Saturday, August 25, 2012

Another Year – Another Cheer
Annual Review

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Time flows by so quickly that you don’t notice when another year passes. I started this blog two years ago on the 26th August 2010 - partly as art therapy and partly to inform, aspire and inspire others to imbue themselves in their own art passions.

We are all spectators at different points in time, and that is important for all of us - as learning and appreciative tools - but when we are participants, the mere act of engagement in our art releases us into an imaginary world that refreshes and reinvigorates our spirit. That is why we become so passionate about our art and art practice.

At the outset my commitment was simple: I would blog approximately 50 posts a year, including a summary of each year. For your convenience I have listed these summaries below:
It's Been An Exciting Year (2010/2011)
Where Did The Year Go (2012/2013)
The Year Of The Horse (2013/2014)
Cold and Windy - But on the Dawn of Renewal (2014/2015)
A Time To Reflect - A Time To Select (2015/2016)
A Time to Remember (2016/2017)
To Be or Not to Be (2017/2018)
The Night Too Quickly Passes (2018/2019)

I have positioned this blog site on my twin passions: prints on cloth and prints on paper. However, I would temper my twin passions by including reviews, articles and opinions about art. In my first year I created the following categories: (i) Art Reviews; (ii) Art Essays; (iii) Technical Articles; (iv) Art Exhibitions/Installations; (v) My Prints On Paper; (vi) My ArtCloth; (vii) My Students Outputs (Workshops and Master Classes). This year I added four new categories: (viii) Guest Editor; (ix) Guest Artist; (x) Art Resources; (xi) Wearable Art.

I have never been one to be guided by statistics or popularity since if I was so inclined I would be attracted to the tried and tested media of the arts, namely, canvas paintings, sculpture, murals, frescos etc.

Although I have my favourite posts, I am always shocked with what the democratic process throws up at you (i.e. number of page views, visitors, length of stay etc.) Some I would have predicted, others I shook my head in wonder. The latter category always rested on my artwork, since we all believe that we know our artwork better than anyone else and so we assert - we know what works and what doesn’t. Think again!

Art Reviews (2011 - 2012)
The most popular Art Review was Traditional Indian Textiles by a country mile! What was so surprising by this result was that this category contained some excellent ArtCloth posts such as ArtCloth From Utopia (Aboriginal ArtCloth).

A closer inspection of the statistics revealed that most of the visits came from Indian internet service providers (ISP's). Hence, people from India were viewing traditional Indian textiles from a book written by two Englishmen and a review constructed by an Australian. I guess it doesn’t get more fascinating than that!

Rabari shepherd families dressed to go to Krishna’s birthday festival (outside of Anjar, Kutch).
Traditional Indian Textiles.

Art Essays (2011 - 2012)
There were quite a few Art Essays penned in this year. It is not surprising that the two most popular were Pop Art and New York Spray Can Memorials, with the former taking out the pop-ular prize (sorry about the pun). The “Pop Art” essay is on the reading list of some Australian Art Schools and it has been duplicated on a number of websites around the world (e.g. "PDF Pop Art") and so it was not surprising that this essay was the most viewed in this category.

“Collaged, layered, torn, worn graffiti poster creating exciting compositions and juxtapositions of colors and fragments that have the power of carefully crafted collages”. David Robinson, Soho Walls, Beyond Graffiti, Artist Unknown.
Pop Art.

Technical Articles (2011 - 2012)
There were a number of Technical Articles published over the year. The article in Quilting Arts Magazine - Multisperse Dye Sublimation (MSDS) had a number of different website groups contact me and attempt to repeat the published process that produced the images in the magazine. Interest alone in the technique gave this post the filip it needed to be the most viewed in this category.

My MSDS technique was published in Quilting Arts, August/September 2011 issue, No. 52.

Art Exhibitions/Installations (2011 - 2012)
This category was thin on the ground in my second year. Moreover, my latest exhibition - When Rainforests Ruled - was only posted on the 14th July 2012 and yet it out polled my other exhibition - Another Brick - which was uploaded in October, 2011. Length of stay on the blogspot is not necessarily the sole criterion for popularity (although in some categories it is a significant factor!)

Title: Nura Nura.
Framed Size: 45 cm (width) x 55 cm (height).
When Rainforests Ruled - ArtCloth Exhibition@Purple Noon Art And Sculpture Gallery (Freemans Reach, NSW, Australia).

My Prints On Paper (2011 - 2012)
There were a number of my prints on paper in my second year – ranging from Veiled Curtains to Beyond The Fear Of Freedom to A Letter To A Friend. The latter was the most popular. More recently there is a renewed interest in tattoo art as well as socio-political poster art. Both of my artist printmakers’ books sit within that last genre, whereas Beyond The Fear Of Freedom also features tattoo art.

A Letter to A Friend – The Bird Of Prey.

My ArtCloth (2011 - 2012)
There are a number of posts carrying my ArtCloth on this blog spot. The statistics show that the most popular in terms of page views, visitors and length of duration was The Making Of Cultural Graffiti. Although the post contained mixed media, most of it was composed of ArtCloth pieces. It is clear from the comment delivered, that how my Post Graffiti artworks interfaced with Graffiti itself was of interest. It is not surprising that the Post Graffiti movement on cloth is gaining acceptance and so reaching a wider audience. This art exploration is definitely on the move.

Cultural Graffiti I (Detailed View) - ArtCloth.
Technique: Dyed, overdyed, stamped, matrix formatted silkscreened prints using dyes, metallic foils and transparent, opaque and metallic paints on cotton.
Size: 250 cm (width) x 125 cm (length).
First Exhibited: In 2004 I was invited to participate in the "ArtCloth 2004: Committed to Cloth", exhibition at the "Festival of Quilts and the Knit & Stitch Conference", Birmingham, England. See above image.

Workshops (2011 - 2012)
I love my student’s outputs. When I teach a workshop I am always amazed at the chemistry amongst my students. They are so generous with each other - lending each other their tools, and sharing their ideas. I have rarely met an ill-spirited person. Most of my students are mature-age students who happen to be women and so are excellent at networking. Moreover, they have paid to learn and so they soak it in like a blotter. Camaraderie and laughter I believe are the most important ingredients in order to engender a learning atmosphere.

Now I should give most of them a discount, because what I have not shared with them in the past is that they are teaching me lots. Sure I impart to them techniques, ideas on color, composition and design but they show me their inspiration and at the end of the day I am flabbergasted - where did that concept spring from? Their life experiences seep deep into their sub-consciousness and spring forth into their constructed imagery and into their nuances of ideas that surface in their artworks.

The most popular viewed workshop was the Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing Workshop@Hunters Hill, Sydney. It was a five-day workshop in which the group produced outstanding work. I work all my student groups hard and the output from Hunters Hill (as with my other groups) reflects their hard work.

Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing Workshop@Hunters Hill, Sydney.
Standing from back left to right: Jayne Carruthers, Maz Beeston, Judi Crawford, Dianne Leith Page, Susan Pepper, Carole McLachlan, Barbara McLennan and Kathy Geurts. Sitting from front left to right: Mandy Smith, Carolyn Hickey and Robyn.

Guest Editor (2011 - 2012)
There were two Guest Editor spots and the most viewed was that of Teresa Paschke (Iowa State University) who taught her class the MultiSperse Dye Sublimation (MSDS) technique in order to produce a group work aptly named Autumn Splendor. Her student’s output was superb and the banner that they produced was a colorful tribute to the season. It really held together well as a team effort punctuated by their individual works.

Autumn Splendor Group.
Tutor: Tersa Paschke
Group photo from left to right:
Back Row: Kelsey Gill, Brittney Lynch, Brooke Batterson, Donny Chen, Jennifer Sonner, Christine Prince.
Front Row: Binnie Bae, Kate Derksen, Karen Schmidt, Ananya Arora, Jordan Delzell, Rahele Jomepour.

Guest Artist (2011 - 2012)
Jennifer Libby Fay was my inaugural Guest Artist. Her blog My Voice Using Disperse Dyes On Cloth was a stunning body of artwork. It was ArtCloth using disperse dyes - with her signature all over it. The subtlety and composition of her artwork is carefully thought out. When you view her work - those soft tones with their painterly qualities - just reaches ever so gently into your sub-consciousness and makes you feel refreshed and renewed. She gave us a little insight into her greater body of work.

Jennifer Libby Fay - Guest Artist: My Voice Using Disperse Dyes On Cloth - at work in her studio lifting cloth (Kansas City, Missouri, USA).

Art Resources (2011 - 2012)
The “Art Resource” program has had some directed criticism in that some thought it was unnecessarily complex whilst others thought it hit the mark. The problem with this series is that it tries to span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist as well as that required by a final year University fine-art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource posts may appear far too technical or far too simplistic with respect to the level of knowledge of the reader. The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that the Art Resource posts hopefully will be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately, may not be satisfying to all.

With that built-in flaw in mind - of all the Art Resources posts the Glossary Of Terms And Fabrics is streaks ahead of the field in this category. The Glossary is now up to version 2.7 and in its inception it was only 38 pages in length in PDF format. The glossary is now 220 pages in length and contains a vast array of definitions ranging from chemical to fabric processes, descriptions of implements, fabrics, stain removal from fabrics, yarns, knits, fleeces, colors, natural and commercial dyes, pigments, craft techniques, compositions, designs, wearable art processes, graphic design definitions, paper printmaking processes, embroidery, needlework, printmaking and surface design on cloth processes, artists, and art movements etc. The Glossary will be updated from time-to-time in the future.

In one simple area in this document you will find the following definitions.

Dutch White (pigment): China clay; also Dutch process white lead.

Duvetyn: A fabric that is similar to suede but lighter in weight and is more drapable. It has a soft velvet-like surface made by napping, shearing and brushing.

Dyad: Any pair of complementary hues.

Dye Based Ink: Ink obtaining its color from aniline dye.

Dyebath: Water in which the dyestuff has been cooked out. The dyestuff itself is often strained off and discarded.

Dyeing: Apart from its participle meaning it is also used as a noun meaning a specimen of dyed material (e.g. a dyed hank of cotton). Dyeing is in general carried out in an aqueous solution. Attachment of a dye molecule to a fiber is due to absorption. There are four types of forces that bind a dye molecule to a fiber and these are: ionic forces, hydrogen bonds, van der Waals’ forces and covalent bonds.

Dyebath Ratio: The ratio between the cloth weight and water is called the dyebath ratio. For example, a 1:50 dyebath ratio means for every 1g of cloth 50g of water is required.

Dyed Style: A method of patterning in which a mordant is applied to a fabric before dyeing. Only the mordant areas permanently fix the dye. Different mordants can produce different colors with the same dye upon the piece of fabric.

Dyestuff: Animal, mineral or vegetable (plant) matter from which a dye is made.

And in another part of the Glossary you will find:
Amethyst (Violet) (CI - 15C6): The color of amethyst, a semi-precious stone, which may at times appear bluer than the color shown here. From the Greek - amethystos - meaning "without intoxication", since the stone was considered protective against drunkenness (1572).

Wearable Art (2011 - 2012)
There were four posts in this category this year. The two posts that slugged it out were A Selection of My Scarves and My Silk Rayon Velvet Scarves@Purple Noon. The former was posted in February 2012, whereas the latter was posted just one month ago.

Length of duration does not always mean a greater viewer audience since other factors such as presentation of images can also hold sway; that is, many new visitors are attracted to this blogspot via searching for images on the web. This was a significant factor for this post to gain the ascendency.

ArtCloth Velvet Scarf 1.
Technique: Hand dyed and Hand printed by the artist. Dyed, over-dyed, discharged, silk screened and foiled employing dyes and foil on silk rayon velvet.
Size: 28 cm (width) x 180 cm (length).

ArtCloth Velvet Scarf 1 - Detail View.

In this review of 2011-2012 posts, let me add I always like to receive comments, whether they are critical or singing praises – how else can one learn?

Gremlins will continue to appear in my posts - such as in Rainforest Memories II where a photograph of a waterfall attributed to the Daintree Rainforest should have been attributed to a waterfall in the Atherton Tablelands (as a wise anonymous reader pointed out). This mistake has been corrected – thanks anonymous!

One of the beautiful falls in the Daintree Rainforest (and this one is for real!)
Rainforest Memories II

It has been “Another Year – Another Cheer”. Have fun blogging your art - remain passionate!

Saturday, August 18, 2012

Aboriginal Art Appropriated by Non-Aboriginal Artists
Art Essay

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Is “appropriation” the forging of a new act of engagement? I have purposely used the word “forging” since it has an ambiguous meaning[1]. It could mean to copy with intent in order to pass as the original or it could mean to frame and fashion an image or action into a particular context.

I would contend that earlier definitions of “appropriation” within an art context limits its conceptual meaning. For example, the earlier definitions of “appropriation” were inappropriate since they were coined in terms of the exactness or likeness of image: that is, it was defined as “Xerox Art”[2] or “Quotation Art”[2] or art with “…no combinations, no transformations, no additions, no synthesis”[3]. Art that completely dismantles originality and so was dull, derivative, opportunistic and mechanical [2]. "Appropriation" in modernity centers on its transformational power to project an image or representation from its original conception into an entirely new conceptual domain.

“Appropriation” is not an art movement with a historical beginning and end[4]. It is in fact a logical process of representation and so it is not too dissimilar to inductive or deductive reasoning which rests on the premises or axioms that are assumed to be irrefutable[5]. Hence it cannot be defined by the context in which it is used[4]. That is, it cannot be defined in terms of the usual categories such as style, artistic identity and history. For example, ”appropriation” is evident in Impressionism as well as in Abstract Expressionism, thereby indicating that the form of the art cannot define the act.

Abstract Expressionism - Margo Lewers, Wreckage (1956).
Media: Oil on hardboard.
Size: 91.5 cm (width) x 121.9 cm (length).
Note: Her painting consisted of a series of angular or boomerang shapes (aboriginal motifs) sweeping the foreground of the picture, with variation to tones of browns and yellows, giving vibrancy with a much needed added dimension.

To try and understand “appropriation” in a concrete operational sense, let us turn to nature. Identical twins occur if the ovum, after fertilization, splits into two[6]. In a fertilized egg, each chromosomal pair is made up from halves from each parent. Consequently, the chance of children getting exactly the same set of chromosomes from their parents is rare[7]. Only identical twins – from a single fertilized egg – can have identical chromosomes[7].

Below you see two identical twins. It is clear that “only that which is alike differs”[8]. That is, we notice differences because of the similarity of these two sisters. On the other hand, “only differences are alike” [8]. This means that we think of their similarity as a product of a basic disparity. The first way is to view the world in iconoclastic terms, whereas the second is to define it in terms of similarity. Either way, the process of “appropriation” reinforces the existence of the original via its transformational restatement(s)[5].

“Only that which is alike differs”. We notice differences because the twins are similar.

Contemporary Aboriginal Art
Aboriginal Art is both aged and contemporary[9]. Just a few decades ago, “contemporary” aboriginal art would have been synonymous with the watercolors of the Aranda School in Central Australia[9].

The modernity of aboriginal art has embraced a range of new media – from canvas to acrylic paints to artist’s boards. Once there is convergence, then the boundaries that exist between aboriginal and European art becomes blurred, thereby making appropriation more inevitable. For example, Lin Onus was born in Melbourne[10]. His paintings draw their inspiration from the symbolic visual language of Arnhem Land, although the medium employed - acrylic on canvas - is a European medium and moreover, his realistic but naive style is reminiscent of the European painter - Henri Julien Rousseau.

Linus Onus, Fish and Lillies (1987).
Media: Acrylic on canvas.
Size: 90 cm (length) x 122 cm (width).

Henri Julien Rousseau, The Merry Jesters.

Australian - European Convergence With Aboriginal Art
Contemporary art forms in the 1980s started to converge with contemporary aboriginal art[11]. As a consequence to a non-aboriginal audience, the sub-liminal incorporation of “aboriginality” provided images in the act of engagement of a simplistic life style, over-layed with a seamless affinity for the environment. These ubiquitous qualities were no longer the exclusive domain of the indigenous people, but rather were appropriated by the so-called “white” aboriginals. The reaction to this “appropriation” was not too dissimilar to the paternalistic “white” reaction to Namatjira’s European water colors[12].

Imants Tillers, Antipodean Manifesto (1986).
Media: Oilstick, oil, synthetic polymer paint on canvas boards (Nos:9611-9726).
Size: 254 cm (length) x 190.5 cm (width).

In the 1980s artist Tim Johnson went to the Papunya settlement in the Central Australian Desert and was overwhelmed by the achievements of the aboriginal artists. By 1983 he had won the confidence of some of them and began to do joint works with them. Michael Nelson Tjakamarra initiated Johnson into areas of his “Dreaming”, thereby allowing Johnson to use particular custodian images of Tjakamurra[13].

Tim Johnson and Michael Nelson Tjakamarra, Yam Dreaming (1989 – 92).
Media: Acrylic on linen.
Size: 44 cm (length) x 32 cm (width).

Tim Johnson says of aboriginal art[14]: “…that what we are offered is a new language that achieves simultaneity with world culture with a new (to us) set of signs. So much aboriginal art encodes related views of landscape and details of lifestyles in quasi-figurative imagery. This point cannot be trivialized because it helps to explain language only made public in the 20th century”[14].

Working through the styles of the 1960s – 1980s aboriginal artworks, Johnson traces the history of Western art styles, which include Mannerist, Baroque and Classical in their work. He envisages Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarri in terms of “…as high Renaissance Art”; that is, he sees him as the “Leonardo” figure within the Papunya movement[15].

Tim Leura Tjapaltjarri, Butterfly Dreaming (1972).
Size: 35 cm (length) x 45 cm (width).
Tribe: Anmatjira Aranda.
Location: Napperby Station.
Custodian: Tjapaltjarri – Tjungurrayi.

Design Elements Pre-planned For The Painting Above.

Tim Johnson and Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarri, Reincarnation (1993).
Media: Acrylic on linen.
Size: 60 cm (length) x 40 cm (width).

Tim Johnson spent eight years involved on a casual basis with the Papunya painting movement [15] and this influence can be seen in his paintings such as, “Illusory City”. Crossing cultural boundaries and cultural convergence on a spiritual level is the inspiration, which characterizes Johnson’s work. The merging of imagery from various cultures can be seen with an Eastern landscape composed from the Central Desert dot technique, but structured to allow the ground to take shape as he includes a variety of figures and places from Tibet, China and the Australian desert. A rock guitarist is featured in the bottom right hand corner. Papunya paintings also float across its surface.

Tim Johnson, Illusory City (1985).
Media: Acrylic on canvas.
Size: 186 cm (length) x 154 cm (width).
Note: Painting Resides in Australia’s Parliament House, Canberra.

Johnson explains the structure of the language that he is constructing: “Images are dreams and exist independently of time – so we can paint the future. Abstraction frees meaning from the object (that depicts it). Form is separated from meaning to enable its reconstruction and the process, an emanation of theory, sees the enmeshing of object (paint on canvas) and idea (image where object represents meanings). These meanings are established by constructions of curved and straight lines, colors, etc. Scale is generally Buddhist. Eastern art styles are similar to Central Australian art styles. The illusory quality of the desert and the life there is retained in Buddhist art. The mudra becomes the fireplace . . . The whole thing is a metaphor for city living as it can be overloaded with signs and meanings”[16].

This intense desire for unity can also be seen in Tim Johnson’s 1986 painting, “Inland Sea”, which was exhibited in the “Inland: Corresponding Places – Exhibition” at the Australian Centre for Contemporary Art, 1990[17].

Tim Johnson, Inland Sea (1996).
Mixed media on canvas.
Size: 38 cm (length) x 35.5 cm (width).

Johnson’s art occupies an important place in a controversial and interesting aspect of Australian art - that being, which exists between the black and white visual cultures. His appropriations are trying to integrate the complex questions of spirituality, place, time and power.

Imants Tillers also favored the new forms of figuration, particularly imagery appropriated from other visual cultures or media. The painted field ceased to be a picture or a surface, and became a site upon which previously unrelated images met. This was a shift from “perceptual” to “conceptual” engagement. The concept of a ‘White Aboriginal’ as a general metaphor for individual alienation is explored through Tillers’ immigrant background and the alternate subject matter and approaches that he introduced[18].

He was born in Sydney in 1950 of Latvian parents and he is acutely conscious of his displacement within a predominantly British society. Tillers’ constant quotation of reproductions of images offers an ironic and subtle treatment of the imagery of personal and social identity. In his painting - “The Nine Shots”- he combines the wandering lost pilot/poet/artist figure of German Neo-Expressionist, George Baselitz, with Michael Nelson Tjakamarra’s “Five Dreamings”[19].

Imants Tillers, The Nine Shots (1985).
Media: Oil stick, synthetic and polymer paint on 91 canvas boards.
Size: 330 cm (length) x 266 cm (width).

Michael Nelson Tjakamarra, Five Dreamings (1984).
Media: Acrylic on canvas.
Size: 122 cm (length) x 182 cm (width).

Imants Tillers Detailed view of "The Nine Shots".
Note: Imants Tillers appropriation of Tjakamarra’s image was correctly attributed by Tillers.

In an interview with Paul Foss in 1987 he discusses “The Nine Shots”. Tillers says of his work: “I realize that … I risk reading the picture rather than seeing the material practices invested in the work, something, which would require a very different kind of response. But again my purpose at this moment is to query the transposition of themes and visual techniques from one culture to another, particularly with regard to how such a transposition makes apparent a certain myth of Australian-ness. For instance, who’s shooting through, and with what? Is it the European tradition that is being riveted by the Aboriginal state of play, or is it that we Europeans are trying to bring into line an “art of white aborigines”? And are these any different? Added to which one might mention a possible depiction of the way that traditional aboriginal art forms are increasingly being embraced by European expressionist devices, colors, tools, whatever. Thus the sort of signifying practice I have in view before this work is one that endorses the re-colonization of localized cultural activities in this country (i.e. to appropriate without guilt). All this is true. But this was the first image where I directly quoted from an aboriginal painting. I saw it as a dangerous activity in a way, much more dangerous than quoting from Kiefer or Schnabel. So in a sense the aboriginal image is penetrating the figure. The connotations are of danger and dread”[20].

In the case of Tim Johnson and Imant Tillers, Nena Dimitrijevic’s reflection on “Appropriation” applies. She says[21]: “Appropriation is justifiable only when it serves to establish a new signifying system…only works [if] through the method of historical retrospection [it] opens up a dimension of critical interpretation of the present moment in history and in art, [and so] puts into operation the transformational force of art.”

Hence by using examples from these artworks I have attempted to show that “Appropriation” is not an art movement in itself with a historical beginning and end[4]. It is in fact a logical process of representation. Moreover, it should never be confused with mimicry - the latter is devoid of any transformational force and so should be rendered as a feeble reproduction of no consequence.

For a further discussion on the distinction between appropriation and mimicry, see my art essay - Is It Appropriation Or Mimicry?

[1] Oxford Dictionary.

[2] A. Martin in, “What is Appropriation?”, Ed. R. Butler, Page 284, IMA & Power Publications, Brisbane (1996).

[3] D. Crimp, “Appropriating Appropriation”, Tension 2, Sept-Oct., Page 13 (1983).

[4] R. Butler in, “What is Appropriation?”, Ed. R. Butler, Page 16, IMA & Power Publications, Brisbane (1996).

[5] R. Butler in, “What is Appropriation?”, Ed. R. Butler, Page 15, IMA & Power Publications, Brisbane (1996).

[6] Ed. J.E.O. Clark, The Human Body, Page 296, Marshall Edition Limited, Hong Kong (1989).

[7] Ed. J.E.O. Clark, The Human Body, Page 314, Marshall Edition Limited, Hong Kong (1989).

[8] G. Deleuze, Plato and Simulacrum”, Oct 27, Winter, Page 52 (1983).{see ref. [5]}

[9] J. Isaacs, Aboriginality, Page 9, University of Queensland Press, Brisbane (1989).

[10] J. Isaacs, Aboriginality, Page 24-26, University of Queensland Press, Brisbane (1989).

[11] I. Tillers in, “What is Appropriation?” Ed. R. Butler, Page 139, IMA & Power Publications, Brisbane (1996).

[12] B. Murphy, Introduction, Australian Perspecta, Page 13 (1981) (see also [11]).

[13] B. Smith, T. Smith and C. Heathcote, "Australian Painting 1788 - 2000", Oxford University Press, South Melbourne (2001) Page 538.

[14] R. Butler, ed., T. Johnson in, "What is Appropriation?", IMA & Power Publications, Brisbane (1996) Pages 226 - 227.

[15] ibid. Page 231.

[16] B. Smith, T. Smith and C. Heathcote, "Australian Painting 1788 - 2000", Oxford University Press, South Melbourne (2001) Pages 540 - 541.

[17] Australian Centre for Contemporary Art, "Inland: Corresponding Places", Australian Centre for Contemporary Art (1990) Pages 17 & 34.

[18] B. Smith, T. Smith and C. Heathcote, "Australian Painting 1788 - 2000", Oxford University Press, South Melbourne (2001) Pages 512 - 522.

[19] ibid. Pages 528 - 529.

[20] P. Foss, ed., "Mammon or Millennial Eden?, Interview with Imants Tillers", Art & Text, March-May (Paddington) 1987, Pages 133 - 136.

[21] ibid. Page 126.

Saturday, August 11, 2012

In Pursuit of ArtCloth:
Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing Workshop
Two-Day Workshop @ ATASDA, Sydney

Tutor: Marie-Therese Wisniowski

This blogspot exhibits many of my students outputs from a variety of workshops. There are one, two and five day workshops as well as workshops that have a different focus. Nevertheless, it always surprises me how much I learn from my students and how enthusiastic they are to learn and so for your convenience, I have listed the workshop posts below.

Visual Communication and Design (The University of Newcastle Multi-Media Course).
The University of Newcastle (Newcastle and Ourimbah Campuses, NSW, Australia) 2008 to 2010.

In Pursuit of ArtCloth:Improvisational Screen Printing Workshop
The Australian Textile Arts & Surface Design Association Inc. Sydney, NSW.

One and Two Day Disperse Dye Workshops
Various Textile Groups (Australia) 2008 - 2011.

Five Day Workshop - In Pursuit of Complex Cloth
“Wrapt in Rocky” Textile Fibre Forum Conference (Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia) 29th June to 5th July 2008.

Five Day Workshop – In Pursuit of Complex Cloth
Orange Textile Fiber Forum (Orange, NSW, Australia) 19th to 25th April 2009.

5 Day Workshop – In Pursuit of Complex Cloth
Geelong Fiber Forum (Geelong, Victoria, Australia) 27th September to 3rd October 2009.

Two Day Workshop - Deconstructed and Polychromatic Screen Printing
Beautiful Silks (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) 20th to 21st March 2010.

Five Day Workshop – Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
“Wrapt in Rocky” Biennial Textile Forum/Conference Program (Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia) 25th June to 1st July 2010.

Two Day Workshop – Improvisational Screen Printing
ATASDA (Sydney, NSW, Australia) 28th to 29th August 2010.

Two Day Workshop – In Pursuit of Complex Cloth (Day One)
”Stitching and Beyond” Textile Group (Woodbridge, Tasmania, Australia) 2nd to 3rd October 2010.

Two Day Workshop – In Pursuit of Complex Cloth (Day Two)
”Stitching and Beyond” Textile Group (Woodbridge, Tasmania, Australia) 2nd to 3rd October 2010.

Advance Silk Screen Printing
Redcliffe City Art Gallery Redcliffe, Queensland, Australia) 10th April 2011.

One Day Workshop - In Pursuit of Complex Cloth
The Victorian Feltmakers Inc. (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) 14th May 2011.

One Day Workshop - In Pursuit of Complex Cloth (Felted and Silk Fibers)
Victorian Feltmakers Inc (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) 15th May 2011.

Five Day Workshop – Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
SDA (Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA) 13th to 17th June 2011.

Five Day Disperse Dye Master Class – Barbara Scott
Art Quill Studio (Arcadia Vale, NSW, Australia) 15th to 19th August 2011.

Five Day Workshop – Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
Fiber Arts Australia (Sydney, NSW, Australia) 26th September to 1st October 2011.

One Day Workshop – Improvisational Screen Printing
Newcastle Printmakers Workshop Inc. (Newcastle, NSW, Australia) 5th November 2011.

One Day Workshops – Low Relief Screen Printing
Various classes within Australia.

Two Day Workshop – Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
ATASDA (Sydney, NSW, Australia) 23rd to 24th June 2012.

MSDS Demonstration at Zijdelings
(Tilburg, The Netherlands) October, 2012.

Five Day Workshop - Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
Fibre Arts@Ballarat (Ballarat, Victoria, Australia) 6th to 12th April 2013.

Two Day Workshop - Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
EFTAG (Tuross Head, NSW, Australia) 13th to 14th April 2013.

Two Day Workshop - Disperse Dye and Transfer Printing
Zijdelings Studio (Tilburg, The Netherlands) 9th to 10th October 2014.

PCA - Celebrating 50 Years in 2016
Art Quill Studio 2016 Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).

Image Dreamings: Basic Silk Screen Printing Workshop - Part I
2016 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).

Image Dreamings: Basic Silk Screen Printing Workshop - Part II
2016 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).

In Pursuit of: Improvisational Screen Printing Workshop
2016 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).

In Pursuit of: Low Relief Screen Printing (LRSP) Workshop 2016
2016 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).

Art Quill Studio 2017 Workshop Program
2017 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).

In Pursuit of: Low Relief Screen Printing (LRSP)
2017 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).

In Pursuit of Complex Cloth: Layered Printing Approaches
2017 Art Quill Studio Workshop Program (Newcastle, Australia).

Melding Experiences: New Landscapes Using Disperse Dyes and Transfer Printing.
2019 Art Quill Studio Workshop (NCEATA, Newcastle, Australia).

Over the last decade and more, I have been experimenting with hand-printing techniques using disperse dyes on synthetic/polyester fabrics. These experiments have led to one of my new signature techniques that I have developed and which I have termed - MultiSperse Dye Sublimation (MSDS). I have been teaching my MSDS technique at international and national conferences/workshops, textile forums, to textile groups and in university courses.

Sublimation Printing
There are four distinct processes by which transfer printing can be achieved: melt-transfer; film-release transfer; semi-wet processes; sublimation printing.

What is commonly termed "transfer printing" in reality should be termed sublimation printing. Sublimation describes a process that goes from a solid state to a gas state without passing though a liquid state. Dry ice has this property.

In sublimation printing once the dye has been painted on a paper and is dry, the painted side of the paper is placed on top of the fabric surface that is to be dyed. Then heat is applied via an iron or a heat press (under pressure) to the back of the dry dyed paper. The dye vaporizes from the paper and infuses into the surface of the target fabric. The vapor dye reacts with the target fabric surface and adheres to it via dispersion forces (van der Waals forces) and hydrogen bonding. The heat of the iron serves a dual purpose: (a) it vaporizes the dye; (b) it assists the dye to infuse into the fabric surface and adhere to it.

MSDS Technique
The MSDS technique employs disperse dyes and involves hand-printing multiple resists and multiple overprinted layers employing numerous color plates and low relief plant materials. The completed works are rich in color, light, shade, contrast, movement and depth. The multiple layers also imbue a painterly aesthetic and textural, three-dimensional quality to the finished ArtCloth works. Each print is unique and cannot be replicated.

Workshop Synopsis
This workshop was organized by the Australian Textile Arts & Surface Design Association Inc. (ATASDA) Sydney, NSW Branch. It was held at the Epping Creative Centre, Dence Park on 23rd - 24th June 2012.

My thanks to Claire Brach (ATASDA, NSW Workshop Co-ordinator), Jane Bodnaruk, (ATASDA, NSW Workshop Bookings Officer) and Lesley Grigg (ATASDA, NSW Treasurer) for their outstanding organizational skills and professionalism in ensuring that the workshop would be a huge success. Thank you ladies!

This two-day workshop was an introduction to the dye sublimation process (transfer printing) and melded participants experiences as valuable resources to create new artistic landscapes using disperse dyes.

Participants created their own custom dyed fabric using disperse dyes via direct imaging, experimental and layering exercises. They applied painted, textured, printed imagery onto papers with disperse dyes and then transfer printed them to polyester and blended synthetic fabrics to create a suite of color and pattern studies via an iron or heat press. Participants were also introduced to the tutor’s signature MultiSperse Dye Sublimation (MSDS) technique featuring multiple layering and resists employing flora as “the thematic” experience. The MSDS works imbue richly colored, textural and vibrant 3-dimensional imaging to the cloth surface.

In summary, a fun and exciting workshop, where instruction and experimentation forged the potential of each participant.

With these new skills each participant can further enhance their MSDS artworks by adding collage, additional layering, applique, hand and machine embellishments etc. to create truly unique ArtCloth pieces.

All levels were welcome to this two-day workshop. To view other workshops employing disperse dyes on this blog site use - "SEARCH THIS BLOG" tool - employing keyword: disperse dye workshop (without quotes) or MSDS (without quotes).

Workshop Participants

Group photograph: From left to right: Cindy Cooper, Gillian Edwards, Pam Russell, Stella Vakirtzis, Pauline Richards-Cosgrove, Katrina Conaghan, Kelcie Bryant-Duguid, Gail MacDonald, Narelda Sheehan, Trisha Smith and Lindy Wilson.

Kelcie Bryant-Duguid
Technique: Batik style resist, texture and color study.

Kelcie Bryant-Duguid
Technique: Design and color study employing layered imagery on a multi-wash background.

Kelcie Bryant-Duguid
Technique: MSDS technique employing flora.

Katrina Conaghan
Technique: Texture, overprinting and color wash study.

Katrina Conaghan
Technique: MSDS technique employing flora - version 1.

Katrina Conaghan
Technique: MSDS technique employing flora - version 2.

Cindy Cooper
Technique: MSDS technique employing flora - version 1.

Cindy Cooper
Technique: MSDS technique employing flora - version 2.

Cindy Cooper
Technique: Design and color study employing layered imagery on a multi-wash background.

Gillian Edwards
Technique: Stencil resist, layering and color study.

Gillian Edwards
Technique: Design and color study employing layered imagery on a multi-wash background.

Gillian Edwards
Technique: Multi-color wash technique employing dyed flora.

Gail MacDonald
Technique: Batik style resist, texture and color study – version 1.

Gail MacDonald
Technique: Batik style resist, texture and color study – version 2.

Gail MacDonald
Technique: Design and color study employing layered imagery on a multi-wash background and reverse print technique.

Pauline Richards-Cosgrove
Technique: Texture, overprinting and color wash study.

Pauline Richards-Cosgrove
Technique: MSDS technique employing flora.

Pauline Richards-Cosgrove
Technique: Design and color study employing layered imagery on a multi-wash background.

Pam Russell
Technique: Batik style resist, texture and color study.

Pam Russell
Technique: MSDS technique employing flora.

Pam Russell
Technique: Design and color study employing layered imagery on a multi-wash background.

Narelda Sheehan
Technique: Design and color study employing layered imagery on a multi-wash background.

Narelda Sheehan
Technique: MSDS technique employing flora - version 1.

Narelda Sheehan
Technique: MSDS technique employing flora - version 2.

Trisha Smith
Technique: Design and color study employing layered imagery on a multi-wash background.

Trisha Smith
Technique: MSDS technique employing flora.

Trisha Smith
Technique: Color wash employing dyed flora.

Stella Vakirtzis
Technique: Stencil resist, layering and color study.

Stella Vakirtzis
Technique: MSDS technique employing flora - version 1.

\Stella Vakirtzis
Technique: MSDS technique employing flora - version 2.

Lindy Wilson
Technique: MSDS technique employing flora - version 1.

Lindy Wilson
Technique: MSDS technique employing flora - version 2.

Lindy Wilson
Technique: Stencil resist, layering and color study.