Saturday, December 7, 2019

Durable Press and Wash-and-Wear Finishes - Part II [1]
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

This is the ninety-fourth post in the "Art Resource" series, specifically aimed to construct an appropriate knowledge base in order to develop an artistic voice in ArtCloth.

Other posts in this series are:
Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms
Units Used in Dyeing and Printing of Fabrics
Occupational, Health & Safety
A Brief History of Color
The Nature of Color
Psychology of Color
Color Schemes
The Naming of Colors
The Munsell Color Classification System
Methuen Color Index and Classification System
The CIE System
Pantone - A Modern Color Classification System
Optical Properties of Fiber Materials
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part I
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part II
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part III
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part IV
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part V
Protein Fibers - Wool
Protein Fibers - Speciality Hair Fibers
Protein Fibers - Silk
Protein Fibers - Wool versus Silk
Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Cotton
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Linen
Other Natural Cellulosic Fibers
General Overview of Man-Made Fibers
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Viscose
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Esters
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Nylon
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Polyester
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Acrylic and Modacrylic
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Olefins
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Elastomers
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Mineral Fibers
Man Made Fibers - Other Textile Fibers
Fiber Blends
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part I
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part II
Melt-Spun Fibers
Characteristics of Filament Yarn
Yarn Classification
Direct Spun Yarns
Textured Filament Yarns
Fabric Construction - Felt
Fabric Construction - Nonwoven fabrics
A Fashion Data Base
Fabric Construction - Leather
Fabric Construction - Films
Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins
Fabric Construction – Foams and Poromeric Material
Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns
Weaving and the Loom
Similarities and Differences in Woven Fabrics
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part I)
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part II)
The Three Basic Weaves - Twill Weave
The Three Basic Weaves - Satin Weave
Figured Weaves - Leno Weave
Figured Weaves – Piqué Weave
Figured Fabrics
Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements
Crêpe Fabrics
Crêpe Effect Fabrics
Pile Fabrics - General
Woven Pile Fabrics
Chenille Yarn and Tufted Pile Fabrics
Knit-Pile Fabrics
Flocked Pile Fabrics and Other Pile Construction Processes
Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms
Napped Fabrics – Part I
Napped Fabrics – Part II
Double Cloth
Multicomponent Fabrics
Knit-Sew or Stitch Through Fabrics
Finishes - Overview
Finishes - Initial Fabric Cleaning
Mechanical Finishes - Part I
Mechanical Finishes - Part II
Additive Finishes
Chemical Finishes - Bleaching
Glossary of Scientific Terms
Chemical Finishes - Acid Finishes
Finishes: Mercerization
Finishes: Waterproof and Water-Repellent Fabrics
Finishes: Flame-Proofed Fabrics
Finishes to Prevent Attack by Insects and Micro-Organisms
Other Finishes
Shrinkage - Part I
Shrinkage - Part II
Progressive Shrinkage and Methods of Control
Durable Press and Wash-and-Wear Finishes - Part I
Durable Press and Wash-and-Wear Finishes - Part II

There are currently eight data bases on this blogspot, namely, the Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, the Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, the Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns, Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements, Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms and the Glossary of Scientific Terms, which has been updated to Version 3.5. All data bases will be updated from time-to-time in the future.

If you find any post on this blog site useful, you can save it or copy and paste it into your own "Word" document etc. for your future reference. For example, Safari allows you to save a post (e.g. click on "File", click on "Print" and release, click on "PDF" and then click on "Save As" and release - and a PDF should appear where you have stored it). Safari also allows you to mail a post to a friend (click on "File", and then point cursor to "Mail Contents On This Page" and release). Either way, this or other posts on this site may be a useful Art Resource for you.

The Art Resource series will be the first post in each calendar month. Remember - these Art Resource posts span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist to that required by a final year University Fine-Art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource post may appear far too technical for your needs (skip over those mind boggling parts) and in other parts, it may be too simplistic with respect to your level of knowledge (ditto the skip). The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that Art Resource posts will hopefully be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately may not be satisfying to all!

Durable Press and Wash-and-Wear Finishes - Part II[1]

Wash-and-Wear Versus Durable Press
The conventional wash-and-wear finish was designed to set flat fabric so that it would retain a smooth unwrinkled condition. On the other hand, durable press has been described as the mature, more sophisticated heir to wash-and-wear garments. It was design to set the shape of the garment.

There have been two theories concerning the function of the resins in the fiber. The deposition theory was that the resin filled up space within the fiber to prevent the penetration of moisture and keep the fiber from swelling when it became wet. The cross-linking theory, accepted about 1948, was that the resin or reactant formed cross-links between the molecular chains to tie them together and limit chain slippage.

Finishing Agents

A continuing research program by industry - particularly the cotton industry - has resulted in the development of many: (i) new resins and reactants; (ii) better processes to improve continually the performance of wash-and-wear finishes available to the consumer.

Whitening Softener HR-600 Mainly used for cotton, polyester/cotton bleaching and whitening textile softening.[Main composition]Hydroxy silicone.

The finish usually contains more than the resin or reactant. Some of the other substances are: catalysts, silicone emulsion softeners, optical whiteners, and thermoplastic polymers.

Mercerizing Smoothing Agent 3162C. This product dedicated to polyester, polyester superfine, mercerized yarn, garment mercerizing treatment of fabric.

Resins are a family of chemical that can be applied to cotton, rayon, and linen fabrics in monomer form.

PP Resin for nonwoven fabrics.

They will polymerise when heat cured to firm cross-links between the molecular chassis of cellulose. The formaldehyde resins have been known for ~ 110 years and have been used for about the last 80 years. One dated method - the vapour phase method - uses formaldehyde resins.

A process of treating a textile fabric containing cellulosic fibers to impart crease resistance in which the fabric is impregnated with an aqueous solution containing formaldehyde and a curing catalyst, vacuum is applied to the impregnated fabric to remove excess impregnation solution and to provide a wet pickup of about 15 to 35 percent, and the fabric is then dried and cured.

Phenol formaldehyde was the first to be be used, but it was discarded because it discoloured the cloth. Urea formaldehyde for rayon and melamine formaldehyde for cotton were the first to be used successfully. Many resins have been tried snd discarded because of poor resistance to conditions of use or for lack of permanence to washing. The nitrogen-containing resins could not be used on white fabrics because of yellowing when bleached with chlorine.

Phenolic yellowing of textile.

Cellulose reactants are non resinous chemicals that have a definite chemical reaction with the cellulose fiber polymer. The aldehydes and sulfones are examples of these. Cellulose reactants have been described as:" effective way to impart crease recovery to cellulose fabrics by establishing covalent bonds between the molecule and the individual fiber[1].

Below is a table that compares some resins and reactants.

[1] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd Edition, MacMillan Company, London (1968).