting: The use of heat to break intermolecular bonds, allowing re-arrangement of polymer chains in a desired form.

Heavy Metal: The metals with higher atomic mass tend to form compounds which are more poisoness (e.g. Hg, Cd, Pb etc.) Some light metals are included in common or legal usage (e.g. Zn).

hecto-: Prefix for one hundred.

Hectare: Metric unit for 100 ares or 2.47 acres.

Helical, Turbinal, Volute: In the shape of a spiral.

Helium: Used in fluorescent lighting tubes, lasers and balloons.

Helium disccharge tube.

Helix: The "locus" of point which moves around the circumference of cylinder or cone and axially at the same time, with ratio of two movements constant, as in corkscrew. See diagram below.

Helminthology: Study of worms, especially parasitic worms.

Henry: Unit of electrical inductance.

Herpetology: Study of reptiles and amphibians.

Hess's Law: Energy content of molecules is additive and so unknown values can be obtained from known values of simple arithmetic.

Heterocyclic: Describes organic compounds whose molecules are ring structures, which include atoms of elements other than carbon (C) and hydrogen(H); for example nitrogen (N).

Heuristics: Study of problem-solving by means of trial and error, involving successive evaluations at each step towards a final solution; as distinct from "algorithmics".

Hexad: A system of colors or hues found by placing a six-pointed shape within a hue circle to determine three sets f complements.

Hexagram: Figure formed by two intersecting equilateral triangles. See diagram below.

Hide: 1 hide is 40.5 - 48.5 hectares or 100 to 120 acres.

Hiding Power: The ability of a pigment to hide a painted surface depends on its refractive index and on the particle size. The measure of the hiding power is the area of a black-and-white check design obscured completely by a kilogram of pigment.

High Intensity Color: Color that is pure (hue) or almost pure with no adulteration added.

High Temperature Incinerator: An incinerator that operates at temperatures in excess of 1100oC and with residence times in excess of one second. HTI are of various types including rotary kilns and multi chambers, and have a variety of gas cleaning add ons. They are used to destroy hazardous wastes including medical waste from hospitals. They are subject to community controversy because they can produce low levels of dioxins.

Histamine: An immune found in human tissue and released upon injury. Histamine is the cause of some of the symptoms of an allergic reaction.

Histology: Study of plant and animal tissue.

HLB: Hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (hydrophilic = water loving; lipophilic = oil loving). The relative affinity of an emulsifier for the oil phase is expressed as a number ranging from 1 to 20.

Hodoscope: Instrument that traces the paths of high energy particles.

A general view of the wide-aperture scintillation muon hodoscope.

Hogshead: 1 hogshead is 2 barrels or 286-318 liters.

Hologram/Holograph Image: One which gives a three-dimensional illusion without use of a camera: a laser beam (known as "coherent light") is split so that diffraction patterns are produced digitally; these reconstitute image of a subject when illuminated by light from a similar laser produces a hologram.

Hood: A fume hood is a roomy enclosed reinforced cupboard with facilities from chemical reactions (water, gas, power) and is used under negative air pressure. It has a vertical sliding front window and often gloved access for hands.

Hook's Law: Law stating that the strain produced un a solid body is proportional to the stress applied to it.

Horology: Measurement of time; timepieces.

Hue: The family name of a set of colors (e.g. yellow, green, red etc.); also a color that is entirely pure. The quality of light (wavelength) that separates one color from another.

Hue Circle.

Humectants: Additives for keeping a product moist, or a product for keeping something else (e.g. skin) moist.

Hydraulics, Fluid Mechanics: Branch of mechanics concerned with the flow of fluids.

Hydrocarbons: Organic compounds whose molecules only containing carbon (C) and hydrogen (H).

Hydrochloric Acid/Spirits of Salt: Found in dilute form in digestive juices; wide industrial application.

Hydrofuge: A means of removing moisture; a substance or apparatus that removes moisture.

Hydrofuge Treatment Before and After Treatment.

Hydrogen: {Greek hydros meaning "water" + genes meaning "forming". In other words, stuff of water.} The lightest chemical element.

Hydrogen Bond: It is a linkage between a hydrogen atom (labeled H) in a molecule and another atom (labeled B) either in another molecule or in another part of the same molecule. Hence, has the pictorial form A-H…B (where … represents the hydrogen bond) and A and B are electronegative atoms with A belonging to the same molecule as hydrogen (H) but being covalently bonded to it.

Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a molecule; converting unsaturated to saturated, reducing double bonds to single bonds.

Hydrogen Sulfide: Smell of rotten eggs; used in chemical analysis.

Hydrology: Study of water.

Hydrolysis: Splitting s molecule using a reaction with water.

Hydrometer: Instrument that measures relative density of liquids.

Hydrophile: A substance which has an affinity for, or will attract water.

Hydrophone: Instrument that detects and monitors sounds under water.

Hydrophilic: Water loving (i.e. completely miscible in water).

Hydrophobe: A substance which repels water.

Hydrophobic: Water hating (i.e. sparingly soluble in water).

Hydroscope: Instrument that views object deep underwater.

Hygroscopic: Materials which absorb water from the air. This property depends on how much moisture is in the air. Hydroscopic has a different meaning.

Hydrostat: Instrument that detects the presence or absence of water.

Hygrograph: Instrument that records variations in the humidity of the atmosphere.

Hygrometer: Instrument that measures humidity.

Hygroscopic: The capacity for a chemical compound to uptake water. For example, NaCl (table salt) is extremely hygroscopic and so can dry out atmosphere in a confined area.

Hygrostat, Humidistat: Instrument that controls the relative humidity of air.

hyper-: Prefix meaning high, generally restricted to medical terms.

Hyperbola: Locus of a point which moves so that the ratio of its distances from fixed point and from a fixed straight line is constant and greater than one.

Hypnology: Study of sleep.

hypo- Prefix meaning low, generally restricted to medical terms. Photographic "hypo" (sodium thiosulfate) has one sulfur atom with a low valency of two.

Hypsometer: Instrument that measures land elevations.

Ichthyology: Study of fish.

-ide: Suffix used for inorganic compounds containing two elements.

Image Converter, Image Screen: Instrument that converts X-rays or other radiation into a visual image.

Imine: As -NH2 is an amine, =NH became an immune. A compound of -NH2 is amino (amide), so a compound of =NH became an amino (amide).

Imino Group: It has the chemical formula -NH-. The hydrogen atom (H) of this group is known as the imino hydrogen.

Impedance, Reactance, Resistance: Property of opposing, or measure of the opposition to, the flow of current especially alternating current, in a circuit.

Imperial System of Units: Units defined by the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824. The units of length (inches, foot and miles), mass (ounces and pounds), volume (gallon) and temperature (e.g. Farenheit) has historical rather than scientific significance.

Impossible Triangle: Representation of an object which cannot exist in reality; devised by psychologist L.S. and R. Penrose in 1958. See diagram below.

Incandescence: The emission of light due to heating a substrate.

Incident Light: Light rays that fall of the surface of a body, such as on a fiber surface.

Indirect Modulation: Any mixture of two complementary hues (containing three primaries, but not producing a neutral) that results in a temperature shift. For example, a mixture of yellow-orange or red-violet.

Indole: A low-melting point solid with a faecal smell but used in low concentrations in perfume. {Latin ind(igo) + ol(eum) meaning "oil from indigo".}

Inductance: Property of a circuit allowing electrical induction.

Induction: Generation of electrical charge or other form of entry in an object, typically by the use of a magnetic field set up by another object nearby.

ine: As a suffix it can indicate: (a) organic base; (b) amino acid; or (c) halogen element. Very versatile!

Inertia: Tendency of a body to remain at rest or in a state of uniform motion unless disturbed by an external force.

Inert ingredient: Material with no pesticide action, but it may have other effects; see also chemical active.

Information Theory: Extension of communication theory; from mathematics into other, less specific fields of science, including communication.

Infra-Red: Not a color name. Denotes those rays, which lie beyond the red end of the visible spectrum, with wavelengths longer than those of visible light. Can be experienced as heat. From the Latin infra or under, which in this context has the same meaning as beyond.

Infundibular: In the shape of a funnel.

Inhibit: Slow down a chemical reaction by blocking a part of the mechanism. {Latin inhibitus meaning "curb, restrain".}

Initiator: A substance used to start a polymerization reaction; often a free radical.

Inorganic: Of mineral or of a non livinig origin; the opposite to organic. Example of inorganic substances are mineral ores, rocks etc. Examples of inorganic compounds are salts (e.g. sodium chloride - table salt), acids (e.g. sulfuric acid) and mordants (e.g. potassium dichromate).

Input: Expression used in computer-controlled operations to describe any information (data) to be processed.

Insulation: Resistance to the passage of heat or electricity.

Insulin: Protein hormone from the pancreas, controlling the level of sugar in the blood.

Integer: Any whole number, positive or negative, together with zero.

Integrated Circuit: Electronic circuit with components connected in a single small package, as on a silicon chip.

Intensity: (i) The relative number of photons that flood the optical nerve of the eye. Low intensity colors suggest few photons are registered compared to very intense colors; (ii) The degree of chromatic reflection; the less white light reflected from a surface the more intense the chromatic or the black effect will be; (iii) In color, a high degree of brightness; the fullest manifestations of a color chroma, its freedom from black, white or grey. In aesthetics, high emotional excitation.

Interface: An item of hardware or software that connects tow other items of computing equipment.

Interferometer: Instrument that measures wavelengths of light.

Intermolecular Forces: Commonly known as van der Waals’ forces (named after a scientist who first investigated the phenomenon), intermolecular forces can be weakly attractive and repulsive and so they operate at close range to be effective. In the case of the attractive force, it arises principally from: ion-ion interactions; ion-dipole interactions; dipole-dipole interactions; dipole-induced dipole interactions etc. It is the principle force that binds a dye to a fiber in hydrophobic fibers.

Inter-reflection: A color shift due to light absorption into a deeply textured yarn or fabric surface; particularly evident in a nap or pile surface texture.

Interstice: Space between packed atoms or ions in a crystal. {Latin inter meaning "between", store meaning "to stand".}

Inversion Layer: In a normal atmosphere, the air is colder the higher up you are, and less dense because you are further away from the earth's gravity. During the day the ground warms much faster than the air due to the radiation from the sun is more readily trapped by the soil. The ground then warms the air in direct contact with it. Warm air rises. As the ground-warm packets of air rise, they expand so as to match the lower density of the air around them. Expansion of an air packet causes it to cool (at about 10oC per km height). However, this rising air may still remain warmer than the air surrounding it, and it then continues to rise, causing unstable turbulent conditions in which air mixes. On a dry cloudless nights, the ground is cooled much faster than the air by radiating heat out to space. The ground now cools (rather than heats) the air in contact with it, which then does not rise. In contrast, the air is now warmer the higher up you are and a stable (non-mixing) situation called temperature inversion occurs. Pollutants (such as smoke from fires, exhaust from cars, as well as pesticide spray) are trapped in this lower layer. The boundary where the switch of temperature change occurs can be clearly seen from the vantage point above the inversion layer, like a hill. In the morning, the sun heats the ground and as the day progresses, the ground heats up more quickly, and the unstable conditions begin, and so any inversion layer is broken, and the usual cycle starts again.

Inverter: Device for converting direct current into alternating current.

Involute: Locus of point fixed on a line which rolls, without slipping around a polygon. See diagram below.

Iodophors: A group of compounds that release iodine slowly in solution to act as local disinfectants (in milking).

Ion: A carrier (atom or molecule etc.) possessing charge(s).

Ionic: Possessing charge(s).

Ionic Bond: A bond between two ions due to a mutual electrostatic attraction (e.g. table salt is made from the attraction of a positive sodium ion to a negative chlorine ion within a crystal lattice). In the case of dyeing, the mutual attraction generally is between positive centers in the fiber and negative centers in the dye molecule and between negative fiber sites and positive centers in the dye molecule. The dyeing of wool provides a simple example of this.

Ionize: when hydrochloric acid gas is dissolved in water, it breaks up into its constituent ions; i.e. it ionizes. Ions can come together and form an unionised compound (not union). {Greek ion (ienai) meaning "to go", coined by Faraday, 1834.}

Ionizing Radiation: Radiation with sufficiently energetic photons to cause the atoms./molecules in the medium through which it is travelling to form ions or free radicals. Includes radioactive particle emission (alpha, and beta) and short wavelength electromagnetic (e.m.) radiation, UV gamma rays and X-rays. Excludes lower energy e.m. radiation such as microwave, radio waves, infra-red and visible light waves.

Iridescence: A color effect produced due to the chemical skeleton structure of the dye.

Iridescence Soap Bubble.

Iron: Ferrous sulfate is sometimes referred to as “copperas”, which is its traditional name, but the use of that term confuses new dyers unfamiliar with the terminology. Iron (i.e. ferrous sulfate) “saddens” colors: in other words, it drabs them, producing khaki and avocado greens from strong yellow-green dyebaths such as goldenrod and rhododendron leaves. It will also turn a pale beige or tan to a good grey and make excellent medium green from a lettuce bath when combined with blue vitriol. Iron in this form is poisonous. It is important not to use more than the specified amount as too much will make the fiber harsh. Keep a separate pot for mordanting and dyeing with iron, as even little residue from it in the pot will darken and drab subsequent alum, chrome and tin baths.

Irradiation: Exposure to radiation; usually refers to UV or radioactive radiation.

Isomer: Compound having the same elements and number of atoms as another, but with a different arrangement of atoms and hence different properties.

Isomerism: The existence of two or more compounds that have the same chemical formula but different chemical and physical properties due to different spatial arrangements of the atoms in the molecules. Each compound is called an isomer.

Isomerization: Rearrangement of the geometry of a molecule without changing its overall formula.

Isotope: Atom having the same number of protons in its nucleus as another atom of the same element, but a different number of neutrons.

ium-: Suffix normally used for metals or groups supposedly having properties of metals; e.g. ammonium.

Jamb: The edge of a door or window opening.

Jeroboam/Double Magnum: 3000ml or 4500ml.

Joule: Unit of energy (e.g. heat) named after a scientist. One calorie = 4.187 joules.

Kelvin Temperature Scale: An absolute temperature scale. The zero point of the scale is the temperature at which a perfect gas would occupy zero volume if it could be cooled indefinitely without becoming a liquid. Absolute zero is -273.16oC. Hence water cools at 0oC or 273.16oK.

Keratin: Fibrous proteins occurring in hair, feathers, hooves, and horns, embedded in a matrix that makes them strong and elastic. The proteins contain sulfur and are held together by disulfide bonds.

Ketone: Organic compound containing the group -C=O. {Latin acetum meaning "vinegar", with Greek suffix -oner, female patronymic used in chemistry to denote a weaker derivative.} Acetic acid CH3COOH leads to a ketone (CH3)2C=O/

Kevlar: See aramid.

1.7 Ounce Kelvlar Cloth.

Kilderkin: 1 kilderkin is about 82 liters or 18 gallons.

kilo-: Prefix for one thousand.

Kilobyte: Standard unit of measure for a computers capacity e.g. 1024 bytes = 1 kilobyte.

Kilogram: It is equal to the mass of a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at BIPM in Paris, France.

Kilowatt: Symbol KW, a unit of power equal to 100 watts.

Kilowatt-Hour: Symbol kWh, a unit of energy obtained when 1000 watts of power runs for one hour; equivalent to 23.6 MJ.

Kinetic Energy: The energy an entity possesses by virtue of its motion. Heating a fiber raises the motion of the fiber via the molecular vibrations of the polymers of the fiber.

Kinetics: Branch of mechanics concerned with all aspect of motion.

Kipp's Apparatus: Arrangement of three linked glass vessels used for the controlled production of a gas such as hydrogen sulfide by the action of a liquid on a solid.

Kitchen Measurements: 1/4 teaspoon (tsp) = 1 milli-litre (ml); 1/2 tsp = 2 ml; 1 tsp = 5 ml. (This illustrates a rough rounding off for 1/4 and 1/2 tsp); 2 tsp = 10 ml; 1 table spoonful (tbsp) = 15 ml; 1/4 cup (standard drinking cup) = 60 ml; 1/3 cup = 70 ml; 1/2 cup = 120 ml; 1 cup = 240 ml; 1 pint (US pt) = 0.473 litres (l); 1 quart (qt) = 1.1 litres (l).

Knot, Mach: Units of speed.

Krebs Cycle: See citric acid cycle.

Krypton: Used in fluorescent light bulbs and tubes and in high-speed analog photography.

Krypton discharge tube.

Labile: Unstable, liable to change to another form or move away.

Lactic Acid: Found in sour milk.

Lake Base: Both blanc fixe and alumina hydrate are given this name.

Lanceolate: In the shape of a lance.

Lanolin: Wool fat (the palmitate and stearate esters of cholesterol). {Latin lan(a) meaning "wool", + ol(eum) meaning "oil, fat".}

Anhydrous Lanolin.

Latent Heat: Heat absorbed or released by a substance undergoing a change of state, as from ice to water.

Latex: An emulsion of rubber globules (in water), extended to include globules of synthetic materials such as in paints.

Lattice: Regular three dimensional array of atoms or ions in a crystal. {Compare lath (Old English laett meaning "piece of sawn or split timber in the form of a thin strip used to support slates, plaster or trellis etc."}

Common salt lattice.

Laughing Gas, Nitrous Oxide (N2O): Used as a mild anaesthetic.

Law of Definite Proportions: Atoms react to form molecules in simple ratios reflecting the valencies of the atoms involved (mostly).

LC50: The median concentration in a food (water/air) of a chemical that kills, one average, 50% of the sample of test organisms.

LCD: Initials of "liquid crystal display"; material used as an electronic display.

LD50: The median lethal dose (MLD) of a substance. The dose that, on an average, produces death in 50% of the sample tested animals, expressed as mg of chemical per kg of body weight.

Lead: (i) Metal; (ii) Thin strips of metal used to separate lines of type - made in standard thickness of 1pt, 1.5pt, 2pt, 3pt, 6pt and 12pt.

Le Chatelier's Principle: Systems at equilibrium respond to external changes (temperature, pressure, added material) by adjusting so as to annul or tend to annul those changes. First stated in 1888 by Henri Louis Le Chatelier (1850 - 1936).

League: 1 league is 3 nautical miles or 5.6 km.

Leather: Skin that has been chemically treated to make it resistant to bacterial attack.

Black Leather zipped underwear.

Lecithin: A biological fat and cell wall component with phosphate polar head group.

Soy Lecithin granules.

Leclanché Cell: Most common consumer battery with a zinc outer cathode and carbon rod inner anode.

Lectin: Proteins that can clump red blood cells in a specific manner like antibodies. They are found mainly in plants, and a typical example is ricin from caster (oil) beans. Because they are proteins, their activity is destroyed on cooking. {Word derived from the Latin legere meaning "to choose".}

Leucocyte: Any white corpuscle with varies defines and repair functions such as producing antibodies.

Three aspects of blood.

Lexicography: Study of vocabulary.

Leyden Jar: Glass jar whose lower walls are lined inside and outside with tin foil for form an electrostatic capacitor.

Leibig Condenser: Device for condensing a vapour by passing it through a tube inside another tube through which a coolant, usually water, passes.

Liebig cooler.

Lenticular: In the shape of a lens, lentil seed.

Light: (i) Common term for electromagnetic radiation; (ii) The opposite of dark. Principally used to modify generally defined colors such as light blue etc.

Light Emitting Diode (LED): A semi-conductor rectifier that emits light when a voltage is applied.

Light Level: The degree of ambient light, the intensity of which may be high or low.

Light Level Meter.

Light Primaries: See additive primaries.

Light Secondaries: See additive secondaries.

Ligulate: In the shape of a step.

Limnology: Study of freshwater life.

Linear: In line. For example, a linear polymer is a polymer that is like a line, having no branches such as trees that have long side-groups. Also one of Wolfflin’s categories stressing the creation of form by outlines or contour lines - a main trait of graphic arts.

Line Interval: Vertical distance between the base line of one line type to the base line of next; basic line interval corresponds to "body size" of metal type.

Lingulate: In the shape of a tongue.

Linoleum Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid, C17H31COOH. {Latin linum meaning "flax" + ol(eum) meaning "oil"; hence also linoleum.}

Lipid: General term for biological fats covering both simple glycerides of fatty acids and more complex forms.

Lipo: Prefix signaling oil or fat. Lipophile: a substance, which has the property of attracting fats or oils, or selective affinity for oil over water. Lipoid: a material belonging to a specific group of chemical compounds which resemble fats or waxes in many of their properties.

Lipoprotein: Combination of a fat with protein found in cell membranes.

Lithology: Characteristics of rocks.

Litmus Paper: Dyed paper that is turned red by acids, but remains, or reverts to blue, when treated with alkalis.

Locus: A path described by a point moving according to a given law (e.g. a point moving a constant distance from a second point traces the locus which is circular).

Logarithm, Log: Any one of a system of figures used in calculations, based on the number of times a base number, such as 10, has to be multiplied by itself to produce a given number.

Logical Tree: Simple form of an algorithm showing choices or decisions available in given circumstances; broken down into a sequence of "yes/no" steps.

Lower Case: abb. "lc". Small letters in typeface (e.g. a, b, c, d etc.) as distinct from upper case/caps and small caps.

Low Intensity Color: Color that shows little of its original purity because it is a broken color - a hue that has been mixed with white, black, grey or its own component.

lpm: Initials of "lines per minute". Rate at which a computer output device will print.

Lumbricoid, Vermicular, Vermiform: In the shape of a worm.

Lumem: Unit of luminous flax, the rate of flow of luminous energy.

Luminescence: Light not associated with heat.

Luminosity: Measure of brightness of a paint or color.

Lye: Caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) solution.

Lymphocyte: Common white corpuscle, with defence functions such as producing antibodies.

Lyophobic: Solvent hating. {Greek phobia meaning "fear of".}

Lyrate: In the shape of a lyre.

-lysis: Breaking down, decomposition. {Greek lysis meaning "a loosening, dissolution".} Hence hydrolysis, breaking down by water (hydro); pyrolysis, breaking down by heat (pyro); haemolysis, splitting of blood corpuscles (ham); electrolysis, splitting with electricity; photolysis, splitting with light.

Machine Composition: Any operation producing type matter by means of keyboards and composing machines.

Machmeter: Instrument that measures speeds at and beyond the speeds of sound.

Macromolecule: A very large molecule, such as a polymer.

Magnesium Carbonate: Artificially made. Probably the whitest inert pigment. Sold in two forms: heavy, which has properties similar to those of precipitated chalk; and light, which is extremely bulky, light, fluffy powder of the same composition.

Magnetometer: Instrument that measures strengths of magnetic fields.

Magnetron: A modification of a thermionic valve (as once used for radios and amplifiers before the invention of the resistor) designed for generating microwaves.

Main Frame: Large powerful computer; CPU.

Magnum: 1500 ml.

Major Key: The organization of values in a work that produces high contrast.

Malachite: Native basic carbonate of copper. Fine, clear, yellowish-green. Not reliably permanent. Also made artificially - see Bremen blue. Used as a pigment by earliest civilizations. Also made artificially; see Bremen blue.

Malacology: Study of molluscs.

Malic Acid: Found in unripe apples and other fruit. {Latin malum meaning "apple".}

Malt: Malt is a grain of barely, which has been caused to sprout by keeping moist. {Into-European mel, Greek mill, Latin molere meaning "to grind".}

Malt Grain.

Manometer: Instrument that measures pressures of gases and liquids.

Margarine: Butter substitute.

Martensite: Solid solution of carbon in iron formed on rapid cooling, responsible for the hardness of quenched steel, martensite hardening. In shape-memory alloys (like Nitinol) a specimen in a martensite condition may be deformed in what appears to be a plastic manner but ids actually deforming as a result of growth and shrinkage of self-accomodating martensite plates. When the specimen is heated to the temperature of the parent phrase, a complete recovery of the defamation takes place.

Mass Number: Total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.

Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS): An international standardized form which manufacturers are legally obliged to supply, containing information about materials and chemicals.

Mathematical Signs: Some type characters used in mathematical settings. For example, some mathematical signs include: "+" plus; "-" minus;"x" or "*" multiply;"=" equal to; "≠" not equal to; "≈" or"~" approximately equal to; "<" greater than; "≤" equal or greater than; ">" less than; "≥" less than or equal to; "∫" integral sign; "√" square root sign; "∑" sum of;"∏" product of; "∞" infinity sign; "±" plus and minus interval;"**" exponential sign; "%" percentage sign etc.

Matins, with lauds: Dawn.

Matrix: (i) Mathematics - a collected array of columns and rows; (ii) General. Womb: a place where something is developed, formed; (iii) Printing. A mould for casting type character in machine composition.

Maund: 1 maund is about 37 kg or 82 pounds (India).

Maxwell, Weber: Units of magnetic flux, the strength of a magnetic field through an area.

Measure: The width of a setting, usually measured in 12 pt (pica) ems.

Mechanics: Branch of physics concerned with the action of forces on matter.

mega-: Prefix for one million.

Melanin: Polymers derived from the amino acid tyrosine that provide the pigmentation of eye, skin and hair.

Memory Effect: See shape-memory alloy.

Meta-: {Greek meta meaning "changed (in form etc.) next to, between".} Hence meta-substituted benzene, metabisulfite, metabolism, metastable form.

Metabolic Rate: Rate at which the body uses energy.

Metabolism: Chemical reactions occurring in a living organism.

Metabolite: Breakdown product of a chemical in a living organism.

Metamerism: The near identity of two color samples under some light sources and not others, caused by the different light sources exaggerating or masking differences in the spectra of samples.

Meter (Metre): It is equal to the length of the path travelled by light in a vacuum during a time interval of 1/(299 792 458) of a second.

Meteorology: Study of weather.

Methane, Marsh Gas, Firedamp: Main constituent of natural gas, and found in coal mines, marshlands, and the like; used in making chloroform and methyl alcohol.

Methylene: Group -CH2-. {Greek methyl meaning "wine" + hyle meaning "wood". Methyl alcohol was originally made by distilling wood.}

Methyl Radical: The radical -CH3 , which is derived from methane (CH4). Methyl radicals are found in many dye molecules.

Methuselah/Impériale: 4500ml or 6,000ml.

Metric Prefixes: Micro- = millionth; milli- = thousandth; centi- = hundredth; deci- = tenth; deca- = ten times; hecto- = hundred times; kilo- = thousand times; mega- = million times.

Metrology: Study of measurement.

micro-: Prefix for one thousandth.

Microcosmic Salt: Sodium ammonium hydrogen phosphate, a crystalline salt obtain from the evaporation of urine at a time when humans were regarded as the center (microcosm) of the universe.

Microemulsion: Emulsion of two liquids with suitable surfactants which is thermodynamically stable and hence does not break.

Micrometer: (i) Instrument that measures precise dimensions of small distances or angles; (ii) Metric unit - 10-6 meters or about 1/25,000 of an inch.

Micron (also Micrometer): 10-6 of a meter.

Microtome: Instrument that cuts very thin slices for examination by microscope.

Millennium: 1000 years.

milli-: Prefix for one thousand.

Million: One thousand thousand; 1 followed by 6 zeros.

Milliard: One thousand million; 1 followed by 9 zeros.

Mineral Spirits (Turpentine): A petroleum faction boiling between 150oC and 200oC containing aliphatic hydrocarbons. Abbreviated as "turps".

Minim: 1 minim is 0.059 milliliters or 1/480 fluid ounces.

Miscible: Two liquids were miscible when they mix completely in all proportions. Often liquids are partially miscible. {Latin miscere meaning "to mix".}

Misting: Causes a vapor of droplets, which can easily be inhaled, especially when using a high-pressure hose.

MM: Molecular mass (older term molecular weight m.w.) is the mass of one mole of that material.

Modem: Modulator demodulator - device for transmitting computer data along telephone lines or optical cables.

Modulation: Superimposing or combining of two waves, so their frequency, amplitude, or the like vary in unison, as for transmitting a sound signal by means of a radio wave, such as frequency modulation, FM.

Module: A standard or unit for measuring and designing; in architecture a device for standardizing the sizes and proportions of building parts and furnishings. See Le Corbusier’s modular.

Moiré: A lustrous, pattern finish who appearance depends on changes of light reflection and resembles the patterns seem on water.

Mole/Moles/Mols/Mol: Molecular weight of a substance expressed in grams.

Molecule: Molecules are composed of atoms and they are the smallest entity of any compound. Polymers are the molecules of fibers.

Molecule Orientation: The degree to which the fiber molecules are parallel to each other and to the longitudinal axis of the fiber.

Moniliform: In the shape of a string of beads.

Monomer: A single unit, which goes to make a polymer.

Mordant: A chemical that fixes a dye in a huber by combining with the dye to form an insoluble compound (see below figure).

Mordant Dyes: A group of dyes ( also called metalled to pre-metalized dyes) that cannot be applied to a fiber without the help of metallic salts or chemical assistants called mordants.

Morgen: 1 morgen is 0.858 hectares or 2.12 acres (South Africa).

Morphine: An alkaloid, C17H19O3N. {Greek Morphens meaning "god of dreams, son of sleep".}

Morse Code: Alphabet invented by Samuel Morse in 1832 for transmitting telegraphic messages, using dots and dashes or long or short signals. See diagram below.

Mouse: Small device rolled along a table top, used to move a cursor on a VDU.

MRL: Maximum residual limit of a chemical residue, the maximum concentration (in say, mg of chemical per kg of produce) that is legally permitted in the produce. It is a quality control measure for produce to check whether good agricultural practice (GAP) has been followed in the use of pesticides. Called "tolerance" in the USA.

MSDS: Material Safety Data Sheet; occupational, health and safety information on a chemical.

msg: Monosodium glutamate; the sodium salt of a natural amino acid that is used as a flavour enhancer in oriental cooking and is accused of causing a reaction in some humans.

Multiples (Prefix) {Symbol}: 10 (deca) {da}; 103 (kilo) {k}; 106 (mega) {M}; 109 (giga) {G}; 1012 (Tera) {T}.

Mustard Gas, Yperite: Used in chemical warfare, to produce burns and eye irritation.

Mutagen: An agent capable of causing mutations in genetic material, which can affect either the organism or its offspring, depending on which cells are affected.

Mutchkin: 1 munchkin is about 0.57 liters or 1 pint (Scotland).

MYC System: A pigment system in which magenta, yellow and cyan are the primary colors.

Mycology: Study of fungi.

Mycotoxin: A poison produced by mould.

Myology: Study of muscles.

Myrmecology: Study of ants.

nano-: Prefix for one thousand millionth.

Nanometer: One billionth of a meter i.e. 10-9 of a meter.

napalm: Petrol gelled (originally) with aluminium salts of naphthalenic and palmitic acids and used in war in flame-throwers and bombs.

Vietnamese girl suffering from napalm burns caused by US bombing.

Naphthol Dyes: See Azoic dyes.

Navicular, Scaphoid: In the shape of a boat.

Nebuchadnezzar: 15,000 ml.

Neon: Used in illuminated signs, glowing pink or red.

Neon signs.

Neoprene: A chlorinated synthetic rubber (made from 2-chloro-1,3,-butadiene) which when vulcanised is very resistant to oils, chemicals, sunlight, ozone and heat.

Neoprene bikini.

Nephograph: Instrument that photographs cloud patterns.

Neurotoxin: A substance that causes defects in nerve tissue.

Network Diagram: One which describes the nature of connections between elements by means of nodes (vertices) and branches (arcs).

Neutral: Same as colorless, achromatic. From the Latinneutralis.

Neutron: A subatomic particle. Neutrons, along with protons, from the nucleus of atoms. While a proton has one unit of positive charge, a neutron (of almost identical mass) is neutral. Emitted from heavy atoms during one of the radioactive decay processes. Part of the nuclear fission chain reaction.

Newtonian Fluid: Fluid in which the velocity gradient is directly proportional to the shear stress - the analogue for gooey materials of Hooke's Law for springs. Non-Newtonianfluids are complex; two types are described as follows:
(a) dilating: the faster the fluid moves, the more viscous it becomes; {dilate means to "expand"};
(b) thixotropic: the faster the liquid moves, the less viscous it becomes. {Greek thixis meaning "a touch" + tropos meaning "a turning, change".}

Newton's Dual Prism Experiment: White light is passed through a prism, producing a spectrum. The light of the spectrum is blocked by a screen with a narrow slit, allowing only one color of the spectrum to pass through. This one color of light passes through a second prism. If the prism simply added additional colors to light, this color should again produce a spectrum. But the light that emerged from the second prism was the same one color that entered it. This proved that a prism did not add colors to light.

Nicol Prism: Two prisms cut and cemented together in such a way that waves of light passing through them vibrate in a single plane.

Nicotine: Jean Nicot introduced tobacco into France in 1560. {Modern Latin (herba Nicotiana meaning "herb of Nicot" = tobacco.}

Nitric Acid/Aqua Fortis: Corrosive acid used in making explosives and rocket fuels.

Nitrohydrochloric Acid/Aqua Regia: Used for dissolving platinum and gold, and for testing metals.

Nitrosamines: Compounds produced by the reaction of nitrous acid on (secondary) amines. Suspected of being formed in the gut when nitrites react with amino acids from protein, and possibly igniting cancer.

Noble Gas: Gas such as helium or neon that is almost inert or unreactive.

NOEL: No observable effect level. The highest amount of substance found experimentally to cause no detectable (usually adverse) change of morphology (i.e. in the nature of an organ), functional capacity, growth, development, or life span of the most sensitive test organism. (see also threshold).

Nomogram (Nomograph): Arranging three scales so that the straight-edge joining known values on two scales is extended to a third scale to provide the desired value.

Nomology: Study of law-making or scientific laws.

Nones: 3pm.

Nonillion: 1 followed by 54 zeros.

Non-Miscible: Property of two liquids that do not mix (e.g. oil and water).

Non-Newtonian Fluid: See Newtonian fluid.

Non-Spectral Colors: Any color not found in the spectrum such as brown, black or grey.

Non-Volatile: Not very volatile. The material has a very low, but not negligible volatility, (in contrast to ynvolatile materials such as granite, which have no vapour at all).

Nosology: Classification of diseases.

NTP: Normal temperature and pressure (now standard temperature and pressure or STP), set as a benchmark so that comparisons can be made for materials under different conditions. It is 0oC and 1 atm. pressure.

Numerals: (i) Numbers; (ii) Apart from instructions for drafting, on some silk designs there are listed the number of threads in each portee. These figures are sometimes at the foot of the 18th and 19th silk designs and sometimes written on stripes etc. They are referred to as numerals.

Numerator, Dividend: Quantity into which another is divided; quantity above the division line in a fraction.

Nummular: In the shape of a coin.

Occlusion: The surrounding of isolated particles of a substance by a solid or semi-solid. Absorption or adsorption of gases by a solid.

OCR: Optical character reader (OCR) - device for "reading" printed texts and converting them into an electronic form usable by a computer.

Octant: Instrument that measures altitude of celestial bodies.

Octillion: 1 followed by 48 zeros.

Oculus: The “eye” of circular opening at the top of a dome.

Odometer: Instrument that measures frequency of radio waves.

Odontology: Study of teeth.

Oenology: Study of wines.

Oersted: Unit of magnetic field strength.

Off-line: Any operation in a computer-controlled work not directly connected with the computer, and any output therefrom.

Ohm: Unit of electrical resistance.

OHS: Occupational, health and safety.

Oil Tanning: Method of tanning sheepskin to produce chamois leather.

Olefine; Olefins: See Alkenes.

Oleophilic: Literally, oil-loving: describes the tendency of hydrophobic fibers to cling tenaciously to oil and grease.

Oleophobic: Having an aversion to oil; repels oil, grease, wax etc.

Oncology: Study of tumours.

Oneirology: Study of dreams.

On-Line: Any operation in a computer-controlled work which is directly connected to the computer and any output matter resulting therefrom.

Ontology: Study of the nature of existence.

Oology: Study of eggs.

Opalescence: A color effect produced by a physical structure or structures rather than colorants; like iridescence but milkier in appearance.

Opalescence Lipstick.

Ophiology: Study of snakes.

Ophthalmology: Study of eyes.

Optical Character Reader: Instrument that converts printed characters into digital form, as for computers.

Optical Finishes: Chemical finishes that either raises or lowers the light reflectance and so the ouster of the fiber.

Optical Mixtures: Color combinations perceived as mixtures by the eye/brain, produced by juxtaposing small dots or slashes of color.

Optometer: Instrument that measures refraction of the eye.

Ordinal Numbers: First, second, third as distinct from cardinal numbers, one two, three.

Ordinate: Coordinate parallel to the y-axis in a coordinate graph.

Organic: (i) The term used to describe substances composed essentially of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and nitrogen (N), often in conjunction with oxygen (O). All commonly used textile fibers are organic; (ii) In art, forms that resemble the structure of living things; shaped like the parts of plants and animals rather than machines; natural.

Organochlorine: A compound which is generally composed of carbon and hydrogen, to which chlorine has been added. Such compounds are often biologically very active but not easy to break down; hence they are persistent.

Oriented: Aligned parallel with the length of the fiber.

Ornithology: Study of birds.

Orography: Mapping of relief.

Orology: Study of mountains.

Orometer: Instrument that measures height above sea level.

Orrace Tissue: A tissue which was probably chiefly or exclusively a metal thread.

ortho-: Regular form. {Greek ortho.}

Oscillograph: Instrument that records electric currents as a graph.

Oscilloscope: Instrument presenting varying signals in the visible form as a graph or trace on the screen of a display.

Osmosis: Gradual passage of water or other solvent through a semi-permeable membrane until there is an equal concentration of solution on the other side.

Osteology: Study of bones.

Otology: Study of ears.

Ounce Troy: 1 ounce Troy is 28.78 grams (1/12 pound Troy or 1.097 ounces avoirdupois.

Oval, Ovoid: In the shape of an egg.

Oxalic Acid: The simplest organic acid with two carboxylic acid groups - poisonous. Found in some plants such as rhubarb.

Oxidation Number: A method of book-keeping in balancing reactions in which oxidation and reduction are simultaneously occurring.

Oxidation Reaction: An oxidation reaction involves electron loss. That is, it is a reaction in which electrons are removed from a chemical species that is being oxidized. Older definitions (not general enough) define it in terms of the addition of oxygen atoms to, or the removal of hydrogen atoms from molecules.

Ozone: Unstable form of oxygen, common in the upper atmosphere; used in bleaches, air-conditioning systems and purification processes.

Paedology: Study of children.

Palaeography: Study of old manuscripts.

Palaeontology: Study of fossils.

Palette: A particular range, quality, selection, or use of colors; also, surface on which to place colors.

Palmate: In the shape of a hand.

Palynology: Study of pollen.

Pandurate: In the shape of a violin.

Pantograph: Instrument that copies pictures and diagrams to scale.

para-: Alongside, beyond, near, contrary to. {Greek para} Very flexible prefix in chemistry.

Parabola: Locus of a point which moves so that its distances from a fixed point and from a fixed straight line are always equal.

Paraffins: See alkanes.

Parallel: Two lines that are perfectly aligned to each other in order that they can never cross.

Parameter: Variable quantity given fixed value for specific calculations.

Parenteral: (of drugs) absorbed into the body by a route other than by intestinal tract.

Partitive Mixing: The same as optical mixing. See Optical Mixtures.

Particulate Respirator: Close-fitting high grade breathing mask designed to filter very fine particles.

Parts Per Million (ppm): One part per million is 1 mg m-3.

Pa s: Pascal second, Nsm-2, a measure of viscosity replacing the c.g.s. unit, poise (= 0.1 Pa s).

Patelliform: In the shape go dish, pan.

Patent: License guaranteeing exclusive rights to an inventor of "any manner of a new manufacture and any new method or process of testing applicable to the improvement or control of manufacture".

Pathology: Study of diseases.

Pearl Binder: Pearl binder is mixed with standard pigment colors turning them metallic. It is also opaque.

Peck: 1 peck is equal to 8 quarts or 0.009 cubic meters.

Pectinate: In the shape of a comb.

Pediform: In the shape of a foot.

Pedology: Study of soil.

Pedometer: Instrument that measures distance travelled by a walker.

Penology: Study of prisons and treatment of prisoners.

Pentagram: Five-pointed star formed by extending the sides of pentagon - see below.

Peptide: Molecule formed when two amino acids are joined; hence peptide bond, polypeptide. A protein is a large polypeptide.

Periodic Table: Table of chemical elements, grouping them in columns according to their properties.

Peripheral (as a noun): Any device connected to a computer, which is not a part of its central processor unit (CPU).

Permutation: Ordered arrangement of the quantities in a set into any of the various possible groups.

Persistent Organic Pollutants: POPs; organic materials that do not biodegrade satisfactorily and can disperse through the air and water far from their source. For example DDT.

Perspex: (Plexiglass, Lucite). A transparent polymer. {Latin perspicere meaning "to look through".}

peta-: Prefix for one thousand million.

Petri Dish: Shallow, flat, round glass dish with a lid, used especially for culturing microorganisms.

Petroleum Fraction: A fraction of oil selected in a refinery on the basis of boiling point.

Petrology: Study of rocks.

pH: A logarithmic scale between 0-14 that that measures the strength of acids or bases. A large pH indicates a strong base (e.g. pH = 14) and a low pH indicates a strong acid (e.g. pH = 1). A neutral solution has a pH of 7.

Phagocyte: Cell, such as white corpuscle, that envelopes and digests bacteria, tissue debris, and the like.

Pharmacodynamics: Chemotherapy; attempting to kill target cells in the body (e.g. cancer cells) while sparing normal cells. Chemotherapy was actually coined by Paul Ehrlich (154-1915, founder of modern drug use) as "the use of drugs to injure an invading organism without injury to the host". Common usage has changed this meaning.

Pharmacokinetics: The study of the rate at which drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolised and excreted in the body.

Pharmacology: Study of drugs.

Pharmacopoeia: Official listing of drugs, their purity and directions for udse; British (BP) was one of the first.

Phase: A term introduced by William Gibbs in his treatise on thermodynamics (1876-78). {Greek phasis, modern Latin plasis meaning "appearance (of a star)".}

Phase Transfer Catalysis: A technique whereby water-soluble and oil-soluble components, each in its own immiscible solvent (one on top of the other), can be reacted by use of a third chemical which "escorts" the water-soluble component into the oil solvent by formation of an ion pair.

Phenols: Aromatic groups such as benzene and naphthalene with the function group -OH attached; contrast alcohols.

Pheromones: Chemical released as specific signals, usually to other members of the same species, to regulate social behaviour such as attracting mates, marking trails and promoting social cohesion.

Philology: Study of languages.

Phonogram: Written symbol representing spoken sound.

Phosphor: A substance that becomes luminescent when bombarded with light.

Phosphorescence: Fluorescence that continues to be visible even though radiation has ceased.

Phosphorylation: Adding a phosphate group to a molecule.

Photochemical Reaction: A chemical reaction initiated with light, usually sunlight.

Photodynamic: Caused by light.

Photolysis: A chemical reaction brought about by light including ultra violet light. Radiolysis is the equivalent when radioactive emissions are involved.

Photometer: Instrument that measures light intensity.

Photon: A packet of energy of size hv, where v is the frequency of the corresponding wave (and h is Plank's constant). A zero mass particle (photon) is required for the description of electromagnetic radiation as both a particle and a wave.

Phrenology: Study of character by studying skull irregularities.

Physiology: Study of life processes, functioning of organisms.

Phytology: Study of plants.

PIC: Prior informed consent; given by an importing country before the export to it of hazardous material can take place.

pico-: Prefix for one million millionth.

Picul: 1 picul is 60.3 kg or 133 pounds (China).

Piezoelectricity: Electricity generated by crystals subjected to pressure.

Piezometer: Instrument that measures high pressures, compressibility.

Pinnate: In the shape of a feather.

Pipe: 1 pipe is 477 liters or 105 gallons (wine).

Pipette: Glass tube of known capacity, used for transferring liquid.

Pisciform: In the shape of a fish.

Pixel: One of the individual dots that make up a graphical image.

Pixel Art - Birth of Venice.

PKa: A measure of the degree to which an acid or base will dissociate in water. The (negative) logarithm of the acid dissociation constant Ka. When the pH of the solution is at the value pKa for a dissolved acid, that acid will be 50% dissociated.

PKU: Phenylketonuria; the inability (through genetic defect) to metabolise the amino acid phenylalanine; hence causing its build up in the body and damage to the brain. The compound is present in some foods and artificial sweeteners (e.g. aspartame).

PL1: A computer language.

Planimeter: Instrument that measures surface area of a plane figure.

Plank's Constant: Universal constant relating the frequency of radiation to its energy.

Plasma: Yellowish liquid base containing the cells and platelets.

Plasticiser: This is an additive that makes a polymer material more flexible or less rigid.

Platelet/Thrombocyte: Tiny disk helping blood clotting.

Plumbago: Graphite.

Plumbline: Weighted string used for marking verticals.

Pluviometer: Instrument that measures rainfall.

Poise: See Pa s.

Poison: A substance that, when introduced into or absorbed by a living organism, destroys life or impairs health. Also used anthropomorphically by chemists when referring to catalyst, which when "poisoned" can no longer function.

Polar: A partial separation of electronic charge in atoms, or molecules.

Polar Group: A group of atoms which are either positively or negatively charged.

Polarimeter: Instrument that measures optical rotation of polarised light.

Polarity: The positive or negative charge of an atom or group of atoms.

Polemology: Study of wars.

Polyamide: A polymer based on a condensation reaction forming an amide link in an aliphatic chain; e.g. nylon.

Dragon Pattern Fishnet Tights Nylon Stockings Mesh.

Polyester: A polymer based on a condensation reaction forming an ester link, e.g. terylene, PET.

Blue puff polyester dress.

Polymer: A large molecule formed by joining together, via chemical bonds, many smaller sub-units (called monomers) in a repeated pattern.

Polymerization: Molecular re-alignment impelled by some external force or treatment. An internal change by which properties of a substance are changed and its molecular weight increase without the addition of a new ingredient.

Polymorphism: Occurrence of a substance in a number of distinct solid forms.

Polynosic: A regenerated cellulosic fiber with a fribrillar structure, which gives it a high wet strength.

Polypeptide: A linear polymer of amino acid (protein) which are linked together by a peptide bond (-CONH- link).

Polythese: Polyethylene.

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): Known as “vinyl” in North America. Most fabrics called “PVC” have a fabric base, which has been coated. There is a variety of uses for this fabric - in and out of doors. Special fabric colors can be applied from puff pens, which will dry and stick to the PVC.

Short dress 100% Cotton PVC - Polyvinyl chloride.

POPs: See persistent organic pollutants.

Pomology: Study of fruit.

Pood: 1 mood is about 16.3 kg or 36 pounds (Russia).

POP: (i) Post Office Preferred - approval of size of envelopes etc.; (ii) Post Office Protocol - a standard protocol for delivering email to personal computers; (iii) Point of Purchase; (iv) Point of Presence - a place where an internet service provider can be accessed - such as a local telephone number.

Potamology: Study of fruit.

Potential Difference: Energy needed to move a unit quantity of electricity from one point to another.

Potentiation: When one substance (with no effect of its own) enhances the effect of one or more other substances (contrast synergism).

Potentiometer: Instrument that measures voltages or potential differences.

Pounds Per Square Inch (Abbreviation: psi): A British Imperial measurement of pressure used in pressure steaming.

ppm: Parts per million (by mass), equivalent to a grain of sugar in a cup of tea (very approximate). Now called milligrams per kilogram, or given as 0.0001%.

Precipitate/Precipitation: To fall out of solution as sediment. {Latin praecipitatus meaning "to throw down headlong".}

Primary Arc: Any arc consisting of hues that fall between a pair of primary hues on a hue circle; for example, an arc of hues between red and yellow in an RYB hue circle.

Primaries: See Additive Primaries, Subtractive Primaries.

Prime (time): 6am.

Prismatic Hues: Colors seen in the visible spectrum; that is colors seen when light is refracted through a prism.

Product: Result of multiplying one quantity by another.

Program: Set of instructions devised to tell a computer how to exercise a task.

Propane: Often found in natural gas and petroleum, used as a fuel and refrigerant.

Propane Flame.

Prostaglandins: Biological chemicals based on fatty acids isolated most readily from sperm and prostate glands of sheep, but very widespread in animals. These compounds are hormones with widely different functions.

Protein: A natural polymer of amino acids that is found in animals and plants. It is also called a natural polypeptide.

Proton: Positively charged particle in the atomic nucleus.

Protractor: Instrument that measures angles.

Prussic Acid/Hydrocyanic Acid: Cyanide compound, a favourite poison of detective story writers.

Psephology: Study of elections.

Psychrometer: Instrument that measures humidity.

Pteridology: Study of ferns.

Purkinje Shift: An adaption of the eye to low light levels.

PVT: Initials of "Page View Terminal".

Pycnometer: Instrument that measures relative density of liquids and solids.

Pyrheliometer: Instrument that measures solar radiation.

Pyriform: In the shape of a pear.

Pyrometer: Instrument that measures high temperatures.

Pythagoras' Theorem: Theorem relating to the length of the sides of a right-angles triangle. Square of the hypotenuse equals the sum of the squares of the other two sides.

QA: Quality assurance is a set of requirements that guarantee that procedures have been followed and records kept, so that each repetition of a practice is the same and gives the same outcome. That outcome may not necessarily be correct or desirable, only reproducible.

Quadrilateral: Plane figure bounded by four straight lines; there are six types - see below.

Quadrillion: 1 followed by 24 zeros.

Quanta: Small packets of energy of light; a quanta of light can be visualized as an ethereal bullet that has no mass but only energy.

Quantity Sizes: Dozen (doz.) = 12; Score = 20; Gross = 144 (or a dozen's dozen); Ton (USA) = 907.19 kg.

Quantum Jump, Quantum Leap: Transition of an atomic or molecular system from one distinct energy level to another.

Quantum Mechanics: The theory that describes the behaviour of very small entities such as electrons and atoms in terms of waves as well as discrete particles. It becomes identical to the mechanics of Newton for larger objects. {Latin quantus meaning "how much, how many"; coined by Planck, 1900.}

Quantum Theory: The theory that light and other forms of energy are emitted not as a continuous wave motion, but in small "packets: of energy called quanta.

Quatercentenary/Quadricentennial: 400 years.

Quincentenary: 500 years.

Quinquennial: Five years.

Quintal: Metric unit for 100 kg or about 220 pounds avoirdupois.

Quintillion: 1 followed by 30 zeros.

Quotient: Result of dividing one quantity by another.

Racemic: A one-to-one mixture of left-handed and right-handed (chiral) forms of the same molecule. Most chemical reactions produce products as racemic mixtures, whereas biological reactions generally produce one or the other form only. {Latin racemus meaning "cluster of grapes".}

Rad, Gray: Unit of energy absorbed from radiation.

Radarscope: Instrument that display radar signals.

Radical: A group of atoms that have unpaired electrons. They are therefore very reactive. Ozone is a radical.

Radioactive Decay: Radioactivity is the spontaneous disintegration of certain heavy nuclei through the emission of alpha-particles, beta-particles and gamma rays.

Radiology: Study of radiation and radiotherapy.


Radio-Micrometer: Instrument that measures heat radiation.

C V Boys' radio-micrometer.

Radiosonde: Instrument that transmits meteorological data from a balloon at high altitudes.

Radix: Basis of any number system; in decimal system, the radix is 10 and in binary it is 2.

Radon, Niton: Formed by the radioactive decay of radium, used in radiotherapy and atomic research.

RAM: Initials used for "random access memory"; often used as working space in pre-programmed or Read Only Memory (ROM) programmed machine.

Raster: Screen, whether of halftone process or CRT scan (from German).

Rational Number: Number that can be expressed as a real whole number, or as a fraction involving two whole numbers.

RDA: Recommended daily allowance (USA) of vitamins and minerals.

Reactive Dyes: Dyes that reactive chemically with the fiber to form a permanent bond.

Reagent: Substance used in analyzing, measuring or synthesising other substances in a chemical reaction.

Cocaine Reagent test kit - multipack.

Real Time Processing: Processing in which the machine's instruction is kept in time with the process that the machine is controlling.

Receding Color: Planes of color in a design that appear to move away from the viewer. Usually the cool colors in a work have this characteristic, but the effect depends on color usage.

Reciprocal, Inverse: Number obtained when another number is divided into 1.

Rectifier: Device, such as a diode, for converting alternating current into direct current.

Rectify: Refine, purify, or separate by means of distillations.

Recurring Decimal: Decimal number ending in a pattern of one or more digits repeated indefinitely, as by 0.878787 etc.

Redox Reaction: In every chemical reaction that involves oxidation, a reduction process must also occur for the reaction to be balanced. A redox reaction is the simultaneous reduction-oxidation reactions that must be coupled in order to give a balanced chemical reaction or equation.

Reducing Agent: Reducing agents are chemicals that are used to destroy the background color in discharge printing. Reducing agents are potentially dangerous and should be handled with care.

Reductant: A reductant is a chemical species capable of donating electrons. See above.

Reduction: Reduction is a chemical reaction that involves a gain of electrons. That is, it is a reaction in which electrons are given from a chemical species that is being reduced. Older definitions (not general enough) define it in terms of the loss of oxygen atoms or the addition of hydrogen atoms from molecules. See above.

Reflected Color: Wavelength of light that reflects from a surface and so gives that surface its distinctive color.

Reflexology: Study of reflexes; healing through foot massage.

Refraction: The bending of light as it passes from one medium into another (e.g. light going from air into water is refracted or bent; hence fish appear to be shifted from their actual location).

Refractive Index: A measure of the ability of a material to bend a ray of light. The larger the value, the greater is the refraction (e.g. water, n=1.33; crown glass, n=1.5; diamond, n=2.42). It is related to the density of the material.

Regular Polygon: A plane figure having equal angles and equal sides; some of the regular polygons are given below.

Regular Solid: One bounded by a plane surface, which are regular polygons; there are five regular convex solids.

Relative Humidity: A measurement of the amount of moisture or water vapor present in one cubic meter of air, expressed as a percentage of the maximum amount of water vapor the one cubic meter of air could hold at the temperature when the measurement was taken.

Relative Value: A grey whose ability to absorb or reflect light matches that of a specific hue.

REM, rem: Unit used for radiation dose.

Remote Access: Technique of accessing a computer direct from a distant terminal over communication lines.

Reniform: In the shape of a kidney.

Resistor: Component with a known resistance to electric current.

Resolution: The ability of any device to reproduce fine detail accurately.

Retina: The sensory membrane lining the eye, containing rods and cones and connected to the brain via an optical nerve.

Retort: Round flask with a bent over, narrowing neck, used especially for distillation.

RF: In cartography, initials of "representative fraction", used to denote scale relationship between distance shown on a map and actual distance on the ground (e.g. 1/50,000).

Rheostat: Continuously variable resistor, typically with a sliding contact, used to regulate current, as in a lighting system.

Rh Factor/Rhesus Factor: Substance on the surface of red blood cells that reacts adversely to cells lacking it.

Rhinology: Study of noses.

Rhomboidal: In the shape of a diamond.

RNA/Ribonucleic Acid: Found in all living cells; essential for protein production.

Rod: 1 rod, pole or perch is 5.03 meters or 5.5 yards.

Rods: The photoreceptors in the retina that are sensitive to low light levels and colorless vision.

Roentgen: Units used for X-rays or gamma rays.

ROM: In computer usage, Read Only Memory; part which holds predetermined instructions or program.

Rood: 1 rood is 1011.7 square meters or 0.25 acres.

Rotate: In the shape of spokes of a wheel.

Roundel: A circular or oval panel of white glass (less commonly rectangular) of approximately 20 cm in diameter, made of a single piece decorated with monochrome glass-paint and yellow stain. Later examples also display enamel colors. They depict religious and secular subject-matter and were designed to be viewed at close quarters, often in domestic and other secular settings. They became popular in the last quarter of the fifteenth century, and the largest number were made in the Low Countries.

R, R': The R designates an undefined organic group, in our case generally a hydrocarbon chain. The R' just indicates that it is not necessarily the same as R.

Runcinate, Serrate: In the shape of a saw, teeth of a saw.

RYB System: A pigment system in which in which red, yellow and blue are the primary colors.

Saccadic Movement: Brief rapid eye movement from one fixed point to another, as when reading.

Saccharometer: Instrument that measures sugar content in a solution.

Sagittate: In the shape of an arrowhead.

Salicylic Acid: Basis of aspirin.

Salimeter: Instrument that measures salt in solution.

Salmanazar: 9000ml.

Salt: Sodium chloride is common table salt. There are several forms: sea salt (contains other salts in smaller amounts such as magnesium chloride); coarse pickling salt and ordinary iodized salts (contains potassium iodide etc.) The addition of a salt to dye bath softens the colors and slightly retards the rate at which the fiber absorbs the dye. It is used to “draw” the color from certain dyestuffs, namely flowers, barks, lichens and roots, and is sometimes added to these when they are soaking out. A final hot water and salt rinse is beneficial when rinsing out some colors after dyeing. This adds in the fastness of these shades and prevents too much color “rubbing off” after yarns are dry. Note: it is used as an assistant in reactive and direct dyes.

Saponification: Alkaline hydrolysis. In textile this often refers to the hydrolysis of ester groups of polyester and acetate polymers during laundering, which is under alkaline conditions.

Saturated Covalent Bond: A single covalent bond that does not take part in additional reactions. In textile chemistry, saturated covalent bonds occur most frequently between two carbon atoms, and/or between one carbon (C) atom and an atom of hydrogen (H), oxygen (O) and/or nitrogen (N). Saturated covalent bonds are strong, stable and so are not reactive.

Saturation: The purity of color.

sc, scaps: A photo-electronic device which "reads" relative densities of primary colors in full-color copy to make color separations.

Scalar: Quantity such as mass that has magnitude but no direction.

Scalariform: In the shape of a ladder.

Scatology: Study of excrement; obscene language.

Schuster's Fork: Impossible figure devised by Schuster in 1964; also known as the "Devil's tuning fork" - see figure below.

Scintillation Counter: Instrument that measures ionizing radiation.

Sclerometer: Instrument that measures hardness of materials.

Scrolling: Vertical movement of text, on a VDU.

Scruple: 1 scruple is 1.2 grams or 20 grains.

Secant: Straight line intersecting a curve at two or more points.

Second: It is the duration of exactly 9192631770 periods of radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium-133 atom.

Secondaries: See Additive Secondaries, Subtractive Secondaries.

Seismograph: Instrument that measures earth tremors.

Seismology: Study of earthquakes.

Selective Reflection: Specific wavelengths of light reflected from a surface, giving the surface an identifiable color.

Selenology: Study of the moon.

Semiology: Study of signs and signalling.

Septillion: 1 followed by 42 zeros.

Serum: Purified plasma, from which clotting agents have been removed.

Sextillion: 1 followed by 36 zeros.

Selective Reflection: Specific wavelengths of light reflected from a surface, giving that surface an identifiable color.

Semaphore Code: One devised for signalling by movements of arms, human or mechanical. See below.

Semiconductor: Solid crystalline substance, such as silicon, with medium conductivity.

Semiotics (Semiology): The study of signs and sign-systems, whether spoken, gesticulated, written, printed or constructed; divided into three levels, syntactics (relation between signs), semantics (relation between signs and things they refer to) and pragmatics (relations between signs and those who use them). See digram below.

Sensitometry: The science for measuring the properties of photosensitive materials.

Sequester: To take out of circulation, to tie up metal ions so that they don't interfere (by precipitating soaps, etc.) {Latin sequestare meaning "to commit for safe keeping".}

Sequestering Agent: A chemical that ties up metallic ions in solution.

Serotonin: 5-Hydroxytryptamine transmits signals between nerves of the brain and affects moods. Drugs such as dopamine and LSD affect the level of serotonin in the brain.

Sext: Noon.

Sextant: Instrument that measures altitude of celestial bodies.

Shade: Any hue or color mixed with black.

Shape Memory Alloy: A SMA is a metal alloy (nickel-titanium is the most common) that below a particular temperature (depending on composition) can be twisted into any shape, but on heating above that temperature reverts immediately to a "remember" shape.

Shapes of Molecules: The arrangement of atoms, e.g. water molecule H-O-H, where one oxygen atom with a valency of two, forms two covalent bonds with two hydrogen atoms. These bonds are polar since the oxygen atom is more electronegative than either of the hydrogen atoms. Moreover, the shape of the molecule is not linear rather it is bent.

Shekel: 1 shekel is about 14.17 grams or 0.5 ounce.

Siemens: Unit of electrical conductance.

Sievert: The unit of radiation dose equivalent corresponding to the absorption of one joule per kilogram of biological matter, taking into account the quality factor and other modifying factors. Symbol Sv.

Sigmoid: In the shape of "S", the letter.

Simultaneous Contrast: The phenomenon of an after image seen while the viewer is still looking at a color stimulus.

Sinology: Study of China.

SI Unit: Unit of "measure" conforming to Systeme Internationale.

Soap: A cleaning agent manufactured by reacting natural oils or fats, usually with sodium hydroxide. Soap is a surface active agent.

Soda Ash: Mild alkali, known as sodium carbonate (a form of washing soda) causes procion M dyes to react in fiber.

Sodium Bi-carbonate (Baking Powder): A mild alkaline used in reactive dyeing for painting on color.

Sodium Bisulfite: A quick, inexpensive chemical for discharge dyeing. It contains chlorine.

Sodium Formaldehyde Sulfoxylate (Reducing Agent): Commercial names: Formosul and Rongalite C. It is a general purpose reducing agent. It is easy to handle and produces a good white on cellulose, cellulose acetate, triacetate and 100% silk fabric. It is rarely used on wool because it may cause fiber damage and shrinkage problems, because it functions best in an alkaline pH range. With some finer fabrics the production of a “halo” effect may cause some problems.

Sodium Hydrosulfite: A less powerful discharge agent than chlorine bleach.

Software: Term to describe programs and other operating instructions for a computer - as distinct from hardware which is its physical constitution.

Soft Water: The absence of mineral salts in the water (see hardness of water).

Solenoid: Coil of wire producing a magnetic field when electrically charged, as used for activating switches.

Solid State: Based on semiconductors or microchips, as many modern appliances are.

Solubility: The degree to which a substance will dissolve in a solvent such as water.

Solvent: (i) Usually toxic (but it can be non-toxic) chemical used to dissolve oily block out materials from the screen or used as a pressurized removing agent (e.g. water pressure); (ii) Part of oil-based paints that evaporates during drying.

Solvent Cement: Special adhesive to join sheet plastic. It works by dissolving a small amount of the plastic on each of the surfaces being joined. When the material re-hardens, the surfaces are permanently joined.

Span: 1 span is 22.8 cm or 9 inches (from tip to tip of an extended hand).

Specific Gravity: The density of substance, expressed as the ratio of density of water.

Spectral Hue Circle: A projection of the spectrum as seen as a circle – that is, a rainbow.

Spectral Sensitivity: The relative sensitivity of a photographic material to different wavelengths of light.

Spectrometer: Instrument that measures optical spectra.

Spectroscope: Instrument that observes optical spectra.

Spectroscopy: The separation and analysis of light into its component parts and the study of the interaction of light with materials using different regions of light. Now applied over the whole range of electromagnetic radiation from radio waves to gamma and x-rays. The most powerful and most common source of information on the structure of molecules.

Spectrum: See Electromagnetic Radiation, Visible Light Spectrum.

Spectrum Blue: The color of blue light rays of the spectrum of wavelengths around 440-485x10-9 meters. The most typical color represented by a wavelength of 472x10-9 meters which corresponds in hue to a primary blue, but is more intense. It cannot be duplicated by printing inks.

Spectrum Green: The color of green light rays of the spectrum of wavelengths around 505-560x10-9 meters. The most typical color represented by a wavelength of 544x10-9 meters which corresponds in hue to a primary green, but is more intense. It cannot be duplicated by printing inks.

Spectrum Orange: The color of orange light rays of the spectrum of wavelengths around 580-600x10-9 meters. The most typical color represented by a wavelength of 590x10-9 meters which corresponds in hue to a primary orange, but is more intense. It can to some extent be duplicated by printing inks.

Spectrum Red: The color of red light rays of the spectrum of wavelengths around 600-700x10-9 meters. The most typical color represented by a wavelength of 614x10-9 meters which corresponds in hue to a primary red, but is more intense. It can to some extent be duplicated by printing inks.

Spectrum Violet: The colors of purple and violet cannot be found in the spectrum. The shortest wavelengths of the spectrum 380-440x10-9 meters are often referred to as violet, but are actually bluish violet. Violet is composed of rays from both extremes of the spectrum - the blue short and the red long wavelengths.

Spectrum Yellow: The color of blue light rays of the spectrum of wavelengths around 568-580x10-9 meters. The most typical color represented by a wavelength of 573x10-9 meters which corresponds in hue to a primary yellow, but is more intense. It cannot be duplicated by printing inks.

Speleology: Study of caves.

Spherometer: Instrument that measures curvature of a sphere or cylinder.

Split Complement: A triad of hues (or colors) made up of a hue and the two hues that lie adjacent to its complement.

Spontaneous: In chemistry this has a specialised meaning of referring to a process that has the potential to occur on its own without further input. However, it may occur so slowly as to be unmeasurable. A mixture of LP gas and air will burn spontaneously, but to do so requires a catalyst or a match. Otherwise the mixture sits there forever. {Latin spontaneus meaning "of one's own free will"; coined by Hobbes, 1656.}

Stand-Alone: Electronic unit to which input must be supplied from outside, as distinct from one linked directly to central computer or operator.

Standard International Units (SI Units): It is also known as the International System of Units (abbreviated SI from Systeme International D'unites). It is the modern variant of the metric system that is based on a power of ten between various categories of length (e.g. meter and centi-meter), mass(e.g. kilogram and gram), volume (liter and milli-liter), and temperature (the melting of ice - 0oC - and the creation of steam - 100oC).

Statics: Branch of mechanics concerned with the action of forces on bodies at rest.

Starch: Starch is a homo-polymer of glucose (i.e. a sugar).

Starch Ethers: Solvitose C5 is the most common name for starch ether thickener, which is suitable in alkaline conditions and can be used in most print pastes, except for acids. It is particularly useful for protein devoré printing.

Static Electricity: Fibers that are poor conductors of electricity allow the build up of positive or negative charges in the structure (due to rubbing action etc.) These charges will eventually earth (neutralize) causing a spark, which may be hurtful and/or dangerous.

Stauroscope: Instrument that helps in the study of crystal structure of minerals.

Steelyard: Instrument that measures weight of heavy loads.

Stellate: In the shape of a star.

Sterospecific: As applied to polymers, it is the ability to cause a polymer to be formed in a single geometry rather than a mixture of structures. This often means the polymer can pack together more efficiently to give a material of greater order and higher density. See also atactic.

Sterilization: Reducing the number of micro organisms to below a very low, but finite, agreed level.

Stomatology: Study of mouth disorders.

Strip Heater: Heater designed to heat plastic along a straight line for the purpose of softening sheet plastic so it can be bent or shaped.

Strobilaceous: In the shape of a pine cone.

Stroboscope: Instrument that helps in the adjustment of moving machine parts by making them appear stationary while operating.

Structural Formula: Chemical formula detailing the arrangements of atoms and bonds within the molecule.

Sublime: The ability of a substance to go from the solid to a gas state, when applying heat, without needing to go through a liquid state (e.g. dry ice). These processes are reversible at certain pressure-temperature regimes only; that is, on cooling the substance will go from a gas into a solid state without passing through a liquid state.

Substantive Dyes: See Direct Dyes.

Subtractive Complementary Mixtures: Complementary mixtures of colorants.

Subtractive Mixing: Color mixing using colorants (paints, dyes and inks).

Subtractive Primaries: The pigments magenta, yellow and cyan of the MYC system, which when added together produce black. In the RYB system, red, yellow and blue are designated as primaries although when added together they do not produce black.

Subtractive Secondaries: The products of mixing of any two subtractive primaries: in the MYC system, red-orange (yellow + magenta) , green (yellow + cyan) and blue-violet (magenta + cyan); in the RYB system, orange (yellow + red), green (yellow + blue) and violet (red + blue).

Substrate: A basis on which something else is placed; a starting material.

Successive Contrast: The phenomenon of an after image seen after the viewer looks away from a color stimulus.

Sugar Soap: Alkaline degreasing agent: a type of cleaner that can be applied to a surface before work starts. It needs to be thoroughly rinsed afterwards.

Sulfonation: Addition of the function group - -SO3H to a molecule.

Sulfonic Acid/Sulfonate: An organic compound with the functional group -SO3H or -SO3-.

Sulfuric Acid: Highly dangerous and corrosive acid, with wide industrial application.

Superconductor: Substance that, typically at low temperatures, has almost no resistance.

Supercritical: Above the critical temperature and pressure, there is no longer any distinction between a liquid and a vapour.

Super Ellipse: One of range of regular, closed curves devised by Danish mathematician Piet Hein in 1959; best described as an ellipse trying to turn into a rectangle - see below.

Superheating: Heating a liquid above the temperature at which it would normally boil and form vapour. See also bumping.

Superior Numeral (Figure) or Letter: Small character set above the level of normal characters of typeface (e.g. 43 = 64).

Surface-Active Agent (also called Surfactant): Usually an organic compound which, when added to aqueous solutions, reduces the surface tension of water. This allows the water to wet fibers and other materials more efficiently and quickly. The three types of surfactants most commonly used in textiles are: (i) ionic (e.g. soaps and anionic synthetic detergents); (ii) cationic (e.g. fabric conditioners and softeners); (iii) non-ionic (e.g. the non-ionic synthetic detergents). A fourth type, called amphoteric, is less commonly used.

Surface Tension: Property of liquids in which the surface acts like a stretched elastic skin.

Suspension: Mixture of undissolved particles within a fluid, as with muddy water.

Symbol: A letter, figure or drawn sign that represents or identifies an object, process or activity.

Synergism: Where two or more substances together produce an effect that is greater than the sum of individual separate effects. (See also potentiation).

Synthesis: Slow release of the liquid from a gel, as in cheese making.

Synthetic Detergent: A cleaning agent synthesized from by-products of petroleum refining. Synthetic detergents are surface-active agents.

Systematic Name: Name of a chemical compound that conveys details of its atomic structure.

Tablet: Same as digitizing pad.

Tacheometer: Instrument that measures distance, elevations, and bearings.

Tachometer, Rev Counter: Instrument that measures speed of rotation of a shaft.

Tachistoscope: Instrument that tests perception and memory by displaying visual images very rapidly.

Tachograph: Instrument that records speeds and times of use of vehicles.

Tael: 1 tael is 37.8 grams or 1.333 ounces (Asia).

Talc: Hydrate magnesium silicate. Often used as a resist in the dyeing of fabric. Its slippery or soapy effect is useful as a filler for various industrial purposes.

Tangent: Line, curve or surface touching but not cutting another.

Tannins: Chemicals (polyphenols) extracted from plants that can tan skin to leather. Also found in red wine and tea.

Tartaric Acid: Used in baking powder.

Tautomer: When an atom (often hydrogen) moves backwards and forwards between (two) different places on a molecule, the new and original molecules form a tautomeric pair.

Tasimeter: Instrument that measures small temperature changes.

tele-: Prefix meaning - "at a distance".

Telecommunication: Sending or receiving signals, sounds or messages of any kind by television, radio, telephone or any other electromagnetic means.

Telethermoscope: Instrument that indicates the temperatures of remote locations.

Temperate Colors: Hues that fall between red-violet and green-yellow on the hue circle.

Temperature (Degree Kelvin): It is the fraction 1/273.16 (exactly) of the thermodynamic triple point of water; that is, the point where ice, steam and liquid water can all co-exist.

Temperature of Hues: The characteristic of a color that describes its warmth or coolness.

Tempering: Time-temperature treatment for modifying the mechanical properties of complex materials such as steel and chocolate.

Tensile Strength: The ability of any material (fiber etc.) to withstand a lengthwise pull.

Tensiometer: Instrument that measures tensile strength, stretchability.

tera-: Prefix for one million million.

Teratogen: An agent capable of inducing foetal abnormalities (monstrosities). {Greek teras meaning "monster".}

Teratology: Study of monsters; congenital abnormalities.

Terce: 9am.

Tercentenary/Tricentennial: 300 years.

Tertiary Colors: Colors produced by a combination (modulation) of two secondary colors.

Tetrad: A system of colors or hues found by placing a rectangle, square or trapezoid within the hue circle.

Theobromine: A stimulant related to caffeine, found in chocolate (does not contain bromine).

Therapeutic Index: A ratio of the toxic dose to the effective dose; the bigger this is, the safer the drug.

Therodolite: Instrument that measures vertical and horizontal angles, and hence distances and elevations.

Thermocopy: A copy produced by the action of heat, rather than light as in photocopy.

Thermodynamics: Branch of physics concerned with the relationship of heat to other forms of energy.

Thermoplastics: Materials that when heated become soft and pliable and can be molded into a desired shape before being cooled and becoming hard again, but now set into the desired shape.

Thermosetting: Property of a polymer that once formed does not melt on heating, charring instead. Its structure has cross-linking from one chain to the next.

Thermostat: Instrument that maintains a constant temperature.

thio-: {Greek theion meaning "brimstone".} A prefix used when one atom is replaced buy a sulfur atom. For example, sodium sulphate, Na2SO4 becomes sodium thiosulfate, Na2S2O3 by replacing one oxygen by one sulfur atom.

Thiourea Dioxide (Reducing Agent): Commercial name: Manofast. This seldom used now but is employed successfully when discharging nylon. It is chemically inert with many reagents, but if heated with an alkali and water mixture an irreversible reaction takes place producing formamidine sulfinic acid which on decomposition releases sulfoxylic acid, an active reducing agent.

Thixotropic: Descriptive of mixture, which as it is agitated or moved around, becomes more fluid; when left still, it thickens.

Threshold: (Of poisons) the maximum level of intake that produces no clinically detectable effect - no response dose. This is not necessarily the level below which no damage is done.

Threshold Limit Value (TLV): This is a limit value which gives the lower safety limit. Any solvent with a TVL less than 200 ppm should be avoided or treated with considerable caution. For example, the TVL of gasoline is ca. 300 ppm. In the case of solvents you need to prevent contact with eyes and skin for a TLV of 2 mg m-3 (2ppm). Note: Sometimes Occupational Exposure Limits (OEL) is used in lieu of TLV.

Thyroxine: An iodine-containing hormone produced by the thyroid gland that controls the rate of all metabolic processes in the body.

Tierce, Terce: 1 tierce is 150 liters or about 33 gallons.

Time: Both the SI unit and the Imperial system have the same units for time.
1 Year = 3.16x107 seconds (s); 1 Month (31 Days) = 267.84 x 108 s; 1 Day = 8.64 x 104 s; 1 hour = 3.6 x 103 s; 1 minute = 60 s.

Tinctorial Power: A colorant's ability to change the character of another color.

Tint: Any hue or color mixed with white.

Titanium Dioxide (Auxiliary): It is sometimes added to a print paste to act as a buffer, thereby improving the color of the final discharge by giving it a white pigment appearance.

Titration: Procedure for determining the concentration of a solution by adding a standard reagent.

Tog: A metric unit for insulation value equal to the thermal resistance that will allow heat flow of one watt per square meter from a temperature differential of 0.1oC.

Tolerance: In describing pesticide residues, this term is used in the US for maximum residue limit, MRL. Tolerance in pharmacology refers to the long-term use of a substance (drug) whereby more is needed to obtain the same effect (but the amount causing toxic effect is often unchanged).

Tonality: The felling or mood that organization of values in a work produces.

Tonal Range: The tonal range of values with a work.

Tone: Any hue or color mixed with its relative value.

Tonne or Metric Ton: 10 quintals, or 0.98421 long tons.

Topography: Science of representing features of any district in detail, as on a map.

Topology: Branch of mathematics concerned with contiguity and relative position, rather than with congruence and dimension.

Toroid: In the shape of a doughnut, ring.

Torque: Turning effect of a force on a body free to rotate about an axis; also known as the moment of force.

Toxicity: The property of poisons.

Toxicology: Study of poisons.

Toxin: The term originally used for poisons secreted by microbes.

trans-: On opposite sides. {Latin - see also cis.}

Trans Fatty Acid: An unusually fatty acid formed as a result of hydrogenation.

Transferrin: Blood protein transferring iron in the body.

Transformer: Device for changing the voltage of an alternating current with alteration of the frequency.

Translucent: The description of materials that transmit light but are not fully transparent; that is, an image cannot be seen clearly through the material.

Transponder: Instrument that transmits information in response to radio signal.

Triad: Any combination of three colors or hues within a work.

Tribology: Study of friction and lubrication.

Trichology: Study of hair.

Triennial: Three years.

Trigonometry: Study and application of the relationships involving the sides and angles of a triangles, as used in surveying and navigation.

Trillion: 1 followed by 18 zeros.

Trivial or Common Name: Common name for a chemical compound, giving no information about its components.

Trochal: In the shape of a wheel.

Twaddle Scale (abbreviation- TW): A scale used for expressing specific gravity of liquids.

Tweeter: Loudspeaker in a Hi-Fi system for reproducing chiefly high-pitched sounds.

Ufology: Study of unidentified flying objects.

Ultraviolet (UV or U/V): Light waves beyond the visible portion of violet waves in the electromagnetic spectrum, which can be absorbed by some photosensitive materials.

Uncinate, Unciform: In the shape of a hook.

Undertone: The color effect of a hue when tinted; the result might look like the body tone or it may show a temperature change.

Unsaturated Covalent Bond: A double or triple bond, which in general are more reactive than saturated covalent bonds and so can undergo addition reactions. Also used in connection with saturated fats (which contain saturated covalent bonds i.e. single bonds - not reactive) and unsaturated fats (which contain unsaturated covalent bonds - double or triple bonds - very reactive).

Uranography: Mapping of stars and galaxies.

Urceolate: In the shape of an Urn.

Uric Acid: Cause, when unregulated, of gout.

User Friendly: Easy for a person to handle.

Valency: Power of an atom or group of atoms to combine with other atoms, represented by a number.

Value: A color's relative degree of lightness or darkness.

Value Scale: A scale of greys ranging to and limited by black and white.

van der Graaff Generator: Generator of high voltage static electricity that accumulates on a large hollow metal ball.

van der Waals Forces: These forces are really due to intermolecular forces but on occasion have been named after the Dutch physicist who investigated their effects on the properties of gases. They are weak attractions or repulsions that operate at close range between all types of atoms and molecules and in the cases of attractions are the principal reason that dyes will bond in hydrophobic fibers. See intermolecular forces.

Vapour: Gas at a temperature below its critical temperature, where it can be liquified by pressure alone.

Variable: Quantity that can assume any of various possible values.

Variance: In statistics, a measure of the spread of a source of numbers or measurements.

Variometer: Instrument that measures rate of climb or descent of an aircraft.

Varnish: A solution of a natural or synthetic resin in a solvent, sometimes with the addition of a drying oil.

Vat Dyes: A group of dyes that are made soluble in water by the addition of a reduction chemical and then returned to insoluble form inside the fiber by oxidation.

VDU: Visual display unit (VDU) - the computer screen displaying information.

Vector: Generally, any quantity having both magnitude and direction and expressed by a straight line of a given length; more specifically, those line increments from which some types of computer-generated graphics displays are formed - see diagram below.

Velocimeter, Speedometer: Instrument that measures velocity or speed.

Venn Diagram: On using circles, ovals or other closed figures to illustrate sets, named after John Venn, who used them from 1880; also known as "Euler Circles" after Leonhard Euler, who used them in 1770, although they appear to have been invented by Johann Christoph Sturm in 1661 - see diagram below.

Vermiculite: A group of mica minerals, so called because when slowly heated they open into long worm like structures. {Latin vermiculus diminutive of vermis meaning "worm"; hence vermin".}

Vertex: Plural - vertices. In geometry, meeting-point of lines that form an angle.

Vespers: Early evening.

Vexillology: Study of flags.

Vine Black: Made by calcining selected wood and other vegetable products. This pigment and the other blacks referred to it are members of a group of rather impure forms of carbon made by burning selected, but rather second-rate materials of vegetable, animal, and petroleum origins. They all have a bluish undertones and when mixed with whites will produce blue-greys. They are inferior to the lampblack group in intensity and pigment properties. While these materials are probably permanent enough for most practical uses, it is wiser to select one of the purer forms of carbon as listed under Black Pigments. The vine black group should not be used in fresco or to mix with cement, mortar etc. because of efflorescence from water-soluble impurities, which they always contain.

Vinometer: Instrument that measures the alcohol content of wine.

Virgate: (i) In the shape of a wand, rod; (ii) A unit of measure - 1 virgate is about 12 hectares or 30 acres.

Viscosity: Resistance to change in shape or form of a material - "internal friction".


Visible Light Spectrum: The region of radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum that generally is perceived by human beings.

Vitamin: one of a group of unrelated chemical that can not be produced by the body and must be taken in externally. {Latin vita meaning "life" + German amin meaning "amine"; coined by C. Funk, 1913.}

VOC: abbrev. Volatile organic compound.

Volt: Unit of electric potential.

von Bezold Effect (Spreading Effect): The phenomenon in which by adding or changing one color in the design, one alters the total color effect.

v/v: Volume/volume.

Warm Colors: Rede, orange and yellow and colts that contain reds, oranges and yellows, such as warm neutrals.

Wash Bottle: Sealed container with two outlet tubes, from which liquid is dispensed by blowing down on one tube.

Waterglass: Colloidal solution of sodium silicate in water; used in chemical gardens, egg preserving, paper sizing and much else.

Watt: Unit of power.

Weber-Fechner Law: Perceived intensity (S) of a stimulus (I) varies as the logarithm of the physical intensity (i.e. S = KlogI + constant) (Fechner). The magnitude of a reference stimulus (I) and the amount of change necessary to produce a just noticeable difference (∆I) are related (∆I/I = constant) (Weber). These laws are in fact equivalent and so are often combined, as here.

Wetting: The covering of a solid by a liquid with a thin film. The contact angle the liquid makes on the solid is small. See also surface energy (tension).

Wheatstone Bridge: Instrument used to measure resistance.

White Light: Visible radiation that contains all components of light in the visible spectrum – natural light or daylight.

White Spirit: White spirit is a mixture of saturated aliphatic and alicyclic C7-C12 hydrocarbons with a maximum content of 25% of C7-C12 alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons (Henriksen, 1980). This ordinary white spirit is designated white spirit, type1, regular grade, as three different types and three different grades exist. The type refers to whether the solvent has been subjected to hydrodesulfurization (removal of sulfur) alone (type 1), solvent extraction (type 2) or hydrogenation (type 3). The hydrodesulfurized type contains less than 25% aromatic hydrocarbons, the solvent-extracted less than 5%, and the hydrogenated less than 1%. Each type comprises three different grades: low flash grade (flash point: 21-30°C; initial boiling point: 130-144°C), regular grade (flash point: 31-54°C; initial boiling point: 145-174°C), and high flash grade (flash point: 55°C; initial boiling point: 175-200°C). The grade is determined by the crude oil used as the starting material and the conditions of distillation. Type 0 white spirit is defined as a distillation fraction with no further treatment, consisting predominantly of saturated C9-C12 hydrocarbons with a boiling range of 140-220°C. The low flash grade possesses the highest vapor pressure of approximately 1.4 kPa (10.5 mmHg) at 20°C. A USA variety of type 1 is called Stoddard solvent and is a petroleum distillate defined according to its boiling range of 149-204°C and the absence of rancid or objectionable odors.

Wimshurst Machine: Demonstration apparatus generating static electricity by the rotation of its two insulating discs in opposite direction.

Winchester, Winchester Quart: Cylindrical narrow necked glass bottle with a capacity of about 2 liters (3.5 pints), used for storing and carrying liquids.

Woofer: Loudspeaker for reproducing chiefly low-pitched sounds.

Woulfe Bottle: Glass container with two or more necks, used for passing gas through a liquid.

w/v: Weight/volume.

w/w: Weight/weight (or more correctly mass/mass).

x-axis: horizontal axis in a coordinate graph.

Xenon: Used in flash lamps and lasers.

Xylene: Dimethyl benzene {Greek xylon meaning "wood".} from destructive distillation of wood.

y-axis: Vertical axis in co-ordinate graph.

Young's Modulus: Elastic modulus is the rate of stress applied to a material to the strain produced. The stiffer a material, the larger is its modulus. See also Hooke's law.

Zeolite: A group of hydrated aluminosilicates (natural or synthetic materials) {Greek zein meaning "to boil" and lithos meaning "stone"; coined by A.F. Cronstedt, 1756, for mineral species which appeared to boil when heated in a blowpipe.} They retain pores or channels in their crystal structure which can trap a wide variety of ions and molecules. Used in detergents as water softeners, and as catalyst for reforming petroleum products.

Zinc Formaldehyde Sulfoxylate (Reducing Agent): Commercial names: Decrolin, Arostit ZET. It is mainly used for the discharging of 100% wool, white discharges on synthetics, and pigment discharges on cellulose. It requires slightly acidic conditions and consequently fiber damage and shrinkage problems are reduced on wool. However, it can cause yellowing with white discharge effects. This can be overcome by adding zinc oxide or titanium dioxide to the discharging solution to improve whiteness.

Zinc Oxide (Auxiliary): It is sometimes added to a print paste to act as a buffer, thereby improving the color of the final discharge by giving it a white pigment appearance.

Zircon White: Zirconium oxide. Used to impart whiteness and opacity to ceramic glazes; not in use as a paint pigment.

Zymology: Study of fermentation.

Zymoscope: Instrument that monitors fermentation by recording the amount of carbon dioxide produced.

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