Saturday, May 20, 2017

European Illumination - Celtic Style
Works on Paper

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Introduction[1]
Illuminations are delicate works of art that feature intricate designs which are painted and embellished with gold on parchment and vellum. These manuscripts were handled daily by generations of owners - monks or priests, academics or courtiers. Often such illuminated manuscripts were taken on travels overseas or within landlocked countries and yet they remain as rich in color since the day they were created.

A detail taken from the Lindisfarne Gospels, ca. 698, showing a number of illuminated letters encased by little red dots known as rubrication.

There are medieval drawings and paintings, which show monks at work in cloisters, bowed over books pens in hand, busy transcribing or illuminating books for people to learn and pray with.

This Anglo-Saxon woodcut shows a group of monks with rolls of parchment ready for illumination.

The magical properties which illumination gave to medieval books, heightened the standing of their creators. For example, we know the name of the scribe and illuminator of the Lindisfarne Gospels - Eadfrith - who became Bishop of Lindisfarne in May of 698.

Matthew the Evangelist - Lindisfarne Gospel.

When book illustration became more widely desired by the richer merchant class at the beginning of the thirteen century, illumination moved out of the cloister and into the libraries of the merchants. This created the need for secular scribes and illuminators, who would travel to the new university towns and centers of learning to work. The famous Limbourg brothers, who gave life to Les Trés Riches Heures for Duc de Berry, moved from the Low Countries to take up work in Paris.

Les Grandes Heures of the Duc de Berry.

The materials used involved vellum, and parchment, ink, colored pigments, powdered gold and gold leaf. The vellum and parchment was derived either from calf or sheep skin. It was soaked in water and lime and then scraped and stretched. Once dried the vellum was folded into halves, quarters or eigths depending on the required size of the book. These pages would be trimmed and stitched together.

Ink was made from powdered carbon - soot or lamp-black or iron gall - which was kept in a cow's horn. Materials for colored pigments were sourced from a variety of animal, vegetable and mineral sources. Once the materials had been gathered and prepared, the paper marked, and the illuminator had indicated spaces needed for the decorated borders, initial letters and miniatures, the scribes would begin work.

A portrait of monk Edwin, "the prince of all scribes", from a Psalter and Gloss made in Canterbury (ca. 1150) clearly shows the method of working - with a pen in hand and curved knife in the other - the latter being used to sharpen the pen and scraping out mistakes. From this portrait we can also tell that the technique of illumination used today are similar to those used in medieval times.

Unknown artist: Eadwine, the scribe, at work on the Psalter (The Book of Psalms) Christ Church Canterbury England, ca.1160-70.

Religious texts, such as the gospels and psalters - were originally illuminated to honour God. There were also more practical reasons. For example, illuminations assisted clergy to quickly find their way around the bible, because each decoration was unique and moreover, each gave a visual clue to the content of the page. Moreover, throughout their history illuminated books were appreciated as works of art, and certainly in the Renaissance history were collected as such.


Celtic Illumination Style[1]
Celtic illumination is based on the Irish script, which is decorated sometimes with a flurry of interlaced spirals, sometimes with beasts lashed together in a stylized pattern or with animal-head finials, staring open-mouthed.

The capital letters of the Celtic Script are enlarge uncials. These letters went through many variations as the style was developed, and this if often revealed in the decorative, angular and round letter forms. The capitals of the Celtic script may be painted with a brush or written with two parallel strikes of a pen to form thicker stems.

Celtic Half-uncials.

The Lindisfarne Gospels were created in 698 on the island monastery on the Northumbrian coast to commemorate the removal of the remains of Cuthbert, former bishop of Lindisfarne to another resting place. The work is regarded with such awe that the monks who worked on it, who usually remain anonymous have found a place in history: Eadfrith, the scribe and illuminator, and Ethilwald, the binder.

Initial "M" from the Lindisfarne Gospels - late 7th Century.

Discovered in the twelth century in Ireland, The Book of Kells is thought to have been created in the north of England between 600 and 900 AD. The Book of Kells is also a much revered manuscript and at first glance, the drama of the action in this monograph "TU" might go unnoticed. Entwined in mortal combat is a cat and a bird (maybe a dove).

Initials "TU" from the Book of Kells - 7th to 9th Century. It now resides at Trinity College, Dublin.

The most unusual page of Celtic art (given below) shows abstracted letters as pure decorations, with one small line of text. A wide range of patterns are used, from complex spirals and geometric knot work panels to human and animal forms.

Chi-Rho Monogram from St. Matthew's Gospel, Book of Kells - 8th Century.

The letter "Q" below is highly ornamental with animals interlaced and spirals. Everywhere are the rubricated dots typical of Celtic illumination, surrounding letters and forming patterns of their own.

Detail from the initial pager of St. Luke's Gospel, Lindisfarne Gospels.

The decoration given below has been simplified and the colors altered, but the essential Celtic character has been retained.

Initial "M" Courtesy of Helen White, 20th Century.

The adaption given below is of an initial "Q". It shows how geometric infilling may be adapted and colored. The dots around the letter give it an extra vitality and appear to lift the character off the page.

Initial "Q" Courtesy of Helen White, 20th Century.

The initial "N" in the figure below dominates this page of illumination. The decoration incorporates geometric and interlaced animal designs which are echoed in the border. A panel of ornamental square-form letters is encased by the border and was a feature of these decorative pages.

Initial page of the "Breves Causae" of St. Matthew - Book of Kells - 8th Century.


Color Your Own Illumination
The current fad is coloring-in books. They give a mico-meditative relief for so many people.

Dear Reader this blogspot realizes you need meditative relief, since you are time-poor, pressured and have been multi-tasking since birth! Below is a uncoloured illumination which reads - Be a philosopher, but amid all your philosophy, be still a man - David Hume. Clearly this was written before women took over the world! The "e" in the "Be" is purposely difficult to locate in order to exercise "your little grey cells" (as Poirot would say - Agatha Christie).

A coloring-in and micro-meditative exercise for your "little grey cells".

Below is the left most portion of a colored version (not mine!)

Color illumination - old style.

Make yourself a promise that your next Christmas e-card will contain a least one of your illuminations (and to think it is only May!) Below is the letter "M" (Merry or March) from the Vatican Barkarini manuscript.

Letter M.


Reference
[1] The Illuminated Alphabet, T. Nad (Calligraphy) and P. Seligman (Text), Simon & Schuster (1994) Sydney.

Saturday, May 13, 2017

Islamic Textiles in Southeast Asia (Part I)
ArtCloth

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Islamic Textiles of Southeast Asia[1]
Many of the Southeast Asian textiles are closely associated with Islamic courts of the region. The rulers of the region's principalities drew on a wide range of sources to create a courtly presence entirely appropriate to their role as conduits between the older worlds of local ancestral traditions and the lively interaction with the international maritime trade.

Shoulder Cloth - late 19th Century.
Jambi, Sumatra, Indonesia.
Gift of Michael and Mary Abbott (1988).
National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.

By the time European emissaries were received by local Islamic rulers, the pomp of royal ceremony was well established. The Europeans were astounded by the rich ceremonial costumes of their host and by the opulent ambience of the surroundings. Silk, gold and silver , rich brocades and embroidery combined with intricately wrought jewellery made up the formal attire and furnishings of the court ceremony.

Ceremonial Hanging - early 20th Century.
Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia.
National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.

At receptions for allies and foes alike, such displays of finery confirmed the optical and economic importance of the principality, while for the more overtly religious, such opulence demonstrated the righteous of the reign. Foreigners were not the only ones in awe, rather local histories and annals, poems and romances are filled with rich descriptions of the apparel of the main protagonists.

Shoulder or waist cloth - 19th Century Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia.
National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.

Textiles of the Southeast Asian courts included both locally made fabric and imported, often at great expense from neighbouring and distant shores. The exact nature of the textiles used in the past is unclear, and for the early centuries of the Islamic era in particular, there were few visual sources to replace the Hindu-Buddist temple reliefs and sculptures of deities and royal personages. These images are evidence of the legacy of textile traditions that the newly established Islamic courts received. The surprisingly detailed depiction of costume and cloth design on heirloom sets of shadow puppets in court treasuries provides clues to the evolution of some of the region's textile traditions.

Wayang geode shadow puppet - late 19th Century.
Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia.
National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.

Throughout the Malay world the most prominent textile in royal ceremonial dress is the floating weft brocade songket. In this technique the design appears in clusters of gold threads set against a deep red silken ground. The silk, the gold-wrapped thread and the lac (from insect secretions often used to achieve rich and color-fast red dyes) were usually acquired through trade - from China, India, Siam and even France for fine gold thread. Fine songket was a visual confirmation of the dominant position of the Malay principalities in international trade.

Nobleman's ceremonial over wrap [kampuh songket or saput songket] - 19th Century.
Made of silk, gold thread, dyes; supplementary weft weaving [songket].
National Gallery of Australia.

In the Malay weaving centers that rim the South China sea, a frame loom evolved with treadles to open the weft sheds. Consistently broader fabrics could be achieved where, in the past, parallel and identical lengths from the back tension loom would be stitched together. In West Sumatra, where Minangkabau songket demands dense yet subtle patterning in gold and silver over the entire surface, an assistant may help in drawing the pattern sticks during the long and painstaking weaving process.

Ceremonial shoulder cloth - 19th Century.
Minangkabau, West Sumatra, Indonesia. National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.
Acquired through gift and purchased from the Collection of Robert J. Holmgren and Anita Spertus, New York (2000).

In some regions, the weavers also incorporated patterned weft threads into the songket brocades to achieve a variated silk ground. These complex combinations of gold floats and weft silk threads tie-dyed (ikat or limar) before being woven into elaborate patterns, became a hallmark of Malay courts, at its most intricate in the East-coast Terengganu, where weft ikat displays as many as seven different dyes (see below). While some textiles are decorated only in weft ikat, and others have the weft ikat field enclosed by brocade borders, those combining brocade and ikat in intricate field designs are amongst the most remarkable. One fascinating distillation of the two decorative techniques, found only on textiles prized by the Cham of Cambodia, is the use of ikat-patterned floating threads to achieve the impression of many different colored supplementary wefts (see the two fabrics below).

Shoulder cloth or hanging - late 19th Century.
Front side of cloth.
Cambodia.
National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.

Shoulder cloth or hanging - late 19th Century.
Reverse side of the above cloth.
Cambodia.
National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.

Terengganu, Malaysia.
Ceremonial Stole, 19th Century.
National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.


Reference
[1]D. Richards and J. Bennett, Crescent Moon, Art Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide (1996).

Saturday, May 6, 2017

Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements
Edition 4.0[1-31]

Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Introduction
There are currently six data bases on this blogspot, namely: Glossary of Terms; Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff; A Fashion Data Base; Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins; the Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns and lastly, the Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements.

The Glossary of Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, the Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns and the Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements have been updated. These Glossaries will be updated in the future to incorporate more definitions that we should be aware of in our art practice.

The Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements is highly focused, containing definitions and terms pertinent to the specific categories in the title and moreover, including artists in such diverse media as ArtCloth, Art Quilts and Printmaking. The choice is selective otherwise this glossary would quickly become unmanageable. It is limited to those whose artwork I enjoy rather than to those whose works are well known. It helps if their images of their work appear on this blogspot.

If you find any post on this blog site useful, you can save it or copy and paste it into your own "Word" document etc. for your future reference. For example, Safari allows you to save a post (e.g. click on "File", click on "Print" and release, click on "PDF" and then click on "Save As" and release - and a PDF should appear where you have stored it). Safari also allows you to mail a post to a friend (click on "File", and then point cursor to "Mail Contents On This Page" and release). Either way, this or other posts on this site may be a useful Art Resource for you.

The Art Resource series will be the first post in each calendar month. Remember - these Art Resource posts span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist to that required by a final year University Fine-Art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource post may appear far too technical for your needs (skip over those mind boggling parts) and in other parts, it may be too simplistic with respect to your level of knowledge (ditto the skip). The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that Art Resource posts will hopefully be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately may not be satisfying to all! The references - that were invaluable in this compilation - are given at the end of the glossary.


Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements

Abstract: Unrecognisable forms and layouts. In the textile business the word "abstract" is used to describe a non-objective motif that cannot be described in any other way.

Abstract Art: Referring to a style that relies on pure form for its effect, rather than attempting to represent any object.

Jackson Pollack - Number One.

Abstract Expressionism: A style of painting (mainly centered in USA in the 1950s and 1960s) emphasizing spontaneous execution, large brushing gestures, bursts of muscular energy, and non-representational imagery.

William de Kooning - Woman III.

Abstraction: The essential form after superficial or changeable features have been taken away; sometimes used (incorrectly) to mean any image that does not resemble its model reality.

Abuna-e (Risqué Pictures - Japanese): Ukiyo-e, which illustrate gently erotic scenes.

The fourth print of the "Jewel Box" series.

Academic: The artistic approach taught in the 18th and 19th Century art academies of Europe; a philosophy of art based on bland limitations of ancient classical art; by extension, any systematic, traditional, anti-experimental type of art.

William-Adolphe Bouguereau - Lullaby, 1875 (French Academic Art).

Action Painting: A style in which the meaning and content of a picture relies strongly on the implied activity of the painted surface, especially the signs of brushing, spattering and dripping paint; related to abstract expressionism.

Action painter (unknown).

Adamson, Imiyari (Yilpi): Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Batik on silk.

Aesthetic: Pertaining to art theory or matters of taste and appreciation in art; the beautiful as opposed to the good, true or useful; any vivid or intense experience. Also an aesthetic: an artistic or stylistic point of view; a philosophy of art; an engagement of the senses.

One person's aesthetics is another persons nightmare!

Afterimage: Any phenomenon that lingers on, even though it does not actually exist.

Negative afterimage.

Aging: Variety of techniques for simulating the effect of time and wear on new paint, wood or plasterwork.

Costume distressing.

Aiban (Japanese): A print size between chūban and ōban; 13.5 x 8.75 inches (34 x 22 cm).

The Actor Nakamura Riko with a courtesan, from an untitled series of aiban prints.

Airbrush: (i) Pressure gun with very fine nozzle, used for graded tonal effects in artwork; (ii) Imitating effects produced with a painter's spray air gun. Often creates patterns with a light, soft, and modern look.

Ian McCausland airbrush print of the 1973 Rolling Stone's Australian tour.

Aizuri-e (Blue Printed Pictures - Japanese): Prints done in shades of blue and which were seen in the prints of the late 1820s to 1840s.

Artist: Utagawa Toyokxuni II (二代歌川豊国).
Print: Aizuri-e - A courtesan holding a pipe (kisser) watches a pair of ducks, from the series "Five Modern Beauties".

Alabaster: Marble-like stone, usually white, used in sculpturing objects.

F. Pugi (Italian, ca. 19th Century) alabaster sculpture.

Albers, Annie: Art Category: Weaver. Art Movement: Bauhaus.

Triple Weave Hanging (1926).

Albers, Josef: Art Category: Glass Painter. Art Movements: de Stijl, Abstract Expressionism.

Upward (1926).

Alla Prima: Italian for “all at once”; direct painting; immediate achievement of final effects; the painting has one “skin” rather than many layers; the opposite of indirect painting.

Among the earliest to take advantage of the qualities of all prima (wet-on-wet) painting were the Dutch, who put it into practice in the 15th Century. Jan Van Eyck’s Arnolfini Wedding Portrait from 1434 is an example of a combination of traditional and wet-on-wet oil painting.

Alleyways: Unintentional lines formed by negative spaces (spaces vacant of motifs) in a design.

Allover: A layout in which motifs are fairly close and evenly distributed as opposed to stripes, borders, plaids, and engineered designs. Another term is overall.

An example of an allover floral design.

Allston, Washington: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

Moonlit Landscape.

Anaglyph: Carving or ornament in bas-relief of a sculptured object.

Tunnels. Nibiru anaglyph 3d by Osipenkov.

Andrews, Beth: Art Category: Wearable Artist. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Untitled (2009).
Materials and Techniques: Merino fleece, wool button, industrial steel pieces; wet felted, resist, tailored, needle punched, resist dyed.
Size: 81 x 44 cm.

Abbott, Agnes: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Atyelpe.
Handpainted Silk.

Animation: A representation of motion by series of fast changing images using different platforms (e.g. fast flicking paper, film, computers etc.)

Bugs Bunny - Warner Brothers animation.

Antependium: A structure painted or metalwork (or fabric) which hangs in the front of an altar.

1800s silk altar frontal antependium cloth long antique French religious church liturgical fabric hand woven painted saint w embroidery.

Anthemion: A classical motif based on a stylized honeysuckle plant or a radiating, fan-shaped palm leaf (palette) commonly found in Greek, Egyptian, Assyrian, and other ancient art.

Georgian stucco frequently employed the Greek anthemion design.

Appel, Karel: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Portrait of Theo Wolvecamp (1957).

Apuatimi, Declan: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movements: Tiwi Design - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Carpet Snake. List cotton (detailed view).

Apuatimi, Jean Baptiste: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movements: Tiwi Design - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Jilamara. Raw silk (detailed view).

Aquarelle: Painting made using transparent water colors.

Alan Reed - Tyne Bridges Summer Sunset.

Aquatint: Etching process producing tonal effects.

Francisco Goya Spanish (1746-1828) - Eshan clients, (They are Hot).
Aquatint, etching.

Arabesque: Imagery that resembles the flowing interlaces of Islamic art; stylized ornamental motifs based on plants and flowers; intricate and fantastic decorative pattern of organic or geometric design.

Arabesque seamless pattern in blue.

Archaic: Primitive, antiquated or obsolete; Greek art before 17th Century BC. Also, archaic smile - the expression, almost a smile, of Greek sculptured heads before the 7th Century.

Peplos Garmen (530 BC, Greek, Archaic period).

Archipenko, Alexander: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Cubism.

Seated Black Torso.

Architectonic: Architectural. Paintings, sculptures or craft objects that exhibit the structural or textural traits of buildings.

Architectural collages by Jess Nordqvist.

Arial Perspective: Creation of depth illusions in painting through the use of diminishing intensity of colors, the use of cooler colors for distant objects, softening of edges and blurring of focus.

Photo by Coyote-Agile. Incorporation of aerial perspective.

Armature: The skeleton or framework inside a wax or clay (usually) sculpture; it supports the work while it is being modeled.

Foal Armature (around which the sculpture of a foal is built).

Arp, Hans: Art Category: Sculptor, Painter. Art Movement: Dada, Abstraction-Creation.

Color Pochoir (1949).

Arriccio: In fresco practice, the plaster coat which underlies the final painting coat; traditionally composed of lime and sand. In English, brown coat.

Ars Sacra: Literally “scared art”. The phrase was used as a title of an exhibition of early medieval art held in Bonn in 1949, but has, thanks to the book – The Oxford History of Western Art (Peter Lakos, 1972) - more recently have been applied to small-scale arts of metalworking and ivory carving of the period.

Saint Mary University's Ars Sacra Exhibit.

ArtCloth: ArtCloth was a term invented by Jane Dunnewold at the dawn of the 21st Century. It must satisfy the three necessary conditions that circumscribe artwork. It has been widely used to embrace a myriad of “Art” that utilizes cloth as its medium.

Marie-Therese Wisniowski's ArtCloth, Rainforest Memories II (detailed view).

Art Coordinator: The manager or administrator of an Australian Aboriginal arts center, usually employed from outside the local community and answerable to an Aboriginal committee of artists.

Art Deco: Style of decorative art of the 1920s and 1930s, characterized by smooth lines, bold colors, minimalist designs, and the use of new materials, such as tubular steel, plate glass and plastic.

Erté - Oriental Tale.

Art Nouveau: French for “new art” (Judendstil in German); highly decorative style of the 1890s that emerged from Europe and the USA; emphasis on the whiplash curve, rich color, flat patterns, floral ornamentation, vertical attenuations.

Mucha - Cycles Perfects (ca. 1897).

Art Paper: Paper with a hard, smooth surface caused by an even coating of china clay compound on one or both sides.

Arts and Crafts Movement: A tendency originating in England around 1860 (and particularly associated with William Morris) that also manifested itself elsewhere in Europe and the USA. It was characterized by a belief in “truth to materials”, honesty of form, and integrity of decoration, and was frequently associated with a commitment to hand-craft (rather than mechanized) means of production.

Detail from a season ticket for The Arts & Crafts Exhibition Society, by Walter Crane, England, UK, 1890. Museum no. E.4164-1915. © Victoria & Albert Museum, London.

Artwork - The Three Necessary Conditions: There are three necessary (as opposed to definitions) that all artworks possess: (i) they need to be “engaged”; (ii) they are non-functional, and (iii) they are aesthetic.

Aslett, Katelyn: Art Category: Wearable Artist. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Origami and Rosie Skirt (2006).
Materials and Techniques: Merino, silk; hand dyed, hand felted.

Assemblage: Creation of imagery by aggregation of different materials, often fragments of other recognizable images and objects.

Soft sculpture assemblage - Original mummy Art.

Assemblages: Three-dimensional collages made from objects such as stones, scraps of wood, parts of a clock or any material which has bulk.

Collages by Abigail Reynolds.

Asymmetrical Pattern: A pattern lacking visible signs of symmetry, such as rotation or reflection.

Asymmetrical camouflage pattern.

Asymmetry: The absence of symmetry in a motif or pattern. See Asymmetrical Pattern.

Asymmetrical motif based on American Indian pattern.

Atlas, Telamon: Male statue used as a column, as in an ancient Greek temple.

Atlas Telamon (Vienna, Austria).

Atos (Tag): Art Category: Spray-can Artist. Art Movement: Graffiti.


Auerbach, Frank: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism Revisited.

Defeat of death.

Aurum Mussivum: Mosaic gold.


Australian Tapestry Workshop: Formerly known as the Victorian Tapestry Workshop, was formed in 1976 and is situated in South Melbourne. The Workshop initially began with weaving small tapestries in scale and restricted in complexity of design in order to develop a reservoir of expertise in weaving. However, within a dozen years the weavers produced a stunning and highly complex tapestry for the Australian Federal Parliament based on Robin Boyd's design (see below).

Title: The Reception Hall Tapestry (detailed view of one section of the tapestry).
Designer: Arthur Boyd.
Interpretation: Leonie Bessant.
Weavers: Leonie Bessant, Sue Corsairs, Irene Creedon, Robyn Daw, Owen Hammond, Kate Hutchinson, Pam Joyce, Peta Meredith, Robyn Mountcastle, Joy Smith, Jennifer Sharp, Irja West.

Autographic: (i) Mark made on a fabric by hand; (ii) Revealing or seeming to reveal an artist’s hand or touch.

Autographic drawing.

Autographic Positive: Positive made by painting or drawing opaque marks on a transparent or translucent substrate.

Avant-Garde: French word for those who are advanced, “ahead of the times”; artists who point out the direction others will follow.

The intensity of Russian Avant-Garde Artists (1890 -1930).

Avery, Milton: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Landscape Abstraction.

Artist's Wife (1930).

Awely: An Alyawarr and Anmatyerr word (Aboriginal languages) meaning women's designs and ceremonies; Anmatyerr is spoken by many of the artists from the Utopia region (Australia).

Aboriginal painting by Minnie Pwerle: "Awely Anemangkerr" – Utopia Lane Art.

Awning Stripes: A pattern of relatively wide, even, usually vertical stripes of solid color on a lighter ground. Resembles the pattern on awning fabrics.

Awning Stripe Fabric - Red.

Axes: (pl. axis) Imaginary line defining the center of an object around which the object rotates or is symmetrical on a flat plane; that is, the central line, real or imaginary, around which parts of a work of art are composed and balanced.

Axonometric Projections: Orthographic projections in which the object is inclined in relation to the picture plane, as distinct from “multi-view projections”. There are basically three forms – see figure below.


Background: The part of a design that appears to be farthest from the viewer and behind the objects of interest. Can be a solid color, texture, random objects or another pattern (patterned ground). Also called ground. Opposite of foreground.

Background Art: Part of a design such as a pattern or texture forming a background for type and illustration.

Bacon, Francis: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Surrealism, Subjective Expressionism.

Self Portrait (1971).

Bagley, Roshannah: Art Category: Surface Design. Art Movement: Digital.

Basilica (Placement) (2010).

Baker, Nyukana: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Batik on silk.

Bakst, Leon: Art Category: Wearable Artist. Art Movement: Wearable Art.


Balance: In a layout or design, an arrangement that is visually pleasing.

Balanced Design: A design with no line-ups, alleyways, or holes.

Ying Yang - a well known balanced design.

Balanced Stripes: A symmetrical layout, in which colored bands are arranged around a "center".

An example of a balanced stripe design.

Balla, Giacomo: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Futurism.

Landscape.

Balthus, Joan Miro: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Realism.

Joan Miro and his daughter Dolores.

Bancroft, Bronwyn: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Aboriginal Culture.

Snake Escape (1995).
Lani Durland Studio, Sydney (Australia).
Technique: Screen print on Cloth.
Size: 314.0 x 145.5 cm.

Banker: Sculptor's work bench.

Banksy: Art Category: Stencil Artist. Art Movement: Graffiti.

Banksy's New York exhibition.

Barbican School: Group of 19th Century French artists who delighted in landscapes for their own sake.

The Gleaners. Jean-François Millet. 1857. Musée d'Orsay, Paris.

Bardayal, Lofty: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Mini Figures.
Screen-printed cotton twill.

Baren (Japanese): A circular pad that was wrapped in a sheath of bamboo fiber and which was used in the woodblock printing process.

Sosaku Baren.

Barlach, Ernst: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Neo-Classical.

Degenerate art: Ernst Barlach: Self-portrait (1928).

Barnett, Margret: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Color-Field.

Simply Transformed.
Materials and Techniques: Three meters silk satin, orinui shibori, dye.

Baroque: Art of the 17th Century in Europe; characterized by irregularity of form, illusions of infinite space, theatricality of color and lighting, grandiose gestures, over life-size figuration.

Samson and Delilah (1609-1610) by Peter Paul Rubens, the great Flemish Baroque painter.

Base Artwork: Artwork requiring the addition of other elements.

Basrelief (bassorelievo, low relief): Sculpture in which the figures project only slightly from the background.

Bask, Leon: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Symbolism.

Leon Bask was also a costume designer for Ballet Russe.

Base Relief: Three-dimensional design in which the image stands in shallow relief from a flat background.

BAT: Perfect proof passed by an artist as a standard against which prints in an edition will be compared.

Batik: Method of printing on cloth using a series of wax deposits, which are added one by one between a series of dyeing operations.

Batiks billowing in the breeze at Ahalper (Australia), Utopia Batik Revival Workshop (2007).

Batik Printing: Batik printing is a resist printing in that it employs a waxy material or special paste to prevent the dye from penetrating the fabric.

Bauchant, Andre: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Adam and Eve (1938).

Bauhaus: The school of art and industrial design founded in 1919 by Walter Gropius to promote the unity of all arts; closed by the Hitler regime in 1933. See post on this blog spot.

Anni Albers tapestry (Bauhaus).

Baya: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Femme et Oiseau en Cage (1945).

Bazille, Federic: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism.

View of the Village (1868).

Baziotes, William: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Color-Field.

The Flesh Eaters (1952).

Bead and Reel: A decorative motif consisting of oval or round shapes ("beads") alternating with elongated or cylindrical shapes ("reels").

Bead and Reel motif.

Beardmore, Rebecca: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Reflection Series.

Beardsley, Aubrey: Art Category: Painter, Drawer. Art Movement: Art Nouveau.

Isolde (1895).

Beckmann, Max: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: German Expressionism.


Beehler, Laura: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Under Pressure (detailed view).

Beeston, Larry: Art Category: Weaver - see below.

Beeston, Mary Art Category: Tapestry Designer. Art Movement: Post Modernism.

The "Hunter Tapestry" which hangs in the Great Hall (The University of Newcastle, Australia) was designed by Mary Bestow and the weaving was executed by Larry Bestow and Rachel Frecker over the period 1987-1989.

Belling, Rudolf: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Neo-Impressionism.

Rudolf Belling - Head in Mahagoni (1921).

Bellows, George: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Urban Realism.

The Big Dory (1913).

Benday Prints: A series of mechanical tints in the form of celluloid sheets that are used in block making and lithography to add texture, shading and detail to line drawings.

Roy Lichtenstein - Nude with Blue Hair.
Note: the bendy dots in the print.

Bengal Stripes: Stripes of apparently the same width and alternating light and dark colors. Bengal stripes are usually wider than candy stripes, but narrower than awning stripes. Commonly used in wallpaper, upholstery, and shirtings. Originated in India and became popular during the Regency era in the United Kingdom. Also called Regency stripes and tiger stripes.

Blue Stripes.

Beni-e (Red [beni] Pictures - Japanese): Prints in which beni (red) was applied by hand to a black and white print.

Attributed to Okumura Masanobu (1686-1764).
Hosoban, beni-e, hand-colorer woodblock print (1730-1735).
Size: 27 x 14.4 cm.

Benigirai-e (Red-Hating Picture - Japanese): A print with no red (pink) pigments.

Benigirai-e Print.

Benizuri-e (Pink Printed Pictures - Japanese): Prints using pale pastel shades; they are principally found in prints of the 1970s.

Benizuri-e print.

Benn, Claire: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Breathe Deeply (detailed view).

Benner, Ulrieke: Art Category: Wearable Artist. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Coat of Many Colors (2008).
Materials and Techniques: Merino wool, silk and nuno techniques. Size: 91.1 cm long.

Bennett, June: Art Category: Soft Sculpture. Art Movement: Modernism.

Pegasus.
Materials and Techniques: Carved wood, machine appliqué, felt, recycled doilies, knitted and crocheted pieces glued, dyed with tea and coffee. Mounted on granite plinth.

Benois, Alexandre: Art Category: Painter, Wearable Art. Art Movement: Symbolism, Wearable Art.


Benson, Regina: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

lo Rising II (detailed view)

Benyahialger, Samta: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Marseille (2002/03
).
Mixed Media: Pearls, Nylon and Tulle.

Berger, Otti: Art Category: Weaver. Art Movement: Bauhaus.

Rug.

Biedermeier Style: A term first used in the 1850s to characterize an unpretentious bourgeois style of furniture and interior decoration found particularly in Germany and Austria from about 1815 to 1848.

Biedermeier style arm chairs.

Bijinga (Beautiful Women - Japanese): Bijinga were pictures of beautiful women.

Bijinga Print.

Bingham, George Caleb: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

Fur Traders on Missouri River (1845).

Binder: Adhesive: glue in colorants that holds paints to a surface.

Bio (tag); Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: Street Art.


Birkle, Christine: Art Category: Wearable Artist. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Hut Up (2010).
Materials and Techniques: Merino wool, cotton.
Various sizes.

Blending: A technique of producing seamless patterns by smoothing away boundaries between neighbouring units of repeat.

Vector abstract lines blend pattern design elements.

Blending Brush: See softening brush.


Block In: To sketch in the main areas and reference points of an image as preparation for a drawing or design.

Block Out: A masking material used to cover areas of the screen that are not to be printed.

Block Printing: Wood, linoleum, rubber, metal or compositional blocks etc. are used for reproducing designs on textiles.

Hand block printing using wooden blocks.

Block Repeat: A layout in which the repeating unit appears directly on a horizontal line to the left or right of the original design unit. Also called square repeat, straight-across repeat, and straight repeat.

Block repeat patterns.

Bloom: A foggy, whitish (or blue-white) dull surface effect, which forms on varnished pictures or other vanished objects.

Blotch: An irregular area of foreground or background color around the motif.

Blotch Printing: A process in which an open screen is used, where the dyestuff covers the entire surface of the fabric.

Blotch printed fabric.

Boccioni, Umberto: Art Category: Sculptor, Painter. Art Movement: Futurism.

Futurism Bronze Figure - Warrior with Spear.

Bocklin, Arnold: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romanticism.

The Island of the Living.

Bonington, Richard Parkes: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Landscape.

On the Coast of Picardy (1826).

Bonnard, Pierre: Art Category: Painter, Printer. Art Movements: Post-Impressionism, Intimism.

The Terrace at Vernonnet (1939).

Border Design: A pattern designed to run lengthwise along the edge of the fabric or wallpaper.

A single border design, with the design running the entire width of the fabric.

Bostock, Euphemia: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Aboriginal Culture.

Possum Skin (ca. 1985).
Technique: Screen print on Silk Taffeta.
Size: 300.0 x 120.0 cm.

Botanical: A pattern design showing realistic representation of herbs, garden plants, and other botanical objects. Also a design based on botanical illustrations.

Boteh: A stylized teardrop-shaped design originally on shawls from Kashmir and mass-produced in Paisley, Scotland. Same as paisley.

Indian "Boteh" design, shawl manufacture in Paisley, Scotland.

Boudin, Eugene: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism.

Le Havre, Francais Tower (ca.1854).

Bouras, Ammar: Art Category: Printmaker, Film Maker. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Hommage (2011).

Bradshaw Figures: See Gwion Gwion.

Group of Bradshaw Figures (Kimberley, North-West, Australia).

Brancusi, Constantin: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movements: Cubism, Romanian Folk Art, African Primitive Art.

Une muse.

Braque, Georges: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Cubism, Fauvism.

Harbor in Normandy (1909).

Brauner, Victor: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Surrealism.

The Boyar (1958).

Bravura: Spirited brushwork.

Sargent illustrating bravura brushstroke.

Breton, Andre: Art Category: Theoretician. Art Movement: Surrealism.

(1896 - 1966).

Brick Layout: A layout in which every second row is shifted halfway in the horizontal direction.

Face Brick Pattern.

Brodie, Jim: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Photographic Realism.

The Martyrdom of Saint Wacko.

Broken Color: Painting technique typical of Impressionism; short touches of bright color, often complementaries, place side-by-side to create a vibrating effect.

Painting by Sam King - an example of broken color.

Bronzing: Producing a gold or metallic effect by applying powder to a sheet treated with special printing ink.

Brown, Donna: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Aboriginal Culture.

The Gounge (ca. 1995).
Technique: Painted on Silk.
Size: 115.5 x 293.0 cm.

Brown, M: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Art Nouveau.

Schweppes, Table Waters (1890).

Brownprint: Same as van Dyke print.

Sandstone - Van Dyke brown prints.

Bruce, Kelli: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Untitled.
Marbled cotton.

Brushes: The usual tools for applying paints. They comprise three parts: the handle, the ferrule and the head. The head consists of animal bristle, usually hog's hair or in cheaper ones, nylon fibers. They come in two shapes: (i) flat heads; (ii) round heads.

Brush Strokes: Make direct marks and stokes onto a fabric. The range of brush strokes can be as varied as the types and sizes of brushes used.

Brutalism: An architectural style in 1950s featuring exposed steel and large areas of coarse, undecorated concrete; the building treated like an Expressionistic sculpture.

Brutalist architecture.

Buist, Judy: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

New Galaxies - Supermassive Black Holes & Quasars (detailed view).
Materials and Techniques: Knitted garment sleeve, wool, fiber board, canvas, paint, tulle, fabrics, glass beads, knitted and stitched.

Bull's Eye: A pattern of concentric circles, often creating optical effects, such as movement or pulsation.

Bull's Eye Pattern.

Burne-Jones, Edward: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Pre-Raphaelitism.

King Cokphetua and the Beggar Maid (1884) - detailed view.

Burri, Alberto: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Sack5P (1953).
Technique: Mixed media and collage.

Bury, Pol: Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Kinetic Art.


Bunten (Japanese): Abbreviation for Monbushō bijutsu tenrankai Ministry of Education (Art Exhibition).

Byzantine/Byzantine Icons: The art and architecture, mainly religious, of Byzantine Empire; icon paintings of sacred persons venerated in eastern Orthodox Church; style of strict frontality, little or no naturalistic modelling, rich decoration, other-worldly outlook.

Apse mosaic, San Vitale, Ravenna (ca. 547).

Caban, Julio “Fade”: Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: Street Art.

Poem, The Legend Lives On.
Artists: Julio “Fade” Caban, Oliver “Kazo” Rios and Jose “Solo” Cordero.

Cabena, Carolyn: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Time and Tide.
Materials and Techniques: Plant dyed recycled fabrics, hand stitched.

Calder, Alexander: Art Category: Sculptor, Painter, Constructivist. Art Movement: Abstract Sculptor – he created first mobiles that preceded Kinetic Art.

Calico: A small-scale allover floral design in bright colors originally from India. Later associated with American country-style.

Calligraphic: Pertaining to the art of beautiful writing as in scripts in Persia, China and Japan; an artistic style characterised by graceful, flowing curves.

Calligraphy: The art of fine writing, the term derived from the Greek words meaning "beautiful hand writing".

Shrimp by Qi Baishi.
Note: The simple strokes and different shades of ink producing shrimps in an imagined water stream. Also, the red stamp at the bottom of the calligraphy is the stamp of the artist.

Calvary: Representation of the Crucifixion.

Camaieu: A technique of painting in monochrome, using two or three tints of the same pigment without regard to local or realistic color.

Art Painting - Nude Of Joelle in Camaieu by Ion Vincent DAnu.

Cameo: A jewel or semi-precious stone, often with layers of different color, which has an image cut in a raised relief.

Vintage Cameo Broach.

Campbell, Vonce: Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: Street Art.

Portraiture of Shahid.

Canvas: A heavy stiff fabric made from cotton or linen. Hair canvas is usually goat hair combined with wool, cotton or rayon, the latter three are used in the filling direction. It is a woven interfacing material that comes in various weights. The cloth is woven in such a way that the tension is evenly distributed throughout its length and breadth, thereby facilitating stretching over the stretcher. It is not suitable for dyeing.

Blank canvas as a piece of artwork.

Canvas Board: A prepared board with simulated canvas texture, suitable for oil or acrylic painting.

Camel canvas board - 20cm x 20cm.

Capital: The head or topmost part of a column or pier; because of its characteristic shape and decoration, it may be called Doric, Ionic, Etruscan, or Corinthian.

Interior column capital.

Capriccio: Italian caprice. An imaginative or fanciful subject, such as an architectural view based on composite or totally invented buildings and/or ruins.

Capriccio: The Ponte della Pescaria and Buildings on the Quay - Canaletto.

Carpeaux, Jean-Baptise: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Neo-Classical.

Young Fisherman with a Shell.

Carrà, Carlo: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Futurism.

Carlo Carrà, Funeral of the Anarchist Galli (Funerali dell'anarchico Galli), 1910–11 (detail view).

Carriere, Eugéne: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Art Nouveau.

L’aurore (1897).

Carroll, Alison (Milyika): Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Batik on silk.

Cartoon: (i) A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting, mural or tapestry; (ii) a humorous sketch or caricature or series (as in a comic script) usually made for a newspaper or magazine.

An Angry Donald Duck.

Cartouche: An oblong decorative figure resembling a frame, tablet, shield, or scroll bearing an inscription or emphasizing a design element. Used as a standalone or as part of a pattern's motif. On ancient Egyptian monuments, an enclosure for royal and divine names.

Tutankhamen's Cartouche.

Caryatid: Female statute used as a column, as in an ancient Greek temple.

The Caryatid Porch of the Erqchtheion, Athens (421–407 BC).

Cassat, Mary: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: American Impressionism.

Young Woman in Green, Outdoors in the Sun (1914).

Castle, Lyn: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Naïve Realiasm.

Time and Tide.
Plant dyed recycled fabrics, hand stitched.

Cat Patterns: Patterns featuring cats or generally on a cat theme.

Spiral tail seamless pattern of cats.

Caulfield, Patrick: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: British Pop Art.

Cafe Sign - Caulfield Patrick (1968).

Celtic Knot: A knot formed by interfaced ribbons that lead seamlessly into one another. Same as everlasting knot.

Celtic Knot.

Cezanne, Paul: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Post Impressionism.

Still Life with Bottle and Apple Basket (1894).

Chagall, Marc: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Fauvism, Cubism.

The Drunkard (Le_saoul) (1912).

Champleve: An enamelling technique in which the glass is contained within engraved depressions in metal (usually copper alloy) plate.


Chancery Cursive: Style of calligraphy with a contemporary look. Less formal lettering.

Chancery Cursive Font.

Chang, Young-Hae: Art Category: Photography. Art Movement: Web Art.


Chasseriau, Theodore: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Academic Classicism, Romanticism.

Young Celeb Seated.

Cheang, Shu Lea: Art Category: Collagist. Art Movement: Post Modernism.

Burn (2003).

Chemical Fixatives: Chemical fixatives are often used in silk paintings in order to fix the color into the silk. Those brands of silk paints that can be set by a chemical often have their own particular type of fixative to set the color. Most of these fixatives are a mixture of acetic acid, or vinegar and water, but because the acid or alkaline balance varies in different brands of paints, it is wise to use the fixative that is recommended by the paint manufacturer.

Chéret, Jules: Art Category: Art Posters. Art Movement: Belle Époque poster art.

Les Girard (1879).

Chiaroscuro: In painting, the modeling of form with light and dark; any artistic treatment that stresses the contrast between light areas and shadows. Alternatively, a technique for pictorial representation, wherein objects are brought out strongly by the use of black or any dark color and white, generally in bold contrast; the entire picture is usually dark, relieved by white accents. Also an element of this effect in any picture.

Tenebroso: Chiaroscuro.

Chicago, Judy: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Futurism.

The Dinner Party (1975–1979).

Chin, Shin-Hee: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Three Generations.
Materials and Techniques: Cotton, polyester thread, random stitch.

Chino, Dave: Art Category: Spray Cannist. Art Movement: Graffiti.

Chino by Chino.

Chinoiserie: The name of a popular design movement in the nineteenth century, which was a Western interpretation based on Ancient Chinese symbolism and on aspects of nature.

Dreamworlds by Jardin Japonaise.

Chōnin (Townsmen - Japanese): The term included the artisan and merchant class who lived in urban centres of the Edo period.

Samurai, Chōnin and the Bakufu: Between Cultures of Frivolity and Frugality.

Choubrac, Alfred: Art Category: Art Posters. Art Movement: Belle Époque poster art.

Le tour du monde en 80 jours (1890).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 121.8 x 87.7 cm.

Choubrac, Léon: Art Category: Art Posters. Art Movement: Belle Époque poster art.

Alcazar d'Hiver (1882).
Note: He is the older brother of Alfred Choubrac.

Christos (aka Christo Javacheff): Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Landscape Art.

Christos' Cloth Wrapping of the Sydney Opera House.

Chryselephantine: Made or decorated with gold and ivory, as ancient Greek statutes were.

Delphi - Chryselephantine Sculpture.

Chūban (Japanese): A medium print size: 10 x 7.5 inches (26 x 19 cm).

Chūban: kabuki triptych with two actors.

Chung, Jiyoung: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Whisper-Romance III-VI.

Cire Perdue (lost-wax process): Technique in bronze casting in which the wax layer between model and mould is melted away and replaced by bronze.


Clarke, Deb: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Daisy Daze.

Classical Period: The art of ancient Greece and Rome; any work exhibiting the traits of ancient Greek art; an art of formal order stressing simplicity, dignity, clearly defined intervals, mathematical proportion. A “classic” is, by extension, a work generally accepted as a Masterpiece.

Archaic black. Ancient Greek pottery.

Clifford, Morgan: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Color-Field.

Untitled.
Materials: Handwoven linen, silk, hemp, paper, aloo.

Close, Chuck: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Superrealism.

A Man and His Grid.

Closed Form: The sense of unbroken space characteristic of classical composition in painting, sculpture, and architecture.

Sargent strikes the perfect balance between open- and closed-form painting.

Cole, Thomas: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

The Oxbow - The Connecticut River near Northampton (1836).

Collage: From the French coller - “to paste”; any artistic composition made by gluing assorted materials (cloth, newsprint, wood veneers) to a flat surface, usually a canvas or a panel.

Photo collage.

Commercial Art: A term used to describe artwork intended for use in advertising or promotion - as distinct from fine-art.

A Coca-Cola advertisement from the 1920s featuring the newly patented Christmas bottle.

Composite Artwork: Artwork combining a number of different elements.

Composite artwork by Michael Nyiri featuring Betty Boop - Beach Boop Summer 2004.

Composite Overlay: Two or more patterns stacked on top of each other. A typical example is a patterned background.


Composite Repeat: A combination of two or more symmetry types in one pattern. For example, rotational medallions put in a drop repeat.

An example of a composite repeat.

Conceptualism: An art movement (after 1960) emphasizing the transient character of the creative, rather than its outcome; art objects become the report, written or spoken, of an event; de-emphasis of visual imagery. It is related to process art.

Barbara Kruger - Conceptual art.

Cone Drawing (Tsutsugki): Freehand style application of resist paste, using mulberry paper brass-tip cone.

The Tsutsugaki is a method of resist-dying using rice paste.

Connoisseur: Literally, one “who knows” and is therefore competent to offer critical judgement of art; an expert in a particular branch of art who can recognize certain techniques, establish dates, verify authenticity, estimate prices; a person of discriminating taste in art, cooking etc.

Australian art critic Robert Hughes was world-renown. He lived and then died in New York in 2012 aged 74.

Constable, John: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

Wivenhoe Park (1816).

Constructivism: Twentieth-century non-representational sculptural style, associated with Russians Naum Gabo, Kasimir Malevich, and Antoine Pevsner; theoretical foundations in modern physics, engineering and technology; an endeavour to treat volume with a minimum of mass.

Painting by Constructivist Kasimir Malevich (1878 - 1935).

Contemporary: A design with simple, extremely stylized motifs.

Contour: A pattern of outlines highlighting or suggesting shapes or figures of the motif.

Topographic prominence of three peaks near Great Pond Mountain, Maine, USA. Red triangles mark the peaks.

Contrapposto: A figural pose in which one part of the body turns or twists away from another, usually in an unsymmetrical pose characteristic of classical Greek and Roman figure sculpture, in which the weight is carried by one leg while the other is relaxed. This system of figural articulation was revived and much exploited during the Italian Renaissance.

Contrapposto pose. How the body adjusts to balance.

Converging Verticals: Familiar visual phenomenon in which parallel vertical lines appear to converge as when a tall building is viewed from below (see photograph below).


Conversational: A design with recognizable objects in the motif. Also called object prints.

Typical conversational print.

Coordinates: Two or more designs related to each other in color, subject matter, and/or technique that are intended to be used together.

Coral: An organic allover pattern suggestive of coral growth.

Seamless Coral Reef Pattern.

Corbel: Sculpture of a basket or fruit or flowers, used as an architectural ornament.

Vintage Gilded Wood - Corbel.

Corinth, Lovis: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: German Expressionism.

Self-Portrait with Glass.

Corot, Jean-Baptise-Camille: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Landscape.

Marshy Pastures.

Cotman, John Sell: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

Greta Bridge - watercolor (1805).

Counterchange: A design where a certain color of the motif and its ground are reversed in another part of the design to balance the elements. See also two-color symmetries.

Enzo.

Counter-Reformation: Roman Catholic evangelical movement in reaction to the Protestant Reformation, during which religious arts flourished in Catholic countries.

Bernini - Ecstasy.
Note: This an example of the renewed vigour of Catholicism which could be seen in the explosion of religious art of the Baroque during and after the Counter Reformation.

Courbet, Gustave: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Realism.

Self-Portrait - The Desperate Man (ca. 1843–45).

Couture, Thomas: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Academic Classicism.

Tzigane.

Coverage: The amount of design area in relation to the negative space.

Cox, Christine: Art Category: Collagist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Hidden Treasures.
Materials and Techniques: Wire and metal, paper pulp, recycled fabric strips and cord.

Cozens, Alexander: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

River and Mountain, with Ruins.

Cozens, John Robert: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

The Lake of Albano and Castle Gandolfo.

Craft Knife: A knife with a thin, light blade, which is kept very sharp. Cutting edge usually does not run along its length, but slopes across the end of the blade. Handle is usually heavy. Blades may be detachable.

Craquelure: Network of small cracks in paint or vanish of an old painting.


Crawford, Marian: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Clustering.

Creation Baumann: A Swiss-based company also renowned for innovative furnishing and interior design.

Crenshaw, Constance Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Expressionism.

The Garden and the Hare.
Materials and Techniques: Cotton paper, pigment, acrylic paint, screen printing, collage, painting.

Crespo, Jose “F-Boom”: Art Category: Murals. Art Movement: Street Art.

In the early hours of 9th September 1991, a knife wound punctured 14 year-old Robert Torres lung. Robbed of his wallet, the body of "John Doe" lay in the morgue for a week until his frantic parents found him. This mural features a rare representation of God.

Crew (Dan Buller, Tyler Gibney, Gene Pendon): Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: Graffiti

HVW8 Art Installation.

Criticism: The act of describing, analyzing, interpreting, and judging works of art; informed talk about art; incorrectly used to mean censure, or fault-finding.

Crome, John: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

Yarmouth Jetty.

Croquis: A fully painted design that is not in repeat; same as sketch.

Female Fashion - Croquis.

Cross-Hatching: Two sets of parallel lines, one on top of the other, with the second set at an angle to the first.

Cross hatching-shading with intersecting sets of parallel line.

Cubism: A style of art originated by Picasso and Braque in Paris around 1917; emphasis on the geometrical foundations of form, the two-dimensionality of the picture surface, multiple views of the same objects, superimposition and interpenetration of forms. Intellectual phase is Analytical Cubism (1909-1912); decorative, playful phase is Synthetic Cubism (1912-1914).

Picasso's "Girl with a Mandolin" (1910).

Cullen,Gregor: Art Category: Printmaker (Redback Graphix). Art Movement: Modernism.

Fresh Blood (1979).

Curfman, Anna-Katherine: Art Category: Wearable Artist. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Swirls (2009).
Materials and Techniques: Merino roving, silk organza; nuno techniques, wet felted.
Size: 203.2 x 45.7 cm.

Curley, Manyinta (Katie): Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Rake wars (long cloth). Batik on Silk (Fregon, Australia).

Dadism (Dada): Post World War I style stressing accidental images and events, the logic of the absurdity, irrationality in art, literature and morality. Related to Surrealism.

Du Champ’s Urinal.

Dagg, Margaret Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Batik on silk.

Dali, Salvador Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Surrealism.

Melting Watch.

Da Messina, Antonella Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Renaissance.

Title: Portrait of A Man, “II condottiere” (1475).

Daubigny, Charles-Francois Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Landscape.

On the Loire.

Daumier, Honore Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Realism.

Davies, Stuart Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Chess Players.

Da Vinci, Leonardo Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Late Renaissance.

Mona Lisa - Lourve Museum. Sometimes the artwork overwhelms the display.

de Andrea, John Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Superrealism.


de Chavannes, Puvis Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Symbolism.

Young Girls on the Edge of the Sea.

de Chirico, Giorgio Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Dada, Surrealism.

The Song of Love (1914).

Deconstruction: Method of critical analysis which asserts that art can have no fixed meanings because it can be viewed only subjectively.

Marie-Therese Wisniowski's "Mark Making on Urban Walls". Post graffiti deconstructed art.

Decorative Design: Artwork created for use in home furnishing and interior decoration.


Degas, Hilaire Germain Edgar Art Category: Sculptor, Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism.

Two Dancers in the Studio.

Dek (tag) Art Category: Murals. Art Movement: Street Art. See Crespo.

Artists: Jose “F-Boom” Crespo and “Dek”.

de Kooning, Willem: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Police Gazette.

Delacroix, Ferdinand Victor Eugéne: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Romantic.

The Death of Sardanapalus (1827).

de la Pena, Nacisse Virgile Diaz: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Landscape.

Forest of Fontainebleau (1868).

Delaunay, Robert Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Neo-Impressionism, Orphic Cubism, Representational and Abstract Art.

Rhythm Color.

Delineate: To accentuate outlines in line artwork by making them heavier.

de Loutherbourg, Philippe Jacques Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 8 August 1588.

Delvaux, Paul Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Surrealism.

The Sleeping Venus (1944).

de Maria, Walter Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Earthen Artworks.

The Lightning Field.

Demi-Goutte: Art Category: Surface Designer. Art Movement: Floral.

Jungle (2012).

Demuth, Charles Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Cubism Revisited.

Red Chimneys.

de Paléolodgue, Pal Jean: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Art Nouveau.

Rayon d’or (1895).

Depth: The thickness of a three-dimensional object measured downwards from its surface.

Derain, Andre Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Expressionism, Fauves.

Charing Cross Bridge (1906).

de Stael, Nicolas Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Landscape Study (1952).

De Stijl: Dutch for "The Style"; art and design movement originating in the Netherlands in 1917, advocating principles (e.g. asymmetry, use of primary colors, emphasis on rectilinear forms) which have had immense influence on the development of graphic design and on ArtCloth practitioners.

Mondrian - Tableau (1921).

Dhuffer, Poona: Art Category: Surface Design. Art Movement: Abstract.

Maharani Blur (2011).

Dhulang: Painted patterns or designs in the North East Arnhem land (Australia).

Bark Painting - Wagilag Sisters.

Diaglyph: Carving or ornament in intaglio.

Diamond: A pattern whose elements are arranged along diagonal (diamond) lines.

Diaz, Jose “Jad”: Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: Street Art.

The artist Jad stands on the terrace of Carol’s apartment building in front of is mural.

Diebenkorn, Richard Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Landscape Abstraction.

Berkeley #57 (1955).

Digital Pattern: A pattern that consists of computer-generated elements, such as pixelated or fractal shapes. More broadly, can refer to digital pattern art. An example of a digital pattern would be a digital camouflage pattern.

Digital Pattern Art: A pattern created using a computer as an essential tool in the design process. Examples include digital patterns that exhibit typical computer-generated elements or shapes, such as pixelated or fractal shapes; patterns that would be difficult or impossible to create without a computer, such as algorithmic or procedural patterns; and patterns produced using digital image manipulation techniques.

Fractal Digital Art - Pattern Pyramid by Lyle Hatch.

Digitizing Pad: An on-line input device to a digital computer, on which a free-handing drawing is translated immediately into digitized form, visible on a tablet.

Dine, Jim Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Pop Art.

Title: Car Crash.

Diptych: Altar piece of two panels; more generally, two associated artworks.

Directional: A design in which motifs are oriented along one or several directions. Examples of directional design include one-way, two-way, and four-way layouts. Also a design that looks correct from only one direction. The opposite is a non-directional (unidirectional) design.

Direct Modulation: The addition of one complement to another, usually done in steps, in order to visualize the change more clearly.

Direct Painting: A technique that stresses spontaneity or the appearance of spontaneity in execution; a minimum of reworking; voids transparent effects and “build up” of a surface with several layers of paint.

Artist Nancy Rourke - direct painting.

Direct Style: A style of patterning in which one or several colors are applied to the surface of a fabric and are usually fixed by thermofixation or steaming. The fabric base is usually white, but may have been previously dyed. This method was rarely used until the advent of synthetic dyestuff.

Di Sotto In Su: (Italian: “with beneath made above”). Perpendicular to the picture plane.

Ditzy: A ditzy (ditsie) is an allover design of small buds, circles, zigzags, and other elements that are simple, eccentrically silly, and may be funny.

Ditzy floral vector.

Dix, Otto Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Self Portrait (1913).

Documentary Design: A design based on documents or original (usually historical) material and reproduced closely to the original, often using a different technology. Compare to adaptation.

Dog's Tooth: A pattern of small broken or jagged checks created by four-pointed stars. Same as hound's tooth.

Doesburg, Theo van Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: de Stijl, Elementarism.

Domela-Nieuwenhuis, Cesar Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: de Stijl.

Composite.

Dono, Heri Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Post Modernism.

Trojan Cow (2003).

Dossal: A panel painting hung behind an altar.

Drake-Brockman, Charlotte Art Category: Collagist. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Title: Good and Bad Taste.
Recycled 1930’s elbow length glove cardboard box, crazy quilt from waste materials courtesy Pauline and Grant, tissue paper, PVA, ribbons, bling, glitter, sequins, artificial flowers.

Drop Shadow: A shadow behind an image designed to bring the image forward.

Dry-Brushing: Paint technique that keeps the bristle surface of a brush relatively dry in order to build up a cloudy effect, or to touch up the highlights of a textured surface.

Dubuffet, Jean Art Category: Painter & Sculptor. Art Movements: Expressionism, Informal Abstraction.

Mire G177 Bolero (1983).

Ducasse, Sabine: Art Category: Wearable Art. Art Movements: informal Abstraction.

Her wearable art represents a fusion between her "east meets west experience" - since she has lived in Shanghai but is originally from Paris.

Duchamp, Marcel: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Dada, Ready Mades.

DuChamp's Mona Lisa (L.H.O.O.Q.)

Duchamp-Villon, Raymond Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Cubism.

Maggy (ca. 1912).

Dufy, Raoul Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Fauves.

Intérieur à la fenêtre ouverte.

Dunnewold, Jane Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movements: de Stijl, Informal Abstraction.

Title: Sacred Planet I: The Myth of Human Superiority (detailed view).

Duplex Board: One consisting of two layers of different color and/or quality, pasted together.

Durand, Asher B. Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

The Indian's Vespers (1847).

Durrmu: Vibrant patterns found in nature and made in painting (in the Murrinh-Paths language spoken in the Wadeye Region of Australia by Australian Aboriginals).

Dianne Hodgson - Durrmu Arts.

Eakins, Thomas Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Realism.

The Artist's Wife and his Setter Dog.

Earth Sculpture: The excavation of earth, the relocation of boulders, the digging of water channels, etc. to create pleasing or expressive aesthetic effects.

Among the elements that coexist with the natural tidal arena, the surrounding sun panels constitute a triangle that visually connects water and Earth.

Earthworks Poster Collective: A printmaker collective house in Tin Shed, The University of Sydney from 1972 - 1979.

You are on Aboriginal Land.

Easel: A special stand to support a canvass in an upright position.

Easel Painting: Creative painting executed in one of the standard techniques, such as oils, water colors, tempera, gouché or pastel; most frequently intended to be framed and hung on a wall (i.e. forms of object art).

Eastman, Kathryn Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Title: Offset.
Natural pigments, fiber reactive dye, silk, Katazome, hand stitching.

Eccentrics: An eccentric is a pattern of thin lines generating an illusion of a distortion or op-art effects. Another spelling is excentrics. The class is believed to be originated from the Lane's Net pattern.

April Miller's works of art entrance the viewer through eccentric patterns and shocking pops of color.

Eclecticism: Creating a form or style on the basis of many borrowings; the combination of recognizable elements from several styles to fashion something new.

Art and Eclecticism Final by Dark Vampess.

Ecorche: Sculpture of a human or animal without skin, usually for use in teaching anatomy to sculpture students.


Ecsher, Maurits Art Category: Printmaker, Painter. Art Movement: Surrealism in form only. Preceded Op Art.

Eye.

Edelson, Mary Beth Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Pop Art.

Title: Woman Rising (1974).

Egg and Dart: A classic design consisting of an oval element alternating with an arrow-like element.

Egg and Dart motif from a cornice at Palmyra.

E-goyomi (Japanese): A pictorial calendar with concealed numbers denoting the long and short months.

Egoyomi: Japanese Picture Calendars.

Ehon (Picture Books - Japanese): E-hon or Ehon (絵本) is the Japanese term for picture books. It may be applied in the general sense, or may refer specifically to a type of illustrated volume published from at least the mid-eda period onwards, often as chapter-books in series.


El Anatsui: Art Category: Sculpture. Art Movement: Post Modernism - Found Objects.

Awakened.

Eliasson, Olafur: Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Post Modernism.

Blind Pavilion (2003).
50th Venice Biennale.

Embu (French): In an oil painting, a dull spot in an otherwise glossy surface caused by a sinking-in of the oil color.

Enamel: An object so decorated. Derived from the German word meaning "to melt" (about 1550).

Encaustic: A painting medium using hot wax to bind colors to a wood panel or wall.

Endicott, Erin Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Title: Healing Sutra #19.
Hand embroidered antique cotton. Fabric stained with Walnut ink.

Engineered: A motif or group of motifs designed to fit a specific shape.

Ensor, James: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Post-Impressionism.

Environmental Art: Any ordered arrangement or reconstruction of the natural and built environment. It includes such categories as the floral art of the natural environment, and/or art depicting gardens of a built environment. Marie-Therese Wisniowski's MSDS technique is often used in her Environmental Art.

Marie-Therese Wisniowski's MSDS Environmental ArtCloth - Flames Unfurling (detailed view).

Erdrich, Andrew William: Art Category: Tapestry. Art Movements: Representational.

Cool Dudes: Tapestry 1 (2012).

Ernst, Max: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Dada, Surrealism.

World War II and later life.

Estes, Richard Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Superrealism.

Telephone Booths (1968).

Ethnic Art: Art typical of a specific nationality or a design based on folk art.

Vintage Croatian Folk Art Enamel Metal Dish.

Everlasting Knot: A knot formed by interfaced ribbons that lead seamlessly into one another. Same as Celtic knot.

Buddhist endless knot. Symbolises endless compassion and wisdom.

Exploded View: Drawing of an object showing its component parts separately but arranged in such a way as to indicate their relationships within the object when assembled.


Expressionism: A style of modern painting, original central European, emphasizing intense color, agitated brushwork, and violent imagery to express painful emotions, anxiety, and hallucinatory states.

Starry Night by Vincent Van Gogh.

Expressivism: A term used here to describe the critical position that greatness in art results from the vivid, intense, and convincing expression of emotion.


Fall-On: One transparent color falling on another producing a third color. Also called trapping.

Fautrier, Jean Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Jean Facturier Surface colorée, Tableau à 4 côtés (Colored Surface, Picture with Four Sides), 1958.

Fauvism: From the French fauve (wild beast). An early twentieth century painting style emphasizing the juxtaposition of extremely bright areas of color, arbitrary drawing unrelated to the color, and distorted linear perspective. Main aim is breakdown and reform of particular picture structure; not as anguished as German Expressionism, which it resembles.

Henri Matisse painting, Portrait of Madame Matisse (The Green Stripe), from 1906.

Fay, Jennifer Libby Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movements: Informal Abstraction; Environmental Art.

Title: Sunday Blessing.
Medium: Cloth, dye.

Feininger, Lyonel Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Art Nouveau, Orphic Cubism.

Barfuesserkirche I, 1924 (Staatsgalerie Stuttgart)

Fell-McLean, Susan Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Title: Visibility.

Fête Champêtre, Fete Galante: 18th Century painting of figures in a pleasant rural setting.

Fête Champêtre

Fetish: A charmed or magical object; often a sculpture regarded as home or embodiment of spiritual subject, much as ka or soul of an Egyptian pharaoh is believe to reside in the many statutes of him; a psychological obsession with an object or part of the body which results in an erotic response.

Hathor fetish capital. Egyptian Third Intermediate Period, Dyn. 22, reign of Osorkon II 874–712 BC.

Fiber Art: Artwork that utilizes fabrics as its medium (see definition of ArtCloth and Artwork).

Marie-Therese Wisniowski's ArtCloth - Flames Unfurling.

Field: The area of a design that is not the border.

Figurative: Referring to a style, as of painting, that represents humans, animals or objects, rather than relying purely in abstract forms.

Sienna by Patrick Palmer.

Figurine: Small carved or moulded statue; sometimes called a statuette.

Classic ancient Egyptian statue Khnum Ram sculpture figurine.

Finished Art: Same as artwork.

Finished Rough: Term for presentation of a visual.

Firth, Dianne: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Deluge. Material and Technique: Machine stitching/quilting, reverse appliqué, viscose felt and cotton.

Fitch: Hog-hair brush suitable for oil work (one type is available for water color work). The five types are round, filbert, long, short and herkomer. Used in many techniques and sometimes as an alternative to household brush.

Flanderin, Hipolyte-Jean Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Academic Classicism.

La fiorentina.

Fleur-de-Lis: A stylized three-petal or four-petal lily. Originally a symbol of purity. Since the Middle Ages has been used in heraldic ornaments.


Flint, India Art Category: Wearable Artist. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Plant-dyed garments employing her signature eco print techniques.

Floral: A design using flowers and other nature elements such as seed pods, leaves, and marine plants.


Florrimell, Michael Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Title: History never repeats I tell myself as I go to sleep.

Florrimell, Norman Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Title: Cobbers.

Folk Art: The art of the people. It is usually associated with naïve art of the untrained.

Hungarian rustic terracotta Korond tulip blue plate.

Foreground: The part of a design that appears to be closest to the viewer and in front of other objects. Contrast to background.

Foreshorten: In illustration to depict the apparent distortion of perspective in a receding form or plane. Alternatively, the representation through drawing of the three-dimensional forms on a flat surface to create the illusion of depth, as of an arm and hand extended toward the viewer.

Formalism: A term used to describe the critical position that greatness in art results from the ideal juxtaposition and treatment of the basic elements of visual form.

Aesthetic formalism.

Found Material: Any objects or materials such as feathers, leaves, fabric, printed material or ephemera which can be incorporated in the image making process.

Stitlzein creates art from found materials such as piano keys, broken china, and other recycled items.

Four-Way Layout: A design in which motifs face all four directions, for example, up, down, left, and right.

Four-way layout.

Foy, Anne Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Title: Force of Nature.
Wet felting, needle felting, inkjet printing on cotton. Merino wool and silk fibers, cotton stitching, industrial felt backing.

Francis, Sam Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.


Frankenthaler, Helen Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Color-Field.


Fraser, Mary Edna Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Title: Charleston Red (SC).
Batik on silk.

Fresco: A type of mural or wall painting in which dry colors are mixed with water and applied to wet plaster surface; fresco means “fresh” in Italian.

Deeds of Hercules and his Apotheosis 1704-08. Fresco Liechtenstein Museum, Vienna.

Fret Pattern: A plane geometric pattern or an interlocking motif in a band or border that consists of lines that meet at right angles. Also known as Greek key pattern. Often used as an ornamental border design.


Fretwork: Ornamental openwork, such as created with a fretsaw or scroll saw. Often used in furniture of metal decorations. Also a carved design in architecture.


Freud, Lucian Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Superrealism.

Lord Goodman in his Yellow Pyjamas (1987).

Frieze: Decorative horizontal band, as along the top of a wall.


Frieze Pattern: A pattern that repeats in one direction. There are exactly seven (7) mathematical classes of frieze patterns. Compare with two-dimensional (wallpaper) patterns that have exactly seventeen (17) mathematical types.

Frieze pattern.

Frontality: The full face or head on presentation of the human figure; planarity in the organization of forms, that is, emphasis on forms parallel to the frontal lane.

This is the first public relief (monument) to show the imperial family in full portrait frontally.

Frost, Ben: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Cartoon Style Street Art.

High - Score Pop Ruin. Acrylic and aerosol on board.

Frottage: Technique for making images by rubbing a soft pencil over paper on a textured surface.

Frontage art using rubbings from credit cards.

Functionalism: The doctrine prominent in the early twentieth century that architecture, furniture and other useful objects should be designed to reveal their materials and process making, to work well and to endue, and to express their practical purpose; the view that aesthetic excellence results from successful utilitarian design and performance.

Functionalist architecture.

Futurism: An Italian painting style (about 1910) derived from Cubism; devoted to the celebration of speed, the representation of motion, and the “dynamization” of civilised life.

Italian Futurism. Fortunate Depero, Skyscrapers and Tunnels (Gratticieli e tunnel), 1930 (detail).

Gabo, Naum Art Category: Constructivist, Sculptor. Art Movements: Realistic Manifesto of Constructivism, Kinetic Sculpture.

Linear Construction No. 2' (1970–1).

Ganosis: The toning or dulling of stone sculpture - for instance, by the application of colors mixed with wax.

Garcia, Antonio “Chico” Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: Street Art.

Cano’s killer was AIDS. It was the cause of death for a number of American men aged between 25 to 44 years of age.

García, José “Solo”: Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: Street Art.

Perro Rojo (2010).

Gass, Linda Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Title: Puzzle of Salt.
Stitched painting on silk.

Gauguin, Eugene-Henri-Paul Art Category: Painter, Sculptor. Art Movements: Post-Impressionism, Peasant Sculpture of Brittanny.


Genre Painting: Painting that depicts a scene from daily life.

A genre painting. Adrian van Ostade, Fishmonger (1660-1670).

Geometric: A motif, pattern, or design depicting abstract, nonrepresentational shapes such as lines, circles, ellipses, triangles, rectangles, and polygons.


Geometric Design: A design based on a geometric pattern, often contrasted with representational designs, such as floral or conversational.


Geometric Period: Period from 900 to 700 B.C. when geometric motifs on Greek vases formed a background first for animals, then for human figures.

Terracotta pyxis (box with lid).

George, Lois: Art Category: Fashion Art. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Title: Going Going Green.
Base cape - fine woven wool twill. Layered fabrics, chiffons, satins, cotton voiles, lace, acrylic and polyester materials. Crocheted trees in wool and acrylic, sequins, beads, cording, hand stitching.

Gesalt: German for "configuration"; Gesalt School of psychology relates to ways in which images are perceived and understood.

Composition showing the Gestalt Principles.

Gesso: Mixture of plaster of paris or gypsum and glue, used as a base for basrelief or to prepare painting surface.

Giacometti, Alberto Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Surrealism.

Walking man.

Giambologna, Jean Boulogna Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Mannerism.

The Rape of the Sabine Women (1574-82), Florence.

Gibson, John Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Neo-Classical.

Hunter and dog.

Giorgione: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Renaissance.


Girten, Thomas Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

Landscape with Hill and Clouds.

Gleizes, AlbertArt Category: Painter. Art Movement: Cubism.

Cubist Landscape (1914).

Gō (Japanese): Pen or artist's name.

Godbout, Rosie: Art Category: Wearable Artist. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Perfecto Vest (2007).
Materials and Techniques: Merino fleece, silk rayon; wet felted.
Size: 80 x 43 cm.

Goings, Ralph Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Superrealism.

Relish.

Golden Section: Harmonious proportions arising from division of any line A-C at point B so that AB as BC is to AB; this ratio (1:1.618) provides the dimensions of the "golden triangle". See diagram below.


Goncharov, Natalia Art Category: Painter, Wearable Art. Art Movement: Rayonism, Wearable Art.


Gonzalez, Julio Art Category: Sculptor, Constructivist. Art Movement: Metal Constructivism.


Gonzalez, Julio Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Surrealism.

Visage criant a la grande main, 1941.

Gorky, Arshile: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Surrealism.

The Liver is the Cock's Comb (1944)

Gothic Style: Originally applied to art and architecture of France, and then Europe, from twelfth to mid sixteenth century; emphasis on vertical space, basilica plan, long, narrow nave, slender masonry construction, progressive enlargement of the window area, ribbed groin vaults, flying buttresses, stain glass.

The Cathedral of Saint-Gatian, Tours, France.

Gottlieb, Adolph Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Imagery Landscapes.

Pink and Indian Red Oil on canvas.

Gouache: Painting technique using opaque water colors bound with gum.

Gouache and watercolour. Bedouins by John Singer Sargent Brooklyn.

Graphic: A design created for the purpose of printing. Also refers to a design with a bold look.

Grasset, Eugène: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Art Nouveau.

Napoleon in Egypt (1895).

Greek Key Pattern: A plane geometric pattern or a border interlocking that consists of lines that meet at right angles. Also known as fret pattern. Often used as an ornamental border design.


Gris, Juan Art Category: Painter, Wearable Art. Art Movement: Orphic Cubism, Wearable Art.


Grisaille: Painting in tones of grey, usually striving for an effect of a sculpture or relief.

Grisaille study of bearded man for Agape Oil on canvas.

Groenewegen, Dianne Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Title: Fragile Forest (detailed view).
Raw silk and black organza. Screen-printed and foiled.

Gropius, Walter Art Category: Painter, Creator of Bauhaus. Art Movements: Art Nouveau, Bauhaus.

Untitled (from the portfolio for Walter Gropius on his birthday, 18th May 1924). Black ink, water colours and opaque colours 19.6 x 22.5 cm.

Grosz, Max Herrmann-Neisse Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Dada, German Expressionism.

This is the second of two portraits George Grosz painted of his friend, writer Max Herrmann-Neisse. (1927).

Grotesque: Decoration in the manner of grotto sculptures, especially with fantastic interweaving of human and animal forms with foliage.

Pictures Château of Vaux le Vicomte Grotto.

Ground: The part of a design that appears to be farthest from the viewer and behind the objects of interest. Can be a solid color, texture, random objects, or another pattern (patterned ground). Also called background. Opposite of foreground.

Patterned ground: Background of beautiful native fabrics.

Guilds: Free professional and social associations of medieval artisans, merchants, tradesman, organized to protect their interests, to maintain standards of craft, to govern the training of apprentices and journey men, the admission of members, the reservation of trade secrets and the control of business and work.

The Syndics of the Drapers' Guild by Rembrandt (1662).

Guilloche: A decorative repeat of interlacing curved bands, sometimes forming circles.

Guilloche Red Element for Certificate or Diploma.

Guston, Philip Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Abstract Impressionism/Abstract Expressionism.

Smoking, Eating (1973).

Guttuso, Renato Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Cubism, Social Realism.

Portrait Of The Artists Mother.

Guys, Constantin Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Realism.

Constantin Guys: Loge.

Gwion, Gwion: The Ngarinyin name for dynamic, naturalistic human figures painted on rock walls in the Kimberly (Australia). Previously known as the "Bradshaw figures" after the anglo-saxon explorer Captain Joseph Bradshaw, who recorded these Aboriginal paintings in 1892.

Tassel Bradshaw (Gwion Gwion) figures wearing ornate costumes.

Haake, Hans Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Ecosystem Installations.

Blue Sail (1965).

Hairline Stripe: The thinnest stripe pattern possible, with stripe width of about the diameter of human hair.

An example of a hairline stripe design.

Half-Drop: A layout in which the motif is repeated halfway down the side in the vertical direction. The most frequently used repeat in textile design.

Colorful half drop repeat pattern of roosters.

Hals, Frans Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: 17th Century Painters.

The Gypsy Girl (1626).

Hamann, Grace Michio: Art Category: Surface Designer. Art Movement: Geometric.

Sunset Chevron (2012).

Hamilton, Richard Art Category: Collage. Art Movement: British Pop Art.

Title: Study for “Portrait of Hugh Gaitskellas a Famous Monster of Filmland” (1964).

Hand: The style of an artist's design. Tight hand is very fine and detailed; loose hand is a freer, more stylized way of drawing.

Tight hand drawing.

Hanson, Duan Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Superrealism.

Queenie II.

Happening: A quasi-theatrical event staged or contrived in non-repeatable form, employing people, places and objects to make a visual sculptural satirical statement.

1970s were a decade of fashion, happenings & youth culture.

Harding, Richard Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Photographic Expressionism.

Title: Invisible man – walk like a man (2009).

Harding, Tim Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Title: Falling Man, Shroud #1.
Silk, reverse appliqué.

Harnett, Michael Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Realism.

Mortality and Immortality.

Hartley, Marsden: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: German Expressionism Revisited.

Painting No. 48 (1913).

Hartung, Hans: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

24 (1953).

Hashira-e (Pillar Prints - Japanese): A narrow print size: 27.5 - 29.5 x 4.75 - 6 inches (70 - 75 x 12 - 15 cm).

Color woodblock pillar print, hashira-e.

Hassall, John: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Symbolism.

Colman’s Mustard.

Hatching: A drawing or printmaking technique; a kind of shading in which fine lines placed closed together create a tone that models form; in painting a series of parallel strikes (as in Cezanne) that create the appearance of planes or facets of form.

Melbourne illustrator Charles Le Brun.

Hawkins, Jennifer Art Category: Soft Sculptor. Art Movement: Modernism.

Title: We Used to Live in Trees.
Fiber optic stalks, feathers, Perspex.

Heartfield, John Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Heartfield's 1932 AIZ Cover - Adolf Superman.

Heckel, Erich Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Weisses Haus in Dangast, oil painting by Erich Heckel (1908).

Hedonic: Pertaining to pleasure; art created to generate agreeable sensations.

The Hedonic Son Art Print (Red bubble).

Hefetz, Naomi: Art Category: Surface Design. Art Movement: Illustrative.

Forced Nature (2012).

Heffernen, Jodi: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

The Fragile Edge.

Heizer, Michael: Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Earthen Artworks.

Circular surface planar displacement drawing.

Held, Al Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Minimalism.

Title: Mao (1967).

Hellenic: Of or relating to Greece.

Hellenism: Greek civilization.

Hellenistic: Period from 323 to 168 BC, when the Greek language and Greek art dominated the eastern Mediterranean in numerous kingdoms established by the successors of Alexander the Great, including Ptolemaic Egypt.

Hellion, Jean Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Cubism, Abstraction-Creationism.

Hélion (1930s).

Helmer, Claudia: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Title: Die Gedanken Sind Frei 3 (detailed view).

Hemche, Abdelhalim: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Reflets d'Afrique noire (1951).

Henri, Florence: Art Category: Weaver. Art Movement: Bauhaus.

Abstract Composition (1926).

Henri, Robert: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: American Expressionism.

"Edna Smith in a Japanese Wrap" (1915).

Henrys, Jeannie: Art Category: ArtCloth. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.


Hepworth, Barbara: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Title: Spring (1966).

Herati: A stylized rosette, enclosed in a diamond, with a serrated "acanthus leaf" along each side, often used as a motif in the rug designs from the Caspian region. The "leaf" may actually represent a fish and then the pattern is also called the mahi (fish) design. The name comes from the city of Herat in Northwestern Afghanistan (formerly the Persian empire).

Herati Pattern.

Hesterman, Heather Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Heather Hesterman - Holes 
(Nude), (1997).
Technique: Screen print, punched 
holes red silk, glass and 
frame (detail).
Size: 44 x 30 cm.

Hikizome Brushes: A ground color brush with wide handle and deer hair bristles, which absorbs large amounts of dye.

Hildebrand, Adolf von Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Neo-Classical.

Konrad Fiedler.

Hillebrand, Bridget: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Site Unseen II.

Historiated: Decorated with elaborate ornamental designs and figures, especially in a narrative (historical, religious or classical) scene.

Illuminated Letter Designs in the Historiated Style of the Middle Ages.

Hjorth, Sandee: Art Category: Surface Designer. Art Movement: Representational.

Black Swan (2012).

Hockney, David: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: British Pop Art.

Tutt'Art@

Hoelscher-Schacker, Kristin: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Untitled.
Transfer dye process on silk, hand stitched.

Hoffer, Carl Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Karl Hofer, Self-Portrait with Model (1909).

Hofmann, Hans Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Symbolism.

August Light (1957).

Hog-Hair Brush: Tough, springy hog-hair brush that is suitable for acrylic- and oil painting.

Hoist (tag): Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: Street Art.

The late Graffiti artist, Eugene “Risk” Cleary, appears as a winged spray can, flying to heaven.

Hokusai (Japanese): Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Title: The Great Wave.

Holes: Uneven gaps between motifs in a design.

Holmes, Cas: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Title: Blackbirds 1 & 11 (full view).

Hologram/holograph Image: One which gives a three-dimensional illusion without use of a camera: a laser beam (known as "coherent light") is split so that diffraction patterns are produced digitally; these reconstitute image of a subject when illuminated by light from a similar laser produces a hologram.

Shroud of Turin - Hologram.

Homer, Winslow: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Psychological Realism.

The Gulf Stream (1899).

Hopper, Edward Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Urban Realism.

Automate.

Horizontal Dimension: The width of an image, sometimes controlling reduction or enlargement in printing.

Horst: Art Category: Wearable Artist. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Deadwood (2009).
Materials and Techniques: Falkland wool; wet felted, dyed.
Size: 150 x 120 x 120 cm.

Hosoban (Japanese): A narrow print size: 13 x 15.625 inches (33 x 14.5 cm).

Slipping out of a robe at the bath (hosoban tate-e) by ishikawa.

Huet, Paul: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Landscape.

Trees in the Park at Saint Cloud.

Hunter, Anne Maree: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Expressionism.

I cried because I had no shoes, then I met a women who had no feet!

Iconoclasm: (Greek meaning “image-breaking”). The rejection of imagery as offensive to God, especially in the Byzantine Empire between ca. 730 and 843. Iconoclasts argued that religious images had come to be regarded by worshippers as idols, and hence must be displeasing to God. Iconophiles adduced a range of arguments from the Bible and Christian tradition legitimating their use.

Byzantine Iconoclasm, Chludov Psalter, 9th Century.

Iconography: The conventional meanings of images used to convey or symbolize ideas in works of art; an artist’s distinctive use of visual symbols.


Iconology: The historical study and interpretation of visual symbols in art, with particular attention to their literary origins; the study of religious symbolism.

Birth of Venus - Caravaggio painted several martyred saints, which is an example of iconology.

Idealization: Visual representations, which omit defects or imperfect variations in a form; a type of abstraction; a type of stylization; representation the follow perfect models.

The Idealization of Asymmetrical Thought.

Ideogram: Character which symbolizes an idea by representing an associated object, but does not express sounds of its name; many Chinese characters are ideograms.

Good examples of ideogram are the red circle that means - “not allowed”.

Illustration: A term used to distinguish a drawn image from one that is photographed.

Illustration art.

Image: The subject to be reproduced as an illustration.

Image of a Martian in Neo Geo Battle Coliseum.

Impasto: Thick, heavy painting; usually oil painting composed of pronounced bristle-brush strokes or palette-knife applications, which stand out in relief and are plainly apparent to the spectator. From the Italian word for paste; paint applied in thick slathers or lumps.

Impasto painting - Palette Knife and Wood Canvas.

Impressionism: A late nineteenth century (mainly French) style of painting; the extension of realism to scientific analysis of color and light; stress on capture of transient atmospheric effects; use of broken color and color complementaries to render form; outdoor painting and direct observation of subject emphasized.

Claude Monet, Haystacks, (sunset) (1890–1891).

Indiana, Robert Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Pop Art.

Love (1968).

Ingres, Jean Auguste Dominique Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Academic Classicism, Romanticism.

Princesse Albert de Broglie, née Joséphine-Eléonore-Marie-Pauline de Galard de Brassac de Béarn (1853).

Instrumentalism: A term used to describe the critical position that greatness in art results from effectiveness in advancing the objectives of humanity usually defined by one of a number of major social or economic institutions; family, church, state, guild, firm, political party, corporation.

Art that is thought to be instrumental is generally didactic in nature, in that it instructs, persuades or proselytises.

Intaglio: Carving in which the design is cut into the surface - opposite to relief.

Intaglio Lithograph - Detail from Galloping Horses.

Intensity: (i) The relative number of photons that flood the optical nerve of the eye. Low intensity colors suggest few photons are registered compared to very intense colors; (ii) The degree of chromatic reflection; the less white light reflected from a surface the more intense the chromatic or the black effect will be; (iii) In color, a high degree of brightness; the fullest manifestations of a color chroma, its freedom from black, white or grey. In aesthetics, high emotional excitation.


Interlocking Pattern: An arrangement in which motifs are linked or otherwise fit together so that one cannot be moved without affecting others. See also tessellations.

An example of an interlocking pattern design.

International Style: First applied to Gothic art; the style of architecture and Unitarian designed developed in the 1920s by Walter Gropius, Mies van der Rohe and Le Corbusier; an outgrowth of the Bauhaus philosophy.

At the dawn of the 15th Century, the style known as “International Gothic”.

Intjalki, Atipalku Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Batik on silk.

Intonaco: The final layer of lime plaster upon which a fresco is painted. This is only one of the Italian terms for specific layers of fresco plaster that is in wide use.

Intonaco frattazzato.

Irregular Repeat: A design based on the same principles as the half-drop and brick layout repeats, but in which consecutive units are not always moved by a fraction of the repeat size.

An example of an irregular repeat.

Isometric Projection: Axonometric projection in which axes are arranged at 120o to each other and all dimensions along axes are in the same scale ratio.

Some 3D shapes using the isometric drawing method. The black dimensions are the true lengths as found in an orthographic projection.

Istoriato: Italian meaning “historiated”. Italian Renaissance maiolica decorated with a narrative (historical, religious, classical) or other figural scene.

A Duchy of Urbino Maiolica Istoriato dish.

Italian Quilting: A stitched and padded type of quilting similar to trapunto, except that the padding takes the form of a thick yarn padding inserted between two parallel rows of stitching, creating a linear type of raised design.

Italian Quilting otherwise known as trapunto.

Itten, Johannes Art Category: Painter (Bauhaus). Art Movement: Abstract Color.

Der Bachsänger (Helge Lindberg).

Japonaiserie: Japanese porcelain and lacquer inspired in the European mind set of decorative ideas slightly different from those of chinoiserie.

Jawlensky, Alexey Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: German Expressionism.

Johns, Jasper Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Title: Flag (1954-55).

Johnson, Eastman Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Psychological Realism.

Slavery.

Johnson, Tim Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Post Modernism, Post Modern Appropriation.

Tim Johnson and Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarri, Reincarnation (1993).

Jonas, Marty Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Title: Encircle.
Hand-dyed silk thread, dyed silk fabric using soy wax resist, crocheted circles, hand embroidery.

Jones, Allen Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: British Pop Art.

Hatstand (1969).

Jones, Peggy Napangardi: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Untitled.
Handpainted silk.

Jordaens, Jacob Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: 17th Century Painters.

Title: The Four Evangelists (ca. 1620).

Jugendstil: See Art Nouveau.

Arnold Lyongrün, Vorlage für ein Fenster im Jugendstil (Berlin und New York 1900).

Junk Art: The use of rubbish or trivial objects (by Schwitters, Duchamp, Dubuffet and others) to create images and objects; an extension of the collage idea.

Dario Tironi - junk art sculptures. The Suite World.

Kachōga (Flower and Bird Painting - Japanese): A term used to designate a genre in prints and paintings with floor-and-bird themes.

Kachōga - Bird and Flowers.

Kagajo, Ken Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Discharge Thundercloud (full view).

Kahlo, Frida Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Self-portrait.

Kain Panjang: Long cloth, approximately two to three meters (6.5-10ft) long, densely decorated with batik designs and with a border at one end.

Kakemono-e (Hanging Scroll Picture - Japanese): A vertical ōban diptych: 30 x 9 inches (76.5 x 23 cm).

Kikugawa Eizan: Kakemono-e.

Kandinsky, Wassily Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Cubism, Blue Rider – German Expressionism, Russian Intermezzo, Biomorphic Abstraction.

Yellow, Red, Blue.

Kanō School (Japanese): An official school of painters that worked in a style based in Chinese ink painting tradition of kanga.

Nino: Birds and Flowers of Spring and Summer.

Kantilla, Osmond: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movements: Tiwi Design - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Title: Blanket. Cotton drill (full view).

Karritpul, Kieren: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Yerggi 1 - Pandanus.
Technique: Acrylic on linen.

Kee, Jenny: Art Category: Fashion Art. Art Movement: Wearable Art.


Keiffer, Audrey Victoria: Art Category: Surface Design. Art Movement: Illustrative.

Genie (2013).

Kelly, Elsworth: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Minimalism.

The Meschers (1951).

Kentō (Japanese): Registration marks cut at the edges of the woodblocks.

Kentō Shaman (manga).

Kenyon, Jane: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Fracture.
Materials and Technique: Thread painting in rayon and cotton thread.

Kerkovious, Ida: Art Category: Weaver. Art Movement: Bauhaus.

Appliqué (early 1920s).

Khadda, Mohamed: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Title: Alphabet libre (1954).

Khnopff, Fernand: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Symbolism.

Frank T Zumbachs Mysterious World.

Kim, Sora: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Post Modernism.

Sora Kim & Gimhongsoh (South Korea) - Chronic Historical Interpretation Syndrome (CHIS) (2003).

Kinetic Art: Mainly three-dimension or sculptural art, which seems to move spontaneously in space (as in a Calder mobile) by the aid of a mechanism or through some naturally recurring force, like tide, wind or water.


Kirchner, Ernst Ludwig Art Category: Woodcuts, Painter. Art Movements: Bridge (Bruck), Blue Rider (Blaue Reiter), German Expressionism.

Double Self-Portrait.

Kissel, Kevin Art Category: Cloth. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Flower bombs.
Materials and Techniques: Cotton, fibre-reactive dyes, textile paint, silk embroidery floss, handwoven cloth, warp and weft Ikat, hand embroidered.

Kitaj, Ronald Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: British Pop Art.

Ohio gang.

Kitsch: Mediocrity in the highest degree. In aesthetics, pretentiously bad art; bad taste in art; cheap, mass-produced objects and images designed to arouse easy emotions.

Kitsch Art by William Franco.

Klee, Paul Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Precursor to Surrealism, Blue Rider – German Expressionism, Abstract Creationism.

Water Color Red-Green Steps In Weimar (1923).

Kleinmeister: German meaning “little master”. Engravers who followed Albrecht Durer and were known for small, Italianate engravings prized by collectors.

Kleinmeister, also called Nürnberg Kleinmeister - “Prodigal Son".

Klimt, Gustav Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Art Nouveau.

Title: The Kiss.

Kline, Franz Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Untitled.

Kloiber, Joan Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Title: Devolution III.
Cotton, threads, flourpaste, textile paint. Mono print, embroidered.

Koban (Japanese): A format used for smaller print sizes: it was frequently half the aiban or chūban sizes.

First in a set of four koran-format colour woodblock prints, depicting sex toys.

Kōbu Bijutsu Gakkō (Technical Art School - Japanese): An official school established on the campus of the Imperial College in 1876 with the purpose of providing instruction in the Western Arts. It closed in 1883.

The Kobu Bijutsu Gekko and the Beginning of Design Education in Modern Japan.

Kngwarray, Emily Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Kam (Pencil Yam Seed) (1988).
Technique: Batik on silk.

Kokoschka, Oskar Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Lovers with Cat (1917).

Kollwitz, Kathe: Art Category: Printmaker, Sculptor. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Self-Portrait.

Kore: Plural: korae. Greek meaning: “girl”. A Greek statue of a girl or young woman.

Kore 682, Acropolis ca. 530 BC.

Kornblum, Julie Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Orphism.

Title: What Can I Say.
Crocheted wire.

Kouros: Plural: kouroi. A Greek statue of a boy or young man.

Marble statue of a kouros.

Krischer, Lauren Elizabeth: Art Category: Surface Designer. Art Movement: Digital.

Polarity 3 (2012).

Kubin, Alfred: Art Category: Graphic Designer. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Haushamerlinde.

Kuder, Kristi: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Title (top): Golden Keys.
Title (bottom): Wheels Rock My World.
Photographic images manipulated on computer, digitally printed on fabric, hand stitched on cotton.

Kuehn, Candy: Art Category: Fashion Art. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Kulyuru, Angkuna Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movements: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Raiki wara (long cloth). Batik On Silk (Ernabella, Australia).

Kulyuru, Unurupa Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Batik on silk satin.

Kupka, Frantisek Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Orphic Cubism, Abstract Creationism.

Piano Keyboard/Lake (1909).

Kuruwarri: Men's designs and ceremonies (in the Australian Aboriginal Walpiri language).

Jimmy Robertson - Seed Dreaming (1986).
It is the signs or marks of spirit ancestors (kuruwarri) which are made the foreground of the Lajamanu panels.

Kyōka (Japanese): Proofs.

La Fresnay, Roger de: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Cubism.

The Conquest of the Air (1913).

Lancaster, Helen: Art Category: Painter, Soft Sculptor, Cloth Artist. Art Movements: Abstract Expressionism, Naïve Realism.

Helen Lancaster with her soft sculpture, The Wedding Cake.

Lancaster, Julie: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

The Separation Tree.

Landscape Format: Image format in which the width is greater than the height (e.g. portrait format).

Lane's Net: A pattern of diamonds rotated by 45 and 90 degrees. Diamonds are filled with thin lines radiating from the opposing ends. Legendarily, created by accident in England in the first part of the 19th Century and is believed to engender the class of eccentrics.

Lane's Net Pattern.

Larionov, Michael: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Rayonism.


Lateral Reversal: The transposing of an image from left to right as in a mirror reflection.

Latticework: A design of interlacing, crisscrossing stripes forming a network. See also trellis.

Latticework pattern.

Laurens, Henri: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Cubism.

Femme à L'Oiseau (1922).

Lawrence, Alma-Tadema: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Academic Classicism.

Spring.

Lawrence, Leslie: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Aboriginal Dreaming.

“Yarraboalla karuldai (rock painting)” (ca. 1983).
Material and Technique: Screen print on Cotton.
Size: 445.0 x 137.0 cm.

Layout: (i) An outline or sketch, which gives the general appearance of the printed material, indicating the relationship between illustration(s) and/or text; (ii) An arrangement of motifs in a pattern, such as diamond, drop, gradation, grid, spot and others. Also called repeat system.

Leach, Sam Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Italian Baroque.

Sam Leach: “Proposal For A Landscape Cosmos”. It won 2010 Wynne Prize for Best Australian Landscape. However, it is really an Italian Landscape? See Pynacker.

Leandre, Charles-Lucien: Art Category: Art Posters. Art Movement: Belle Époque poster art.

Le Princess Jaune (1896).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 100.8 x 72.3 cm.

Leaslie, Lawrence: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Aboriginal Culture.

Yarraboalla karuldai (rock painting) (ca. 1983).
Technique: Screen print on Cotton.
Size: 445.0 x 137.0 cm.

Leger, Fernand: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Impressionism, Orphic Cubism.

L'Anniversaire.

Lehmbruck, Wilhem Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Neo-Classical.


Leighton, Frederic: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Academic Classicism.


Lewers, Gerald Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Modernism.


Lewers, Margo Art Category: Painter, Constructivist, Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Orange and Red (1975) (ArtCloth).

Lewis, Wyndham Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Cubism; Futurism.

Workshop.

Liberty Style: An allover, small-scale organic (usually floral and other plant-inspired) printed or dyed patterns, characterized by highly stylized, flowing curvilinear forms and subtle, artistic tones of Art Nouveau, developed by Liberty & Co. of London.


Lichtenstein, Roy: Art Category: Painter, Printmaker. Art Movement: Pop Art.

Hopeless (1963).

Liebermann, Max: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism.

Biergarten.

Limmer, Andrea: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Gary Matter.
Materials and Technique: Cotton duck, cheesecloth, paper, silk, thread, gesso, Summinagashi, photo transfer, machine stitched.

Line-up: An unintentional straight line formed by motifs in a horizontal, vertical, or diagonal direction.

Lipchitz, Jacques Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movements: Cubism, African Art.

Mother and Child.

Lissitzky, El Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Suprematism.

Proun 4B.

Locke-Maclean, Maureen Art Category: Fashionable Art. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Transition No.3.

Logo Patterns: Patterns created from a logo. Used on stationary, fabric, and other identity items.

Long, Richard: Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Earthen Artworks.

Made by walking in landscapes.

Louail, Mohamed Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

No Title (1958).

Louis, Morris Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Color-Field.

Where (1960).

Louis, Seraphine: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Deux grandes marguerites.

Low, Elizabeth: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Of the Seasons.
Materials and Technique: Thick and thin embroidery threads, wool. Wrapping on cardboard, knitting, embroidery.

Lowry, Laurence Stephenson: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Naïve Art.

The Cart.

Loy, Abbie: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movements: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Bush Hen Dreaming (1997).
Technique: Batik on silk.

Luks, George: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Dutch Realism Re-Visited.

Street Scene (Hester Street), 1905.

Macpherson, Karen Art Category: Soft Sculptor. Art Movement: Modernism.

Techno Sapiens.
Materials and Techniques: Plastic discards which include perming curlers, toothbrush ends, cable ties, safety pins and round stalks.

Maillol, Aristide: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Neo-Classical.

The Night (1920).

Major Key: The organization of values in a work that produces high contrast.

Malevich, Kasimir: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Suprematism.

Suprematist Composition (1916).

Man, Ray: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Cubism.

The Misunderstood (1938).

Manet, Edouard: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism.

Boating.

Manifold, Marion Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Post Modernism.

Rosy Dreams: From the verandah at Purrumbete.

Manion, Irene Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Materials and Techniques: Death and transfiguration.
Digitally developed image based on photographs and watercolors of the lorikeet. Dye sublimation print onto polyester fabric. Hand and machine embroidered using rayon threads.

Mannerism: A post-Renaissance, mainly sixteenth century aristocratic style, characterized by elongation of the figure, artificial poses and gestures, strange distortions of the figure, force perspective and strident color; affectedness in art as well as behaviour.

Henry Howard Earl of Surrey (1546) - Mannerism.

Mantle: Clay mould around a wax model.


Maquette-bozzetto: Rough model for sculpture.

"Leap" (Balzo) - maquette for "Out of the Abyss" (bozzetto per "Dal Abisso").

Maralngurra, Gabriel: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Barramundi.
Gabriel Maralngurra and Ray Young - Barramundi.
Screen-printed cotton twill.

Marc, Franz: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Blue Rider, German Expressionism.

Large Blue Horses (1911).

Marcoussis, Louis: Art Category: Painter, Etcher. Art Movements: Impressionism, Cubism.

A Slice of Watermelon.

Margritte, Rene: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Primitive Art, Dada, Surrealism.

The Mysteries of Horizon.

Marin, John: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Cubism Revisited.

Maine Sea with Island.

Marouflage: Process of affixing canvas to a wall by means of a cement, traditionally white lead ground in oil.

Marquet, Albert: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Fauvism.


Martin, Cherilyn: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Tempus Fugit #4.
Materials and Techniques: Cotton, silk organza, fusible webbing, batting. Controlled rusting with screen printing, machine stitching, burning, fusing.

Martin, John: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

The Great Day of His Wrath (ca. 1853).

Martin, Florence & Kathleen: Art Category: Wearable Art. Art Movement: Wearable Art.


Maruyama/Shijō (Japanese): School of naturalistic paintings of the Edo period, led by Kyoto painter Maruyama Okyo (1733 - 95). Matsamura Goshun (1752 - 1811) is best known as the founder of another school of naturalistic paintings called Shijō. Jointly this style is known as Maruyama/Shijō.

Okyo Pine,Bamboo,Plum.

Masson, Andre: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Surrealism.

Pedestal Table in the Studio.

Mathieu, Georges: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.


Matisse, Henri Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Expressionism, Fauves.

Red Room (Harmony in Red) (1908).

Matrix Formatting Screen Printing (MFSP): This technique was developed by Marie-Therese Wisniowski. It involves creating a number of images that are then spliced together to form a matrix. The base unit is overlaid by the components of the matrix during the screen printing process. This gives the works an underlying symmetry, which projects a real sense of vibrancy.

Matta, Roberto: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Surrealism, Abstract Expressionism.

Pecador Justificado (1952).

Matte: Having a dull, almost non-reflective surface; the opposite of glossy. Matte varnishes protect a painting without glossiness.

Max, Ernst: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: German Expressionism, Dada, Surrealism.

Attirement of the Bride.

Mayo, Rebecca: Art Category: Printmaker, Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Realism.

Henrietta (1851 – 1921).

McCavour, Amanda: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Super-spiro-scribble Density Test (2010). Top Image: Detail. Bottom Image: Work in situ.

McGavin Smith, Helen: Art Category: Fashion Art. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Titled: Caged and Endangered.
The organically friendly ensemble is hand dyed, knitted, crotched and fuelled from wool, mohair and mercerised cotton.

McKernan, Shirley: Art Category: Fashion Art. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Rouge.
Materials and Techniques: One ply pure wool yarn and one ply silk/stainless steel yarn. Hand knitting and felting.

McLoughlin, Paula: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Silhouette Art.

Sweaty Little Tragedies Part 1.

Medallion: A circular part of the design in the shape of a disk, oval, diamond, hexagon, or other rotational figure, typically with a mirror symmetry, often used in the center as a focal point of an engineered design, or as an organic part of the motif.

Details of a large piece of material decorated with hippocampi (senmurv), elephants and winged horses in contiguous medallions. Spanish.

Meisho-ki (Records of Famous Places - Japanese): Illustrated guides of famous places published for travelers and pilgrims.

Kyoto Meisho Ki (Account of Kyoto's Scenic Spots).

Menhir: A single, uncut, prehistoric megalith.



Meryon, Charles: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Realism.

Abside de Notre Dame.

Mesli, Choukri: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Post Modernism.

Femme Scorpion (1967
).

Metlicovitz, Leopoldo: Art Category: Art Posters. Art Movement: Belle Époque poster art.

Madama Butterfly (1890s).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 141.6 x 100.4 cm.

Metzinger, Jean: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Cubism.

Paysage (Landscape) (1912).

Mew, Olivia: Art Category: Surface Designer. Art Movement: Floral.

Morris Floral (2012).

Mezzotint: Engraving process producing tonal effects.

Michel, Georges: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Landscape.

Storm.

Mie (Japanese): A dramatic pose in aragoto style Kabuki.

Torii Kiyomasu_- Ishikawa Dianjuro II in Shibaraku - dramatic pose.

Millefleurs: French for thousand flowers. A flower-studded pattern with naturalistically depicted flowers, originally used on medieval pictorial tapestries.

The birds and animals at inconsistent scales are a feature of the style of this tapestry.

Millet, Jean-Francois Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Realism.

The Gleaners.

Mimesis: The Greek word for imitation or reproduction; the theory generally attributed to Aristotle that art is the imitation of human beings in action.

In Greek and Roman times, art (and the ideals of beauty it contained) was mimetic: that is, intended to mimic and replicate nature.

Mimi: Aboriginal spirit figures that appear depicted on rock walls of Western Arnhem land (Australia) and Kakadu. Also refers to a style of Aboriginal painting which incorporates images of these spirits.

Magic Mimi.

Minimal Art: Abstract style using geometric shapes and primary colors.

Carl Andre (1968).

Minimalism: A style of non-representational art that restricts itself to a very few visual elements organized as simply as possible.

Piet Mondrian (1872-1944).

Miny'tji: Painted Aboriginal clan patterns or design in Central and North-Eastern Arnhem land (Australia).

Dhalwangu miny'tji.

Miro, Joan: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Cubism, Dada, Surrealism, Biomorphic Forms.

The Smile of the Flamboyant Wings.

Miso: Art Category: Paste-up artist; Painter, Drawer. Art Movements: Russian Constructivism; Street Art.

Untitled. Pencil on paper.

Mitate (Japanese): A parody of respected themes.

Mitakiki, Mona: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Untitled.
Cotton batik.

Mobile: Abstract construction with part that move when pushed or blown.

Hanging Mobile - Kinetic Art.

Modeling: In sculpture, the direct forming of materials such as wax, clay, wood, stone. In painting, the creation of more-or-less sculpture illusions.

Rodin - Carrie Belles

Modernism: Successive late nineteenth-century and twentieth century movements that have broken with the past in search of new forms of expressions.

Oscar Bluemner, Form and Light, Motif in West New Jersey (1914). American Modernism.

Modern Movement: A late nineteenth-century and early twentieth century tendency in architecture and design. Often characterized by the use of rectilinear forms and abstract motifs, it was frequently associated with an intention of mechanized mass-production.

Le Corbusier's Villa Savoye.

Modersohn-Becker, Paula: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: German Expressionism.

Self-portrait by Paula Modersohn-Becker.

Modigliani, Amedeo: Art Category: Painter, Sculptor. Art Movements: Post Impressionism, Modernism.

Patronage of Leopold Zborowski.

Moholy-Nagy, Ladislaus: Art Category: Painter, Constructivist. Art Movements: Suprematism, Kinetic Sculpture.

The Shape of Things to Come.

Moire: Ripples, wavy lines, and similar effects produced by superposition of two or more simpler patterns, for example, two sets of lines.

Moire circles.

Mon (Japanese): Family crest.

A Japanese family crest.

Mondrian, Piet: (1872-1944) Dutch abstract painter who limited himself to rectangular forms and few colors. Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: de Stijl.

Pier and Ocean (full view).

Monet, Claude: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism.

Water Lily Pond Water Irises.

Montage: Assembling portions of several images to form a single original. In other words, a method of composition in photography, cinema and television; the technique of combining imagery from various sources to create a unified visual presentation; film editing; superimposition, intercutting, overlapping etc.

Photo montage - Brothers.

Monumentality: The combined quality of dignity, grandeur, and impressiveness, especially in architecture and sculpture, regardless of actual size.

Monumental Sculpture.

Moore, Henry: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Primitive Art.

Recumbent Figure (1938).

Moreau, Gustave: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Symbolism.

The Sacred Elephant (Péri) (1885).

Morgan, Leslie: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Unknown (detailed view).

Morisot, Berthe Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism.

Summer Day (1879).

Morley, Malcolm: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Superrealism.

Blue Boyz.

Morrissey, Gerard: Art Category: Film Maker, Printmaker. Art Movement: Realism.

Title: Out of the Whitey (video).

Mosaic: A surface decoration or picture made with pieces of colored glass, stone or ceramic (called Tesserae) set into cement or mastic; typical of a wall, apse and dome decoration of Byzantine churches.

Nebula Chroma mosaic installation by Sonia King Mosaic Artist.

Motherwell, Robert: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Mexican Night.

Motif: One or many distinctive and recurring elements, forms, shapes, or figures that make up a design.

Floral Flourish Motif.

Mucha: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Art Nouveau.

Automne, panneau ca. 1900.

Muddle, Gloria: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Coastal Sea Glass.
Materials and Techniques: Frosted glass mounted onto foam core board, painted and sealed with acrylic sealer. Background painted with acrylic paint onto cotton, free machined with some hand sewing.

Mueller, Otto Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: German Expressionism.

Drei Mädchen im Profil (ca. 1918).

MultiSperse Dye Sublimation (MSDS): Developed by Marie-Therese Wisniowski, the MSDS technique employs disperse dyes and involves hand printing multiple resists and multiple overprinted layers employing numerous color plates, mixed media and low relief plant materials. The completed works are rich in color, light, shade, contrast, movement and depth. The multiple layers also imbue a painterly aesthetic and textural, three-dimensional quality to the finished ArtCloth works. Each print is unique and cannot be replicated.

Marie-Therese Wisniowski's ArtCloth work employing the MSDS technique - Flames Unfurling.

Munch, Edvard: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: German Expressionism.

The Scream (1893).

Munnich, Hermy: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Untitled.
Marbled silk produced by taking a "print" from fabric paints floated on a corraghen gum bath.

Mural: Any large wall painting. See Fresco.

Marie-Therese Wisniowski's ArtCloth mural - Wangi’s Djirang.

Murillo, Bartolome Esteban: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Baroque.

Crucifixion.

Musha-e (Japanese): Warrior picture.

Utagawa Kunisada )Toyokxuni III) musha-e (warrior prints).

Musoma, Charity vd Meer: Art Category: Wearable Artist. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Stormy Weather (2009).
Materials and Techniques: Wool, silk; nuno techniques.
Size: 38.

Nadar, Felix Art Category: Photographer. Art Movement: French Realism.

Self Portrait in American Indian Costume (French, Paris 1820–1910).

Nagasaki-e (Nagasaki Pictures - Japanese): Souvenir prints made at Nagasaki which primarily represents foreigners.

Nagasaki-e scroll.

Naïve Art: The art of untrained or self-taught artists; the art of preliterate peoples. See Primitive Art.

Henri Rousseau's - The Repast of the Lion (ca. 1907). It is an example of naïve art.

Namatjira, Albert Art Category: Water Colorist. Art Movement: Australian Landscapes.

Valley Ghost Gums, McDonnell Ranges (full view).

Nanga (or Bunjinga - Japanese): A style of painting drawn from the literati tradition in China.

Spring Landscape.
Japanese Painting: Nanga and Bunging School.

Napaltjarri, Tjunkiya Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movements: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism?Environmental Art.

Untitled.
Materials and Techniques: Batik On Cotton (Kintyre, Australia).

Nash, Dominie: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Foliated Calligraphy 2.

Naturalism: The doctrine that art should consist of exact transcription of visual appearances.

Adolf Schreyer : Wallachian Blizzard. An example of Naturalism Art.

Naturalistic: A design with realistic depictions of organic or non-organic forms.

Tessellations - Josiah Wedgwood and Sons Ltd - naturalistic floral design.

Neats: A neat is an allover, small-scaled, spaced pattern with floral or geometric motifs usually printed in one or two colors on a white or colored ground. Inexpensive to produce and economical for dressmaking.


Negative Space: The area between motifs in a layout.

Two profiles or a vase? Negative space in art.

Neoclassical Style: A predominately mid-eighteenth century and early nineteenth century style in evidence in Europe and the USA. It drew (with varying degrees of accuracy) on the forms and motifs of Greek and Roman antiquity.

Portrait of Charles Joseph Crowle by Batoni.

Neo-Gothic Style: The name given to various revivals in architecture and design in Europe and the USA, from mid eighteenth century onwards, of medieval forms and decorative motifs. It was associated in mid nineteenth century Europe particularly with the work of architects such as A.W.N. Pugin and E. Viollet-Le-Duc.

Gothic façade of the Parliament de Rouen in France, built between 1499 and 1508, which later inspired Neo-gothic revival in architecture in the 19th Century.

Neolithic: Also Stone Age; starting about 10,000 or 8,000 BC; beginnings of settled living; farming, animal husbandry, spinning, weaving and fired pottery.

Rimini neolithic vase.

Neo-Plasticism: A twentieth century style of painting, mainly associated with Piet Mondrian and the De Stijl group in Holland; characterized by limited palette (black, white and primaries) and restriction to absolutely vertical and horizontal forms.

NeoPlasticism was seen by most art historians as an evolution in Abstract art.
Note: Inspired by Mondrian.

Neo-Renaissance Style: The name given to mid- to late nineteenth century rivals, in architecture and design, of Italian and French styles of the sixteenth century and of English Tudor and Jacobean styles.

A large Neo Renaissance style stained glass window.

Newman, Barnett: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Color-Field.

Dionysius.

Ngal, Gloria: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movements: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Road Map, Utopia (1989).
Materials and Techniques: Batik on silk.

Niati, Houria: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Post Modernism.

No To Torture (1982).

Nicer (tag): Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: Street Art.

A single red rose was chosen for Jessica’s mural, a twenty-one year old, shot by a bullet intended for her boyfriend.

Nicholson, Ben: Art Category: Painter, Sculptor. Art Movement: Geometrical Reliefs.

Still Life (1934-6).

Nihonga (Japanese-Style Painting): A Meiji-period and later style based in traditional Japanese painting which employed ink and watercolor on silk and paper.

Nihonga - Japanese-style Painting.

Nihon Bijutsuin: Japanese Art Institute.

Maeda Seison and the Nihon Bijutsuin (Japan Art Institute).

Nishiki-e (Brocade Pictures - Japanese): Prints which employ multiple color blocks.

Tsukioka Yoshitoshi: New Selection of Eastern Brocade Pictures.

Nitten (Japanese): Abbreviation for Nihon bijutsu tenrankai meaning Japanese Art Exhibition.

Caged Japanese Art Yamasaki Ryazan, 1961 Nitten Exhibition, Lacquer Screen with Perch.

Nolan, Sydney: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionist Surrealism.

Ned Kelly (1946).

Noland, Kenneth: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Minimalism.

Remembering. Abstract Color Field.

Nolde, Emil Hansen: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Fauves.

Large Sunflower and Clematis.

Non-directional: A pattern that looks the same from any direction. Same as undirectional pattern. The opposite is a directional pattern.

Liberty Style. Non-directional (Unidirectional) Pattern.

Non-Objective Art: Literally, art without objects, wholly non-representational art; an art whose images have no obvious models in physical reality. Should not be confused with abstract art.

Bifurcation. Non objective art.

Ōban: A large print size measuring 15 x 10.25 inches (38 x 26 cm).

1835 Print featuring the photograph Kuniyoshi: Oban Print by Granger.

Object Print: Another term for a conversational pattern.

Fish - Conversational Pattern Design.

Ogee: An onion-shaped motif.

Ogee: An onion-shaped motif. An arch formed by two S-shaped.

Oiran (Japanese): See tayu.

Vintage Japanese Oiran Lacquered Kushi. Prodigious Courtesan Hair Comb (1900).

O’Keeffe, George: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Lake George, Autumn.

Ōkubi-e (Japanese): Large-head pictures.

Ōkubi-e of kabuki actor Matsumoto Kōshirō.

O’Leary, Catherine: Art Category: Wearable Artist. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Untitled (2009).
Materials and Techniques: Merino wool fleece silk; wet felted, nuno technique, stitched.
Size: 88 x 65 cm.

Oldenburg, Claes: Art Category: Sculpture. Art Movement: Pop Art.


Olitski, Jules: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Minimalism.

With Love and Disregard: Zeus (2002).

Olson, Kimber: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Mid-Winter Thaw.
Materials and Techniques: Disperse dye, polyester, Peltex, thread, bronze wool, stitching, burning.

Ombre: A shaded effect with gradual changes from dark to light in value, and open to closed in coverage.

Ombre background.

O'Meara, Kristi: Art Category: Surface Designer. Art Movement: Geometric.

Thermal Rings (2013).

One-directional: A directional pattern that has a distinct top and bottom. Often used in floral, scenic, and figurative designs. See also one-way layout. A typical example is the one-directional allover pattern.

Ethnic Design - One-directional Pattern.

One-way Layout: A design in which all motifs are oriented the same way. See also one-directional pattern.

One-way Layout.

Onus, Linus Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Fish and Lillies (1987).

Op Art: A style of painting which creates disorienting effects by juxtaposing vibrating colors, after-images, perspectival illusions and subtle, progressive changes of repeated shapes.

Blue Sun.

Opus Tessellatum: A mosaic technique using relatively large tesserae.

Mosaic floor opus tessellated.

Opus Vermiculatum: A Hellenistic mosaic technique associated with Sophilos employing tesserae of cut stone, glass, and faience.

Cats and Ducks - Opus vermiculatum.

Organic: A design inspired by, based on, or composed of plants or a matter of animal origin. Contrast to geometric.

Swirls organic design.

Orihon (Flooding Book - Japanese): Concertina or accordian book.

Here's a picture of an orison.

Orientalizing Period: Period in Greek Art from ca. 700 to ca. 600 BC, when Eastern influences were introduced to the Phoenicians and Syrians.

675-650 BC Mantiklos Apollo, statuette of a youth dedicated by Mantiklos to Apollo, ca. 700-675 BC, bronze. Orientalizing Period.

Origami: The art of folding paper into decorative shapes and designs.

A wonderful origami showing a swan.

Orozco, Hose Clemente: Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: European Barque Style.

Catharsis.

Orphists: A school of abstract painters in Paris about 1912, grouped around Robert and Sonia Delaunay, combining Cubist form with vivid, bright colors.

Orphism, Robert Delaunay.

Otte, Benita Art Category: Weaver. Art Movement: Bauhaus.

Wall Hanging.

Overall: A layout in which motifs are fairly close and evenly distributed as opposed to stripes, borders, plaids, and engineered designs. Another term is allover.

Oyague Jr.,Alfredo “Per” Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: Street Art.

An advertisement for the United Martial Arts School in the Bronx also doubles as an anti-drug mural. Artists: Alfredo “Per” Oyague Jr. and Joey “Serve” Vega.

Ozenfant, Amedee Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Purism.

Le pichet blanc (1926).

Packed: A layout in which the motifs are placed close together.

Packed Motifs.

Paco (tag): Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: Street Art.

Paco’s graveyard mural in Brooklyn’s East New York.

Paint: A viscous liquid made for covering surfaces. Its essential constituent parts are: (i) a pigment; (ii) a vehicle. It can also contain additives to improve or alter its properties; anti-fungicides to inhibit growth of molds; granules to make it easy to apply by brush; substances to hasten its drying; an extender such s chalk to supplement the pigment.

Painters Tape: Low-tack masking tape.

Paint Quality: One of the desirable visual attributes of a finished painting; the term does not refer to good or bad ingredients rather to its intrinsic material beauty or its successful surface effects.

Paisley: A stylized teardrop-shaped design that originally appeared on kashmir shawls mass-produced in Paisley, Scotland.

Paisley Pattern.

Paleolithic: Also Old Stone Age; from 32,000 BC to about 8,000 BC; the period of cave dwellers who employed tools of stone and bone and lived mainly by hunting and gathering.

Palaeolithic Art.

Palethorpe, Jan: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Synemon Plana (golden sun moth).

Palette: A particular range, quality selection or use of colors; also, surface on which to place colors. Also, the tin panel (often with thumb hole) on which a painter mixes pigments; also the colors usually employed by an artists.

Palette Knife: Knife with flexible steel blade and no cutting edge. Used to mix colors, apply thick paint, papier mache or other soft materials used in arts and crafts.

Palmette: A classical motif based on a stylized radiating, fan-shaped palm leaf commonly found in Greek, Egyptian, Assyrian, and other ancient art. Also Anthemion.

Palmette.

Paolozzi, Eduardo: Art Category: Printmaker, Sculptor. Art Movement: British Pop Art.

Real Gold (1949).

Papier-Mâché: A sculptural material made of pulped paper or strips of paper mixed with paste; can be pressed, moulded or modeled when moist; dries hard.

Dog With Stick. Nancy Winn Papier-Mâché Sculpture.

Parallel: Two lines that are perfectly aligned to each other in order that they can never cross.

Parmigianino, Francesco Mazzola Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Mannerism.

Portrait of Francesco Mazola.

Paschke, Teresa Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

CEAH 2.
Materials and Technique: Digital photography, wide-format ink-jet printing on cotton canvas with hand painting and embroidery.

Pastel: Drawing or sketch in delicate colors made by using chalky crayon.

Old church in the red heart of Australia. Pastel painting by Sian Butler.

Paste Modernism 4: Curated by Ben Frost and presented in partnership with aMBUSH Gallery, Paste Modernism launches its fourth incarnation. The exhibition featured the wheat-pasted paper creations of over 500 artists from across the globe, plastered to every available inch of aMBUSH Gallery’s wall space in a multicoloured onslaught of digital reproductions, hand-painted posters and textual works that explore the social and political concerns of modernity.

College 9 (detailed view) @ Paste Modernism 4 Exhibition.

Paste-Up: ”Paste-Up” is an ever-expanding and innovative form of street art that involves an artist making their work onto varying sizes of paper and then applying it to walls and surfaces within their urban environment using wheat paste or wall paper glue.

“Collaged, layered, torn, worn Graffiti poster creating exciting compositions and juxtapositions of colors and fragments that have the power of carefully crafted collages”. David Robinson in, Soho Walls, Beyond Graffiti. Artist Unknown.

Paste-Up Artists The artist below participated in Paste Modernism 4 (Exhibition in Sydney).
Felipe Pantone, Ben Eine, Pure Evil, Anthony Lister, Buff Monster, Reka, Copyright, Gemma Compton, Bigfoot, Greg Mike, Taylor White, Twoone, Nosego, Ha-Ha, My Dog Sighs, Jeremyville, Smc3, Bridge Stehli, Remi Rough, Makatron, Skull Cap, Cezar Brandao, George Rose, Sam Octigan, Neko, Dev, Unwell Bunny, Sean Morris, Skount, Carl Morgan, Mue Bon, Beastman, Numskull, Chris Cunningham, Thomas Brothers, Kentaro Yoshida, Bafcat, Carley Cornellison, Alex Lehours, Jeroen Huijbregts, William Nghiem, Rj, Pike, Apeseven, Heesco, Drew Funk, Skulk, Bei Badgirl, Phoenix, The Black Math, M-Lon, Grizzle, Tenderloin Television, Shiroi Usagi, Rebecca Murphy, Fezwitch, Eamon Donnelly, Uno, Jumbo, Zap, Mandy Salter, Fena Cartes, Gimiks Born, Benjamin Reeve, Edgarr, Pipsqueak Was Here, Melissa Grisancich, Krispe, Bunkwaa, Jeremy Austin, Mike Chavez, Fuzeillear, Denial, Mini Graff, Lady Millard, Galo, Skel, Dave Faint, Yolkk, Chow Monstro, Pigeon Boy, Camo, Murrz, Karen Farmer, 1337, Astro, Olive 47, Mats?!, Adrian Doyle, Aaron Craig, Ben Frost, Mad One, The Cloud Artist, Creon, Michael Cain, Nixi Killick, Toggles, D.R.A, Nico Nicosen, Redneck, M-Lon, Sam Silverstone, Konsumeterra, Simon Lovelace, Sebastien Fougere, Jodee Knowles, Lusid Art, Tom Dub, Mr. French, Damian Lewis, Ham, Sprinkles, Hermes Berrio, Jorge Catoni, Danielle Catte, Alias, Love Ariel, Zeke's Lunchbox, Rel 'Terhor' Pham, Ayash Laras, Marly, Shane O'Driscoll, Tom Lukacs, Thomas C Chung, Brent Zittel, Rise Ape, Matthew Blanch, Sean Breasley, Jiggy Jiggster, Kubi Vasak, Alvaro Tapia Hidalgo, Teens On Acid, Mathieu Codel Delcroix, Stephen Gregory, Ryan Ady Putra, Sharks Patrol These Waters, Goya Torres, Graham Wilson, Saffaa, 1dirlust, Dion Parker, Guesswho, Gnomes, Barek, Cen, Quirky Bones, Tim Andrew, Ms Browns Lounge, Maria Yanovsky, Awol Monk, Adrian Teem Repeti, Paul Carruthers, Ladyj Adams, Anthony Jigalin, Mod Cardenas, Joel Lambeth, Baby Guerilla, J. Bourbon, Asia, Mike Francis, Glenn Smith, Gina Monaco, Neil Edwards, Ian Henna, Shu/Monstery And Me, Vars One, Felix, Dboe, Rujunko Pugh, Trait, Taxi66, Mr Manok, Houl, John Doe, Butcha, Cohen Gum, Jrb, Sancho, Lisa Pham, The Havoc Plan, Buttons, Mike Watt, Mini, Drg, Bec Todd, Sloe Motion, Johann Busen, Sandra Veljanovski, Rob Collinet, The Infamous Dogfight, Black Cat, Elle Santarelli, Gabriel Mello, 23rd Key, Monica Renaud, Bk Dieci, Noiq, Naomi Chilcott, Nina Bric, Matthew Hurley, Benjamin Coombs, Vort, Conor Crawford, Steve Wilson, Mr Draws, Luke Haggart, Ted Tuesday, Alice Lazarus, Bareface, Carrie Toumsook, Gabriel Rojashruska, Reda El Mraki, Miguel Nightmares, Luv(Sic), Daniel Muscat, Cote Escriva, Eli Flanagan, Dyusuv, Jeremy Thompson, Satria Utama, Psyco, Paper Yacht Club, Blo, Blah Paradise, Hules, Crisis, Alex Latham, Styna, Jeffrey Hamilton, Erin Smith, Burg Art, Ashley New, Masonrie, Seff Mudge, Viola Nazario, Bad Data, Never A Sir, Lyndsey Murray, Alisha Hinds, Pauline Welsh, Matthew Bourne, Tim Fry, Ought, Von Bearsinger, Dame Dismember, Rawz86, Buni, Calm, Nick Hinder, Y_T, Lachlan Knight Phillips, Princess Margaret Rose, Pieces Of Mayhem, Ox King, Caitlin Doyle, Teboni Carlisle, Cara Diffey, Nikolaus Dolman, Vink, Felicity Wrangles, Ben Nicholls, Connor Crawford, Ian Andrew, Just Edit, James Stuckey, Point108, Pierrot Sant'ana, Grace Garcia, Kreweduzoo, Irmano, Ricky Kuruppu, Lard Art, Johnny Draco, Crummy Gummy, Nikolaus Dolman, Hvy Blk, Aimee Young, Carmen Doecke, Nicanor Aquino, Joe Flores, Kurt Eidsvig, Matt Dowman, Machine Gun Dev, Scruffy Unicorn, Super8, Zropro, Paul Rogers, Brandon Hall, Seth Tarrant, Jenna Yona Bloom, Simanion, Nicholas John, Serf, Campbell La Pun, Sofia Fitzpatrick, Launa Winship, Luisa Cester, Liam Snootle, Guzziboy, Kolt75, Kirsty Kat, Albert Avila Comacho, Najzil Layin, Nico, Astral Twins, Bernstah, Felix Gerber, Steen, Pheelix, Axolotl, 2171, Christina Di Bona, Zennie McLoughlin. 085c3n3, Mie Nakazawa, Crow Jane, Violet Arthi, Jensen, Yasmin Breeze, Clout, Ben Rider.


Pastoral: Painting that portrays real life, often in an idealized way.

Desert Landscapes. Australian landscape artists - Albert Namatjira.

Patchwork: A pattern simulating a pieced-together effect of different design elements.

Patchwork quilt with flowers and swans.

Pattern: A design for decorating a surface composed of a number of elements (motifs) arranged in a regular or formal manner. Often refers to "repeat pattern."

A repeat pattern based on the wing of a butterfly.

Pattern Classifications: Ways to group (classify) patterns according to their traits, such as: symmetry (for example, seventeen planar symmetry types); layout type (diamond, drop, gradation, grid, spot, etc.); layout arrangement (allover, foulard, etc.); pattern directions (one-way, two-way, unidirectional, etc.); motif or subject matter (florals, geometrics, paisleys, conversational, abstract, plaid, stripe, etc.; florals can be further subdivided into roses, palette (botanical or stylized), etc.; conversational can be subdivided into pictorials, figurative, etc.; geometrics into line patterns, argyle, etc.); production technique used or imitated (watercolour, airbrush, hound's tooth weaving, herringbone, chevron, satin, pilotage, eccentrics, batik, etc.); repeating on the infinite plane or designed to fit a specific shape (engineered); purpose or application (apparel, home furnishing, camouflage, etc.); scale (small-scale for contract design or large-scale for home furnishing); target garment or accessory (rugs, bandanna, neckwear, etc.); coloring (madders, khaki, etc.); historic period, art movement, or place of origin (Art Deco, Art Nouveau, Liberty style, Pop Art, Toile De Jouy, Herati, Tartan, ethnic (Indian, African tribal, Maya, etc.), contemporary, etc.) These classifications are not mutually exclusive and patterns are frequently described as belonging to more than one class; for example, an abstract unidirectional allover madder camouflage pattern, which has the simple shift symmetry and the half-drop layout.

Foulard pattern.

Patterned Ground: A background (ground) that is in itself a pattern. Often consists of stripes, plaids, dots, zigzags, and other small geometric elements or textures, but can also contain flowers and more complex motifs.

Dotted powder blue patterned ground fabric (1960s).

Paysage: Landscape, rural scene.

Paysage.

Pechstein, Max: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: German Expressionism.

At the Lake.

Peintre-Graveur: (French meaning - ”painter-engraver”). Original printmaker, in contradistinction to a professional, reproductive printmaker.

Peintre-Graveur.

Pentimento (repentance): Obliterated painting subsequently revealed by reason of the overpainting's becoming transparent, a characteristic of linseed oil being that its refractive index increase with age.


Permeke, Constant: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Meisje (1938).

Perspective: A system for creating illusions of depth on a flat surface; usually it is within the confines a linear system.

Marie-Therese Wisniowski's MSDS ArtCloth work - Nura Nura.

Perspective (Aerial): The technique of making a two-dimensional surface, appear three-dimensional through the use of value, intensity and temperature.

Perspective (Linear): The techniques of making a two-dimensional surface appear three-dimensional through the use of line.

Pet Patterns: Patterns featuring pets or generally on a pets theme. One example is cat patterns.

Pet pattern - seamless pattern with animal paws.

Petruskeviciene, Jurate: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Color-Field.

Autumn Vision I (detailed view).

Petyarr, Ada Bird: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movements: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Bean Tree Dreaming (1991).
Material and Technique: Batik on silk.

Petyarr, Annie: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movements: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Camp Scene (1989).
Material and Technique: Batik on silk.

Petyarr, Violet: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movements: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Anerlarr (pencil yam).
Material and Technique: Batik on silk (Utopia, Australia).

Pevsner, Antoine: Art Category: Painter, Constructivist. Art Movements: Cubism; Abstract Creationism.

Maquette of a Monument Symbolising the Liberation of the Spirit (1952)>

Picabia, Francis: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Impressionism, Cubism, Dada.

Portrait of Olga.

Picasso, Pablo Ruiz: Art Category: Painter, Sculptor, Constructivists. Art Movements: Blue Period, Rose Period, African Sculpture and Art, Cubism, Neo-Classical, Surrealism, Neo-romantic.

Standing Woman (1961).

Pichelmann, Caroll: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

River to Range.
Materials and Techniques: Padded layers of hand dyed silk organdie. Black velvet shadows, 98% running stich combined with French knots, fly stitch and other embroidery. Hand writing and newsprint sealed and mounted on fabric border.

Pieta: Representation of the Virgin Mary mourning over the body of Jesus.

Michelangelo's pieta sculpture.

Pin Art: The art of creating pictures with nails and thread. See figure below.


Ping, Huang Yong: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Post Modernism.

Bat Project I & II (2001 – 2002).

Pinnell, Judith: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Title: Beyond the Surface.
Silk “paper” substrate – dyed pure silk fibers manually formed into “fabric” similar to paper and felt. Overlaid organza strips, free machine stitching using various weights and colors of threads adds color changes.

Piranesi, Giovanni-Battista: Art Category: Etcher, Constructivist. Art Movement: Cubism.

Ponte Salario engraving.

Pissaro, Camile: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism.

Hyde Park, London (1890).

Pistoletto, Michelangelo: Art Category: Collagist, Painter. Art Movement: Superrealism.

Mirror painting.

Plaque: In craftwork, an ornamental base often serving as a support and background for craft or art designed as a wall decoration.


Pointillism: A system of painting based on the juxtaposition of dots of color tht blend optically.

Georges Seurat - The Seine and la Grande Jatte (Springtime 1888).

Poirer, Anne et Patrick: Art Category: Constructivists. Art Movement: Earthen Works Art.

Alep (2014-2015).

Pollen, Jason: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Kali.
Materials and Techniques: Cotton canvas, dye pigment, graphite, paint, stitching.

Pollock, Jackson: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Surrealism, Abstract Expressionism.

Untitled (1950).

Pop Art: A style of painting (and sculpture) originating in the 1960s, employing enlarged images and motifs from commercial art, road signs, comic strips and outdoor advertising.

Andy Warhol - Marilyn Munroe (1967).

Porcelain: Generic term for fine, hard, translucent ceramic substance, used for the production of table and decorative wares. First made in China in the seventh and eight century AD, it was made in Europe only from the eighteenth century, when Meissen, Sevre and other manufacturers began production.

Porcelain Statue Marie Antoinette by Vavasseur.

Portfolio: A collection of designs.

Portrait Format: Image format in which the height is greater than the width.

Posada, Jose Guadalupe: Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Dream.

Positive: Refers to the primary objects or shapes in a composition excluding the background.

Positivism: Extreme form of nineteenth century empiricism that sought objective fact above all else.

Auguste Comte's (father of positivism) - Religion of Humanity.

Post-Graffiti: Movement that reproduces scratches/images from walls onto other art media such as paper and cloth.

Marie-Therese Wisniowski's Post-Graffiti ArtCloth: Neue Kunst - Marilyn.

Post-Impressionism: Movement in French painting that reacted against Impressionism by emphasizing the subject, formal style, and structure of a work. It was associated with Paul Cezanne, Paul Gauguin, Camille Pissarro and Vincent Van Gogh.

Camille Pissarro, Haying at Eragny (1889).

Post Modernism: Movement predominating in the 1980s and 1990s in reaction to the adoption of limitations by art movements. In principle, to be postmodernist is to accept that any style can be appropriate, anyone can be an artist, and any object can be a work of art.

Vassily Kandinsky - Composition 8 (1923).

Poulson, Peggy Napurrla Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movements: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Wapiti Jukurrpa (Small yam Dreaming). Material and Technique: Batik On Cotton (Yuendumu, Australia).

Powdered Ornament: A pattern consisting of evenly spaced scatterings of small motifs such as flower springs and stars.

Powder Blue Seamless pattern.

Powers, Hiram: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Neo-Classical.

Sculpture of Andrew Jackson by Hiram Powers (modelled in 1835).

Pragmatics: Semiotic(s).

Pre-Raphaelitism: English movement of the mid-19th Century inspired by a romanticised vision of the Middle Ages and the style of painters before Raphael.

John William Waterhouse, The Lady of Shallot (1888).

Priming: The first coat of paint applied to a canvass in preparation for a painting process. White is usually used but it is not necessay to adhere to this one color.

Primitive Art: The art of preliterate peoples; a slightly opprobrious term for untrained or unsophisticated art; mistakenly applied to European paintings before the Italian Renaissance.

Ancient & Primitive Art.

Printmaker: One who prints images/texts on an art medium.

Bird of Prey.
An image from Marie-Therese Wsiniowski's printmaker artist book - Not in my Name.

Prior, Michael: Art Category: Photographer. Art Movement: Realism.

Red Polka dot Cupcake Delivery Girl—In Her Motor-Trade Habitat.

Privat-Livemont, Henri: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Art Nouveau.

Absinthe Rosette (1896).

Provence: Also provenience; origin or source, especially of a work of art.

Pryor, Jutta: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Virtual Dreaming (2009).

Pumice: Powered volcanic rock. A greyish inert pigment and abrasive, it is often used to impart tooth to grounds.

Putto: Plural: putti. Small child, winged or not, common in Classical and classicizing art.

Rubens, Sir Peter Paul - Putti - a ceiling decoration.

Pwerl, Lena: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movements: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Arlewatyerr (Goanna) (1980-82).
Technique: Batik on silk.

Pynacker, Adam: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Italian Baroque.

Adam Pynacker’s 1668 painting, “Boatmen moored on a lakeshore”.

Qianlong Emperor (Chinese): An avid collector and student of the arts who ruled China from 1736 - 1795.

The Qianlong Emperor during the first year of his reign.

Quadro Riportato: Italian. A framed picture.

Quadro riportato.

Quatrefoil: A stylized four-petal flower or a leaf with four leaflets used as a pattern motif or in an ornament, often having a heraldic or symbolic meaning. A similar three-petal motif is a trefoil.

Quatrefoil Pattern Background Blue.

Quattrocento: The 1400s or 15th Century, especially in Italian art.

Pietà (detail) - Bellini, Giovanni - Renaissance (Early Italian, "Quattrocento").

Quilling: Art of rolling and bending narrow strips of paper into artistic shapes.

Quilling - Pink Butterfly.

Quilting: The art of quilting basically involves stitching together two or more layers of fabric to form a decorative design on the top surface, either to create warmth or softness or simply to add interest.

Goes Here!

Raiki Wara: Aboriginal phrase which translated means long cloth (e.g. often use in the context of Aboriginal ArtCloth works).

Inawinytji (Tjingilya) Williamson – Raiki wara (1995).
Technique: Batik on silk.
Size: 115 cm (width) x 290 cm (length).

Raffer Beck, Jeanne Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Etruscan Relic (full view).

Random: A design in which elements (for example flowers) are scattered randomly within the unit of repeat. Same as tossed layout.

Random Zig Zag.

Rarrk: Crossed-hatched clan patterns in Western Arnhem Land (Australia).

Cross-hatching aboriginal artwork.

Rastafarianism: Belief originating from Jamaica that venerates the Ethiopian emperor Haili Salassie (called Ras Tafari before his coronation). It teaches the eventful redemption of black people and their repatriation to Africa, considered a spiritual Eden.

Rastafarian Last Supper.

Rauchenberg, Robert Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Title: Octave (1960).

Realism: A nineteenth century style of painting associated with Gustave Courbet and related novels of Zola; emphasis on a truthful account of human existence; opposed to ideal or Academic art.

Gustave Courbet, Stone-Breakers (1849).

Recall: The repetitive use of the same or similar motifs within a crocus or sketch. Variations in the motifs can include color, shape, weight, or scale.

Redon, Odilon: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Precursor to Surrealists. Symbolism.

Buddha in His Youth.

Reformation: Reform movement in the sixteenth century church that escalated into a religious revolution. Protestant denominations concentrated in northern Europe broke away from Roman Catholicism, concentrated in the south. In several Protestant area iconoclastic outburst resulted in the destruction and prohibition of religious art.

Protestant Reformation Art (c.1520-1700).

Regnault, Henri: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Academic Classicism, Romanticism.

Salomé, by Henri Renault (1870).

Reinhardt, Ad: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Minimal Art.

Number 17 (1953).

Relief (relievo): Sculpture in which the figures half project from a flat background.

Horse wall relief.

Reliquary: A container of relics, which may take any form, from a simple box to a representational image, and which can either conceal or reveal the relic within.

Reliquary Chasse with the Adoration of the Magi.

Relm (Tag): Art Category: Spray Cannist. Art Movement: Grafitti.


Renaissance: Also Renascence. The fifteenth century “rebirth” of art and letters; that is, the revival of Classical Art in Italy and afterward throughout Europe. The Renaissance style displaced medieval Gothic and Byzantine Art.

Raphael: School of Athens.

Rendering: Another term for finished crocus.

Renoir, Pierre Auguste: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism.

Self-Portrait.

Repeat: The horizontal or vertical distance between identical elements of a repeat pattern. In the United States, the repeat is usually measured in inches, for example, a 27" repeat.

Repeat Pattern: A design for decorating a surface composed of a number of elements (motifs) arranged in a regular or formal manner. Same as repeating pattern. Often simply called "pattern." See also seamless repeating pattern.

Repeat pattern - birds.

Restrike: Impression taken from a sculptor's mould at some time after the original edition.

Salvador Dali - El Cid - restrike etching.

Retable: A structure (architectonic, carved, painted or of metalwork) position behind the altar.

Saint Sauveur Sur Ainée Eglise Retable.

Riley, Bridget Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Op Art.

Descending (1965).

RIP: abbr. Rest in Proportion. Instructions in sizing up artwork where the other dimensions or images are to be reduced or enlarged in proportion to a given dimension.

Rios, Oliver “Karo”: Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: Street Art.

Poem, The Legend Lives On.
Artists: Julio “Fade” Caban, Oliver “Kazo” Rios and Jose “Solo” Cordero.

Rippon, Lesley: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

The Eye has it.
Materials and Techniques: Cotton sponged with darker blue acrylic, painted vleisofix background. Salmon material satin stiched. Yellow material layered with painted material and satin stitched and adhered together. Thick and thin wool sewn on by hand representing the nerves in the eye. Sewn braid representing computer printouts on salmon area. Rickrack braid used for the circles on the printout and hand sewn onto background. Beaded salmon rectangles sewn onto background to represent the drops I will always have to put in my eyes. Project hand sewn onto a round frame to represent the eye.

Rivera, Diego: Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: European Baroque Styles.

Flower Seller.

Rivers, Larry: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Pop Art.

Portrait of Brigitte Mernahan (1956).

Roberts, Elizabeth: Art Category: Fashion Art. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Shasta.
Materials and Techniques: Silk fabric thread and silk tops. Needle-turned rouleau, fabric manipulation.

Robertson, Mary Anne (Grandma Moses): Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Naïve Art.

Sugaring Off (1955).

Robertson-Swan, John: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

John Robertson-Swann’s Vault (nicknamed the Yellow Peril) Melbourne, Australia.

Rococo Art: A late form of Baroque architecture and decoration, but more intimate and secular; playful, witty and often erotic; ornate decor; light colors; irregular form; reflects the effeteness of the French court in the late eighteenth century.

Jean Honoré Fragonard, La coquette fixée (The Fascinated Coquette).

Rodchenko, Alexander: Art Category: Painter, Constructivist. Art Movement: Non-Objectivism.

1920s by Russian constructivist artist Alexander Rodchenko.

Rodda, Elisabeth: Art Category: Photographer. Art Movement: Realism.

Title: Intimate Alien.

Rodin, Auguste: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Neo-Classical.

Despair.

Rogers, Barbara: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Color-Field.

Multistripe 2011.
Material and Techniques: Silk organza, silk charmeuse. Shibori resist dye techniques. De-colored, azoic dyes.

Romanesque: The art and architecture of Europe from the ninth to the twelfth century; characterized by heavy masonry construction, dark church interiors and mystical, restless sculptural forms.

Romanesque Art.

Romanticism: In art, an eighteenth- and nineteenth century style emphasizing subjective feeling and the emotions associated with exotic life-styles, escape from the present, extreme danger, suffering, nostalgia, myth and historical evocation.

Alfred Dedreux (1810–1860) as a Child.

Rose, Chris: Art Category: Quilter. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

The Lililn Quilt.
Materials and Techniques: Black silk, organza Japanese vintage materials. Layering of dyed, stitched and collaged silk, metal thread and shim.

Rosenquist, James: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Pop Art.

Marilyn Monroe I (1962).

Rossetti, Dante Gabriel: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Symbolism.

The Twig (1865).

Rosso, Medardo: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Neo-Classical.

Sick Old Man.

Rothko, Mark: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Color-Field.

Rothko’s the Seagrams murals at Tate Modern.

Rouault, Georges: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Expressionism, Fauves.

Christ and Apostles, 1937-38 (detail).

Rousseau, Henri-Julien: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Cubism, Naive Realism.

Title: Self Portrait (1890).

Rousseau, Theordore: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: French Landscape.

The Fisherman (1848–9).

Russolo, Luigi: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Futurism.

Impressions of Bombardment (Shrapnels and Grenades)(1926).

Rutherford, Diane: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Postmark Bluewater.
Materials and Techniques: Beeswax, dye, cloth, batik, printing, stitching.

Ryder, Albert Pinkham: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Romanticism, Symbolism.

The Lone Scout (ca. 1885).

Ryder, Julie: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Eclipse (detail view).

Sable Brush: Made from the hair of a sable. Good-quality paint brush.

Sargent, John Singer: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: American Impressionism.

Rosina.

Sateen Repeat: A non-directional pattern in which motifs are arranged on a rectangular grid in such a way that each "row" and "column" of the repeated unit contains only one instance of the motif. Additionally, the motifs may be rotated and/or reflected to produce a more uniform pattern. Same as spot repeat. The distribution of the motifs in the grid resembles the satin weave.

Sateen Repeat - 5 Spot Butterflies.

Scale: The relative size of a motif or layout.

Scale Drawing: An illustration, which represents an object and its parts in correct proportion to the actual size.

Scale Pattern: Design created with overlapping arcs. Also called clamshells. Encountered in many cultures through the millennia.

Seamless black and white art deco pattern of overlapping arcs.

Schey, Barbara: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Remembering Pike River Mine.
Material and Technique: Lamé. Miura shibori.

Schiele, Egon: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Self-Portrait with Striped Shirt.

Schmidt-Rottluff, Karl: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Houses at Night (1912).

Schrimpf, Georg: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Am Morgen (1931).

Schulze, Joan: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Catch The Light 1 & Catch The Light 2 (detail view).

Schwitters, Kurt: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Merzism.

Metz-Alienist (1919).

Scroll: A ribbon-like motif in the shape of a partly rolled scroll of paper.

Vintage baroque scroll design element flower motif pattern.

Seamless Patterns: Repeating patterns without visible boundaries between motifs. Created by elements of the motif that appear in a regular manner (as in set layout) or artfully extend beyond geometric boundaries of the repeating region (as in interlocking patterns). Blending of neighbouring units is another way to achieve seamless repeats.

Geometric seamless patterns.

Secco: Painting on dry plaster on a wall or ceiling.

Second Empire Style: The ornate, ostentatious, and largely eclectic style current in interior design in France under the reign of Napoleon III (reigned 1848-70).

One of the salons of Napoleon III, now in the Louvre, in the Second Empire Style.

Sedgley, Peter: Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Kinetic Art.

Wind Tone Tower (1979).

Sedira, Zineb: Art Category: Photographer. Art Movement: Expressionism.

20th Century Algeria.

Semiotics (Semiology): The study of signs and sign-systems, whether spoken, gesticulated, written, printed or constructed; divided into three levels, syntactics (relation between signs), semantics (relation between signs and things they refer to) and pragmatics (relations between signs and those who use them). See diagram below.


Separation Artwork: Artwork in which a separate layer is created for each color to be printed.

Marie-Therese Wisniowski painting her color plates with disperse dyes.

Serial Art: Also series painting, system sculpture and “ABC” art. A style of the 1960s and 1970s in which simple geometric configurations are repeated with little or no variation; sequence becomes important as in mathematics and linguistic theory.


Serini, Gino: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Futurism.

La Modiste (The Milliner) (1910-1911).

Serpentine Stripes: A pattern arranged along wavy (sinusoidal) lines, reminiscent of reptilian movements.

Serpentine Stripes.

Sérusier, Paul: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Post-Impressionism 2.

Boys on a Riverbank (1906).

Set Layout: A design in which motifs are arranged as if on a hidden grid.

Polka dot design in a 'set layout'.

Seurat, Georges-Pierre: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Impressionism, Pointillism

A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte.

Sgraffito: Design, as on a pottery or wall, scratched through a thin surface layer to reveal the color beneath.

Impasto & Sgraffito Idea.

Shades: Colors to which black has been added.

Shahn, Ben: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Urban Realism.

Study for New Jersey Homesteads Mural" (ca. 1936).

Shaman: Sorcerer, magician, medicine-man, priest of the Old Stone Age hunting cultures; he was probably responsible for pictures of animals painted on cave walls and ceilings.

Shonibare, Yinka: Art Category: Soft Sculpture. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Fake Death Picture (The Suicide – Manet) 2011.

Shikishiban (Japanese): A print size of 8 x 7.25 inches (20.5 x 18.5 cm).

"Crabs near a tide line" (1827) by Japanese artist & printmaker Yashima Gakutei (1786-1868). Shikishiban.

Shin Hanga (New Prints - Japanese): A print movement began by the publisher Watanabe Shōzaburō in the early twentieth century that was based on the ukiyo-e tradition.

"Shin-Hangs: New Prints in Modern Japan".

Shunga (Spring Pictures - Japanese): Ukiyo-e prints illustrating erotic matter.

Most shunga in Japan are ukiyo-e woodblock prints format or painting scrolls. Japanese word "SHUN-GA" translated means "Spring-Painting".

Shurygin, Nickolai: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Realism.

Pomegranate.

SIAD: Initials of Society of Industrial Artists and Designers (UK), founded in 1930.

EC4, Fleet Street, 22, Ye Olde Cock Tavern.

Signac, Paul: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Post-Impressionism.

The River Bank, Petit-Andely (1886).

Silhouette: A drawing of an object showing simply the outline filled with solid tone or color.

A halloween skeleton profile frame.

Siqueiros, David: Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: European Barque Style.

The Revolution (mural).

Sisley, Alfred: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism.

The Moret Bridge in the Sunlight.

Sketch: A fully painted design that is not in repeat; same as crocus.

Sketch Book: An exercise book design to assist in the collation of source sketched materials.

Sloan, John: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Dutch Realism Revisited.

Main Street, Gloucester (1917).

Spot Repeat: A non-directional pattern in which motifs are arranged on a rectangular grid in such a way that each "row" and "column" of the repeated unit contains only one instance of the motif. Additionally, the motifs may be rotated and/or reflected to produce a more uniform pattern. Same as sateen repeat. The distribution of the motifs in the grid resembles the satin weave.

Red, Green Spot Repeat Pattern by Carly Myles.

Smalt: A kind of cobalt blue glass or frit, made by roasting a cobalt ore with other ingredients. It was improved from the Egyptian days by substituting cobalt for the more poisonous and less desirable copper. Before the introduction of artificial ultramarine, smalt was most carefully made in a number of different shades, but today it finds limited use in ceramics. Its faults were its coarseness and its lack of tinctorial power, and the presence of alkaline impurities.

003399 Hex Color Image (Blue, Smalt).

Smith, Barbara Lee Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Marshland/Twilight.
Materials and Techniques: Painted, printed, fused and stitched non woven synthetic.

Smith, Carter: Art Category: Fashion Art. Art Movement: Wearable Art.


Smith, June: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movements: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Untitled.
Handpainted silk.

Smith, Richard: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: British Pop Art.

PM Zoom (1963).

Smith, Ursula: Art Category: Surface Design. Art Movement: Abstract.

Funky Flames (2012).

Smithson, Robert: Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Earthen Artworks.

Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty.

Social Realism: The style of art, allegedly Marxist, which is based on the doctrine that painting and sculpture should accurately represent the worker’s experiences, especially their oppression by class enemies and their triumphs of production.

Ivan Bevzenko, Young Steel Workers (1961).

Softening Brush: Long-haired brush used for softening and blending paint in marbling, wood graining and many other bravura finishes. Badger hair softeners are easier to use but more expensive than hog-hair softeners. Available in a range of sizes.

Sōsaku Hanga (Creative Prints - Japanese): A print movement begun in the early twentieth century that advocated the artist's involvement in the creative process.

Hashimoto - Sunny Path. Sôsaku Hanga (creative prints).

Soto, Jesus-Raphael: Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Kinetic Art.

Cardinal (1965).

Soutine, Chaim: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Self-Portrait (1918).

Spacklng or Sparkling: The rectifying of a defect in a plaster wall or mural painting by digging out the defective spot and filling it in with a plastic gesso, plaster of Paris, Keene's cement or similar material.

Spall: Chip broken from a stone carving.

Spalliera: (Plural: spalliere). From the Italian - spalla - meaning “shoulder”. Ornamented or figurated panel about shoulder height of a textile or, when set into a wall or on furniture, of painted wood.

Biagi di Antonio and Jacopo del Sellaio, The Morelli Chest and Spalliera, with scenes from Roman history, 1472, wood, gesso, tempera and gilding, 205.5 x 193 cm (overall), The Courtauld Gallery, London (Samuel Courtauld Trust).

Sprig: A tossed pattern of small shoots, twigs, or leaves of a plant, commonly on a pastel background.

Seamless Spring Pattern with Sprig of Mimosa.

Square Repeat: A layout in which the repeating unit appears directly on a horizontal line to the left or right of the original design unit. Also called block repeat, straight-across repeat, straight repeat, and "full-drop repeat".

Black and White Square Geometric Repeat Pattern.

Stabile: Sculpture or construction resembling a mobile in appearance, but stationary.

Stabile Sculpture by Manuel Marin (Spanish, 1942 - 2007).

Stahmer, Gail: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Under the Silk Tree.

Stainers: Sometimes known as universal strainers. Used as an alternative to artist’s oil paints for coloring glaze. The range of colors is less extensive and less subtle than artist’s oils. See tinter.

Stanley, Tjariya (Nungalka): Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movements: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Untitled (full view).

Starszakowna, Norma: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Color-Field.

Razing/Raising Walls, Warsaw (full view).

Steinlen, Théophile Alexandre: Art Category: Art Posters. Art Movement: Belle Époque poster art.

Le Reve (1891).
Technique: Color lithograph.
Size: 89.2 x 63.4 cm.

Stella, Frank: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Minimalism.

Harran II (1967).

Stella, Joseph: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Italian Futurism Revisited.

Battle of Lights Coney Island.

Stevens, Alfred: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Neo-Classical.

Alfred Stevens. La Parisienne japonaise (1872).

Stewart, Bob: Art Category: Film Maker. Art Movement: Realism.

Black Saturday (2009).

Still, Clifford: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

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Clifford Still, 1957-D No. 1 (1957).

Still Life: Representation of inanimate objects, such as fruit or flowers.

Margaret Preston - Still life with national flowers (1957).

Stipple: Dots placed closely together, creating a textured or shaded effect. See also pilotage.

Stippling Art. Portrait of girl - Pablo Jurado Ruiz.

Stokes, Linda: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Corrosion.

Stolzl, Gunta: Art Category: Collargist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Collagé (1924).

Straight-Across Repeat: A layout in which the repeating unit appears directly on a horizontal line to the left or right of the original design unit. Also called block repeat, square repeat, and straight repeat.

Straight-across Repeat.

Straight Repeat: A layout in which the repeating unit appears directly on a horizontal line to the left or right of the original design unit. Also called block repeat, square repeat, and straight-across repeat.

Daisy motif block repeat pattern.

Stretcher: Sometimes termed a chassis. It is usually a wooden frame strong enough to allow the canvas to be tautly stretched and to support the weight of the paint.

Striae: A design made of stripes that change subtly in color and/or texture in one direction.

An example of a striae design.

Strout, Gail Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Melting into Water.
Materials and Techniques: Hand-dyed and commercial cloth, beads.

Stucco: Fine plaster-type material used both to cover exterior brickwork and to decorate internal walls and ceilings.

Studiolo: A small private study in a secular setting such as a house or palace.

Stylization: The process of making visual representations conform to a conventional model.

Deer stylization.

Stylized: A design with modified or abstracted elements that give the design a more decorative look.

Stylized Woman Face And Hair Design.

Subject: Term for any image, which is to be reproduced or originated.

Sullivan, Carolyn Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Seven Views 2.
Materials and Techniques: Hand embroidered over hand dyed fabrics.

Sumizuri-e (Japanese): Black and white pictures.

Hirosada sumizuri-e.

Surface Pattern: A repeat pattern on a two-dimensional plane. Same as wallpaper pattern. There are exactly seventeen (17) types of surface patterns. See wallpaper groups. Similarly, there are seven (7) frieze patterns that correspond to seven types of linear patterns.

Surface Pattern Luminous.

Surimono (Printed Things - Japanese): Prints that were intended to be privately distributed and that were consequently often printed for special occasions.

Surrealism: A literary and artistic style stressing the sub-conscious and non-rationale sources of imagery; influenced by the Freudian psychology. Movement based in Paris between the First and Second World Wars that sought to access a superior reality through contact with the subconscious mind by means of dream imagery and spontaneous creation. Its chief theoretician was Andre Breton.

Vladimir Kush ~ The Surreal landscapes (1965).

Sustris, Lambert: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Later Renaissance.

Venus And Cupid (ca. 1554).

Symbol: A letter, figure or drawn sign that represents or identifies an object, process or activity.

Symbolism: The systematic use of visual symbols according to mythical, religious, literary etc. traditions.

Symbolist: A late nineteenth century school of painters (including Gauguin) who used color especially to suggest ideas and emotions.

Victor Vasnetsov, The Knight at the Crossroads (1878).

Szablewska, Gabriella: Art Category: Sculptor – Ready Mades. Art Movement: Street Art.

Brent Wilson and Gabriella Szablewska: Pimple My Hide. Mixed media.

Tableau Vivant: A group of figures posed motionless to represent a historical event or some other scene.


Takis, Greek: Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Kinetic Art.


Tamayo, Rufino: Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: European Barque Style.

El Hombre (Man) (1953).

Tan-e (Red Lead Pictures - Japanese): Prints hand colored with tan and other pigments. They were popular from 1670 to 1720.


Tanguy, Yves: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Surrealism.

Indefinite Divisibility.

Tanzini, Amando: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Post Modernism.

Horse.

Tanroku-Bon (Pink and Green Books - Japanese): Printed books from the early part of the seventeenth century that were hand-colored with tan (pink) and roku (green). Yellow and purple were also used.


Tanzaku (Japanese): Half ōban size; the sizes included ō-tanzaku (15 x 6.75 inches: 38 x 17 cm) and chu-tanzaku (15 x 5 inches: 38 x 13 cm).

Tanzaku, Square Piece of Japanese Paper.

Tapaya, Tjunkaya: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movements: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Untitled (full view).

Tapestry: A weft-faced fabric in which the pattern is woven with colored weft threads.

Arthur Boyd, Untitled (design for the Great Hall Tapestry) Parliament House, Australia.

Tapies, Antoni: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Gray relief on black.

Tatlin, Vladimir: Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Relief Construction.

Monument to the Third International (1919-20).

Tattersall: A relatively small-scale check pattern (smaller than windowpane) produced by regularly spaced, evenly colored thin lines on a usually light ground.

Tattersall pattern cloth.

Techne: Greek term for technical skill in making and resetting.

Technical Illustration: A specialist branch of graphic design dealing with illustrations of all types depicting technical machines, systems and processes.

Tectonic: Pertaining to architecture and construction; one of Wolffin’s categories meaning “closed-form”, where it applies to painting and sculpture, too.

Tectonic architecture - spatial model.

Teiten (Japanese): Abbreviation for Teikoku bijutsu tenrankai meaning Imperial Art Exhibition.

Temmam, Mohamed: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Expressionism.

L'Homme en Bleu (1968
).

Tempera: A type of paint whose medium or binder is egg yolk, glue or casein; water soluble until it dries.

Terbrugghen, Hendrick: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: 17th Century Painters.

The Duet (1628).

Tessellations: A repeat pattern composed of interlocking shapes that can be extended infinitely.

Triangle tessellations.

Tessera: A small vitreous or ceramic cube or a stone; one of the units of a mosaic. That is, any small object used in constructing a mosaic.

Tesserae: Pieces of colored glass, stone or ceramic used in making mosaics.

Textile Art: Artwork that utilizes textiles as its medium (see definition of Artwork and ArtCloth). Note: Textiles also embraces all woven media.

Disperse Dye ArtCloth Works. Artist: Marie-Therese Wisniowski.

Textile Design: The art and science of designing for fabrics. Typically (but not always) involves the creation of repeat patterns. Specifications differ drastically depending on application (contract, apparel, home furnishings, etc.), technology (printed, woven, etc.), and other considerations. Commonly done with software.

Marie-Therese Wisniowski's - "Oh Marilyn 1" - digitally printed by Spoonflower.

Theme: A subject matter for a design or collection; for example, a Christmas theme or a pets theme.

Thiriet, Henri: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movements: Art Nouveau.


Exposition de blanc, a la Place Clichy.

Tiffany (and Associated Artists): In the late nineteenth century in USA saw the beginning of Tiffany, a decorating company. The company designs influenced a women-only association called the “Associated Artists”, whose central figure was Candice Wheeler. Her approach to craft was similar to that of William Morris in the UK.

Wisteria Lamp made by Tiffany.

Tillers, Imants: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Post Modernism, Post Modern Appropriation.

The Nine Shots (1985).

Tims, Ricky: Art Category: Quilter. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Quilter and Fabric designer.

Tinguley, Jean: Art Category: Constructivist. Art Movement: Kinetic Art.

Heureka_-_Zürichhorn.

Tintoretto, Jacopo Robusti: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Mannerism.

Portrait of the Procurator Alessandro Gritti.

Titian (Tiziano Vecellio): Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Renaissance.

The Man With The Glove (ca. 1520-1522).

Tjakamarra, Michael Nelson: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Title: Five Dreamings (1984).

Tjaltjarri, Tim Leura: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Title: Butterfly Dreaming (1972).

Tjapaltjarri, Clifford Possum: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Mens Ceremony.

Tjukurpa: The "Tjukurpa" or "Dreamtime" or "Dreaming" as it is sometimes loosely translated into English, is fundamental to Central Australian Aboriginal life. It defines traditional aboriginal law and religion and encompasses the land and its creation and all that exists. Different language groups of Central Australia have different words and spellings for the same concepts, sometimes capitalized and sometimes not. Some of these are: Tjukurpa (Pitjantjatjara language), Altyerre (Arrernte), Jukurrpa (Warlpiri) and Tjukurrpa (Pintupi - Luritja). It is incorrect to assume that all aboriginal groups in Australia have "Dreamings" or even similar "Dreamings" to those in Central Australia.

Rupert Jack Moses-ku - Tjukurpa - Acrylic on Canvas (2014).

Tobey, Mark: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Fellow Traveller to Abstract Expressionism.

The Grand Parade', lithograph.

Toile De Jouy: A decorating pattern on a scenic, pastoral, or floral theme usually printed in one color on a light or white ground. Originated in 18th century France. Often abbreviated to "toile."

Tissu Délices des Quatre Saisons Rouge Toiles de Joug.

Tonal Blending: In painting, modeling a form by changes in tones of a single color instead of changes in hue.

Tondo: Circular painting, cameo or medallion.

Tondo - Bartolini.

Toorop, Jan: Art Category: Painter Art Movements: Post-Impressionism, Symbolism-Art Nouveau.

The Dunes and the Sea at Zoutlande.

Toose, Kirry Art Category: Fashion Art. Art Movement: Wearable Art.

Infinite Solace.
Materials and Techniques: Metallic silk/synthetic, assorted silks and synthetic fabrics. Polyester tubing, memory wire. Piping and rouleaux, handmade roses, machine digitising.

Tossed: A design in which elements (for example flowers) are scattered randomly within the unit of repeat. Also called random layout.

Tossed Layout.

Totem: The protective creature, usually an animal or bird, to which a clan believes itself related; the emblem which represents clan or family.

Totem Pole:
a carved and painted wooden post showing figures of totemic protection or ancestors.

Australian aboriginal totem poles.

Toulouse-Lautrec: Art Category: Painter, Printmaker. Art Movement: Art Nouveau, Caricature.

Divan-Japonais.

Tracery: The ornamental framework of interlacing stone, wood, or cast iron ribs supporting (or implying the support of) glass in a Gothic window.

Decorated Style - Traceried window 14th Century.

Transitional: A naturalistic design that is highly stylized, but still showing some recognizable elements.

Transitional Design Living Room.

Trapping: One semi-transparent color falling on another to produce a third color. Also called fall-on.

Trapunto: A type of quilting in which the fabric layers are stitched together with a design, after which some or all areas of the design are stuffed to create a bas-like relief.

Detail Tristan Trapunto Quilt ca. 1360-1400 AD.

Trefoil: A stylized three-petal flower or a leaf with three leaflets used as a pattern motif or in an ornament, often having a heraldic or symbolic meaning. A similar four-petal motif is a quatrefoil.


Trellis: A pattern featuring a supporting structure of interwoven pieces of wood or metal (latticework) sometimes adorned with climbing vines or flowers.

Wooden Rose Trellis Design.

Trevillian, Annie: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Treescape (detailed view).

Triptych: Alter piece of three panels; more generally, three associated artworks.

Trompe-L’Oeil: “Fool the eye” in French; a highly illusionistic method of painting as in the works of Harnett and Peto.

Fresco with trompe l'œil dome painted on low vaulting, Jesuit Church, Vienna, by Andrea Pozzo, 1703.

Truckenbrod, Joan Art Category: Cloth Artist, Digital Artist. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Emerge (full view).

Trullisatio: The first coarse undercoat of fresco plastering.

Tsou-Choi, Tsang: Art Category: Calligraphist. Art Movement: Graffiti.

Artist And His Work.

Tungatalum, Bede: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movements: Tiwi Design - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Yarn (full view of ArtCloth).

Truran, Hannah: Art Category: Wearable Art. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Her wearable art evokes a fantasy futuristic world.

Turner, Joseph Mallord William: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Romantic Landscape.

Self-Portrait, age 24.

Turner, Lesley: Art Category: Cloth Artist, Soft Sculpture. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Succession.

Turnover: A design in which the motif is flipped horizontally or vertically.

Turnover Pattern.

Two-Color (Counterchange) Symmetries: Symmetries that combine geometrical operations (translations, rotations, reflections, and glide reflections) with color reversals. There are exactly 46 types of two-color symmetries on the plane. See also counterchange pattern.

A counterchange pattern with the symmetry.

Two-Directional Pattern: A directional pattern that has features in two directions, typically at 90° or 180°. A design that is reversible in the top and bottom directions is also called a two-way design.

Two-directional Pattern.

Two-Way Layout: A design in which half the motifs face an opposite direction, for example, up and down. See also two-directional design.

Two-way Layout.

Uhde, Fritz von: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Impressionism.

Two daughters in the garden.

Ukiyo-e (Floating Pictures - Japanese): Perspective prints.

Japanese Ukiyo-e (Pictures of the Floating World).

Unbalanced Stripes: Unbalanced stripes do not have a "center" and are asymmetrical stripes.


Underlaying Technique: Method of adding a small illustration within a larger one by sitting the larger illustration and slipping a portion of the smaller one through the slit underneath.

Underlying Color: A color printed first that becomes partially or totally hidden by a subsequent layer of color.

Underpainting: The first stage of indirect painting method; the establishment of the chief shapes, lights, darks and masses, usually with a limited palette or in monochrome.

Undertone: The color effect of a hue when tinted; the result might look like the body tone or it may show a temperature change.

Undirectional: A design that looks the same from any direction. Same as non-directional design. The opposite is a directional pattern.

Liberty Style - Non-directional (Unidirectional) Pattern.

Unity: A feeling of wholeness or completeness in a work of art. Also a coherent relationship among parts or elements of a work of art.

Unity in Fine Art - Vincent van Gogh: Starry Night.

Urbiene, Jurte: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Quite Alone Oasis (full view).

Urushi-e (Lacquer Picture - Japanese): Beni-e with the addition of glue to the pigments to give a lustrous finish, often sprinkled with metallic dust or mica.

Okumura Toshinobu (active 1717–50), "Young Lovers by Mount Fuji" (ca. 1720) - urushi-e (lacquer print).

van Baarle, Els: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Nothing Is The Same I & II (full view).

van der Byl, Muriel: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Aboriginal Culture.

Marrinhan (1992).
Technique: Screen print on Silk.
Size: 83.0 x 110.0 cm.

van der Leck, Bart: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: de Stijl.

De Drinker.

van Gogh, Vincent Willem: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Post-Impressionism.

Willows At Sunset.

Vanishing Point (abb: VP): In perspective projections, point at which all parallel lines, which are also parallel to the round plane, converge on the horizon.

Vantongerloo, Georges: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: de Stijl, Abstract Creation.

Composition (1918).

Vasarley, Victor: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Op Art.

Deny (1969).

Veduta: (Italian: “view”). Topographical paintings and prints - especially popular in the eighteenth century. Although these were generally of real locations, the term could incorporate imaginative views as well, albeit realistically conceived.

Borgo Po 2 Veduta ideale.

Vega, Joey “Serve” Art Category: Muralist. Art Movement: Street Art.

An advertisement for the United Martial Arts School in the Bronx also doubles as an anti-drug mural. Artists: Alfredo “Per” Oyague Jr. and Joey “Serve” Vega.

Veining: Specialist technique for painting the veins on simulated marble.

Coral tan and dark veining marble faux.

Vermicular: A pattern of irregular twisted lines (derived from the Latin "worm"). Also called vermiculate and vermiculated (for example vermiculated ground), seaweed, scribble, maze, and network pattern. Can be formed by dots (see stippling and pilotage).

Vermicular Pattern.

Verstegen, Clare: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Atmospheric Patterns.
Materials and Techniques: Wool felt, pigments, clay, wood, heat transfer.

Vexta: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Street Art.

She was a wild warrior (2010).
Mixed media on canvas.

Victorian Style: The style prevalent in architecture and design in Britain during the regain of Queen Victoria (1837-1901). Usually characterized by a profusion of elaborate surface decoration and glittering effects, it was often associated with shoddy materials and industrial processes. The term is sometimes used to designate similar styles of architecture and design current elsewhere (for example in the USA) during this period.

Victorian Style.

Villion, Jacques: Art Category: Painter, Engraver. Art Movement: Cubism, Abstract Art.

Maternité Bleue.

Visual: A mock up of the proposed appearance of a design or layout or presented as a rough drawing, or if more highly finished, as a presentation visual.

Viven, Louis: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Naïve Realism.

Beach.

Vlaminck, Maurice: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Fauvism.

The River Seine at Chatou (1906).

Vodou (Voodoo, Vodun, Voudoun): The religion of the majority of the Haitian people, which combines West African and European spiritual practices.

Voodoo Doll.

Voge, Marc: Art Category: Photography. Art Movement: Web Art.

Young-Hae Chang (Seoul) & Marc Voge (USA) - Projection Of A Web Art Project.

Vordemberge-Gildewart, Friedrich Art Category: Painter, Sculptor. Art Movements: de Stijl, Abstraction-Creation.

Vordemberge-Gildewart, Composition No. 15 (1925).

Vorticism: English movement arising in 1914, marked by the expression of energy through abstract forms.

Wyndham Lewis, Workshop (ca. 1914-5).

Vrubel, Mikhail: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Symbolism.

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Six winged Seraphim (Azrail) 1904.

Vuillard, Edouard: Art Category: Painter. Art Movements: Post-Impressionism, Intimism.

The Salon of Madame Aron (1911).

Wallpaper Group cm: A symmetry type characterized by reflections and glide-reflections with parallel axes. Produces "Mirror & glide" patterns (cm patterns).

Wallpaper Group cm.

Wallpaper Group cmm: A symmetry type characterized by perpendicular reflections and perpendicular glide-reflections. Produces "Perpendicular mirrors & glide" patterns (cmm patterns).

Wallpaper Group cmm.

Wallpaper Group p1: A symmetry type represented only by translations (shifts). Produces "Simple shift" patterns (p1 patterns).

Wallpaper Group p1.

Wallpaper Group p2: A symmetry type characterized by 180° rotations (half-turns). Produces "Half-turn" patterns (p2 patterns).

Lanes Net. Wallpaper Group p2.

Wallpaper Group p3: A symmetry type characterized by 120° rotations. Produces "Three rotations" patterns (p3 patterns).

Drop Swirls - Wallpaper Group p3.

Wallpaper Group p31m: A symmetry type characterized by reflections in axes intersecting at 60° and 120° rotations. Produces "Three rotations & mirrors" patterns (p31m patterns).

Wallpaper Group p31m.

Wallpaper Group p3m1: A symmetry type characterized by reflections in axes intersecting at 60° and 120° rotations around centres that lie on the reflection axes. Produces "Three mirrors" patterns (p3m1 patterns).

Wallpaper Group p3m1.

Wallpaper Group p4: A symmetry type characterized by 90° rotations (quarter turns). Produces "Pinwheel" patterns (p4 patterns).
Wallpaper Group p4g: A symmetry type characterized by reflections and both 90° and 180° rotations. Produces "Quarter-turns & rotated mirrors" patterns (p4g patterns).

Wallpaper Group p4.

Wallpaper Group p4m: A symmetry type characterized by 90° (quarter-turn) rotations with centres on reflection axes, as in a kaleidoscope produced by three mirrors, two of which intersect at 90° and two at 45°. Produces "Quarter-turns & mirrors" patterns (p4m patterns).

Wallpaper Group p4m.

Wallpaper Group p6: A symmetry type characterized by 60° rotations. Produces "Six rotations" patterns (p6 patterns).


Wallpaper Group p6m: A symmetry created by reflections in three mirrors intersecting at 90°, 60°, and 30°. Produces "Kaleidoscope" patterns (p6m patterns).

Lattice Work.

Wallpaper Group pg: A symmetry type characterized by glide-reflections in parallel axes. Produces "Glide reflection" patterns (pg patterns).


Wallpaper Group egg: A symmetry type characterized by glide-reflections in two perpendicular axes. Produces "Double glide" patterns (egg patterns).

Wallpaper Group pm: A symmetry type characterized by reflections in parallel axes. Produces "Mirror" patterns (pm patterns).


Wallpaper Group omg: A symmetry type characterized by parallel mirrors and parallel glides that intersect at right angles. Produces "Parallel mirrors & glide" patterns (omg patterns).


Wallpaper Group mm: A symmetry type characterized by reflections in perpendicular mirrors. Produces "Double mirror" patterns (umm patterns).

Wallpaper Groups: A mathematical concept that uses symmetry to classify surface repeat patterns (repetitive designs on a two-dimensional plane). There are exactly seventeen (17) wallpaper groups that correspond to seventeen different types of surface patterns. Similarly, there are seven (7) frieze groups that correspond to seven types of linear (frieze) patterns.

Wall Paper Index.

Wallpaper Pattern: A repeat pattern on a two-dimensional plane. Same as surface pattern. There are exactly seventeen (17) types of wallpaper patterns. See wallpaper groups. Similarly, there are seven (7) frieze patterns that correspond to seven types of linear patterns.


Warhol, Andy Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Pop Art.

Title: Four Campbell’s Soup Cans (1962).

Wash: A thin, semi-transparent film of paint, highly diluted with turpentine or water (as in watercolour paintings) and applied with a broad, continuous sweep of the brush.

Watercolor: Imitating effects produced by painting with watercolours (aquarelles). Often creates patterns with light, soft, and transparent gradations.

Watercolor painting of River Red Gums at the Flinders Ranges (Australia).

Wax used in Art Marking: For batik or for any resist method, wax may be used as the resist medium. Wax obtained from candles or paraffin wax may be used so long as a brush or implement can apply the wax to a fabric surface. Using a tjanting tool or similar drawing implement, beeswax is often employed since it does not crackle. Most batik is done using mixtures of paraffin and beeswax. For example, a pre-mixed crackling wax will contain 30 percent beeswax and 70 per cent paraffin wax and for a non-crackling wax it is approximately 40 per cent beeswax and 60 per cent paraffin wax. More recently, environmentally friendly soy wax has been used as the preferred resist medium by several ArtCloth artists.

Angkuna Kulyuru, Raiki wara. Batik On Silk (Ernabella).
Size: 112 cm (width) x 296 cm (length).

Wearable Art: It is “Art” when placed in an art context, but when it is not placed in an art context, its functionality obscures the act of engagement and so may only satisfy the first and third necessary conditions of artwork (see definition of Artwork).

The Wearable Art of Jenny Kee.

Wesselman, Tom: Art Category: Collage. Art Movement: Pop Art.

Bedroom Painting 9.

Whistler, James Abbot McNeill: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: American Aesthetic Painter and Engraver.

The Little Rose of Lyme Regis (1895).

Wiener Wekstätte: Founded in Austria by Otto Wagner, as a follow on from the Vienna Succession at the same time as Art Nouveau. The fabrics were hand-printed for fashion and interiors, and influenced by Gustav Klimt, who reflected the textiles in his paintings.

Josef Hoffmann, Wasserorgel, Seide, Wiener Werkstätte (1912).

Weiss, Marcia L.: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.
Dialogue II (2011).

Williams, Lorraine: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Rainbow Serpent Dreaming.

Wilson, Bret: Art Category: Sculptor – Ready Mades. Art Movement: Street Art.

Brent Wilson and Gabriella Szablewska. It's the Thought That Counts. Mixed media.

Winters, Cherie: Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Perched.

Wisniowski, Marie-Therese: Art Category: Printmaker, Cloth Artist. Art Movements: Primitive Art, Environmental Art, Post Graffiti, Socio-Political Art.

Blossoms Falling - Lotus Rising (2009).
Environmental Art.

Wols (Wolfgang Schultze): Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Informal Abstraction.

Stringed Instrument (1942).

Wolseley, John Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Landscape.

Woodgraining: Technique used to imitate the characteristic markings of a variety of woodgrains.

Wreath: A ring-shaped intertwined garland of flowers or leaves, often with ribbons and/or other decorations.

Wright, Wendy: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Then Came the Rain.
Panel 1 - Before the Rain.
Panel 2 - During the Rain.
Panel 3 - Desert Transformations.
Silk. Dying, painting, machine and hand embroidery.

Wyeth, Andrew: Art Category: Painter. Art Movement: Figurative Realism.

Wind from the Sea (1947).

Yakusha-e (Japanese): Actor pictures.

Yakusha-e: Kabuki prints, a continuing tradition. Kunichika

Yamato-e (Pictures of Yamato - Japanese): Classical school of Japanese painting.

Scene from The Ivy (Yadorigi), Chapter 49 of the Tale of Genji.

Yōga (Western Style Painting - Japanese): A style based on European painting, which used oil paints on canvas.

Yōga style painting of the Meiji period by Kuroda Seiki (1893).

Yoko-e (Horizontal Picture; also called Yoko-Ban - Japanese): Prints with a horizontal format.

Kuniyoshi Utagawa, At the shore of the Sumida river. Yoko-e, a print in horizontal or "landscape" format.

Yokohama-e (Yokohama Pictures - Japanese): Late style of ukiyo-e which was popular between 1860 and 1880 and which illustrated scenes of Yokohama in the late Edo and early Meiji period.

Yokohama-e: 19th-Century Prints of Americans in Japan.

Yore, Paul: Art Category: ArtCloth. Art Movement: Symbolism.

This moment is critical.
Technique: Appliqué, embroidery and beading, found objects/material, beads, buttons, sequins, felt, wool, cotton thread.

Young, Marie: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movements: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Untitled.
Handpainted Silk.

Young, Marlene: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Aboriginal Dreamtime.

Brabralung Dreaming (1995).
Material and Technique: Painted on Silk.
Size: 295.5 x 116.0 cm.

Young, Ray: Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Traditional Aboriginal Art - Symbolism/Environmental Art.

Barramundi.
Gabriel Maralngurra and Ray Young - Barramundi.
Screen-printed cotton twill.

Zakine, Ossip: Art Category: Sculptor. Art Movement: Surrealism.

Le Poète (1942).

Zalij: The intricate geometric mosaic telework created from sets of characteristic shapes, typically cut from enamelled terracotta squares. Used as decorations outside and inside buildings. Another spelling is zillion.

Zhang, Yan Art Category: Cloth Artist. Art Movement: Abstract Expressionism.

Title: Hope.
Digital print on cotton.

Zillij: The intricate geometric mosaic telework created from sets of characteristic shapes, typically cut from enamelled terracotta squares. Used as decorations outside and inside buildings. Another spelling is zalij.

Moroccan Mosaic - Zalij.

Zoomorphic: Pertaining to animal art; ascribing animal forms or attributes to humans, especially to gods and goddesses.

Zoomorphic winged beasts by smurfesque.

Zschech, Michael Art Category: Printmaker. Art Movement: Expressionism.

Greetings from Sisters Beach, Tasmania.

References:
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[2] P. Lambert, B. Staepelaere and M. G. Fry, Color and Fiber, Schiffer Publishing Ltd., Pennsylvania (1986).

[3] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd edition, Collier-Macmillan Ltd, London (1968).

[4] Ed. L.W.C. Miles, Textile Printing, Dyers Company Publication Trust, West Yorkshire (1981).

[5] E.N. Abrahart, Dyes and Their Intermediates, Pergamon Press, Sydney (1968).

[6] A. Kosloff, Textile Screen Printing, The Signs of the Times Publishing Company, Cincinnati (1966).

[7] D.W.A. Sharp, The Penguin Dictionary of Chemistry, Penguin Books Ltd, New York (1983).

[8] A. Stromquist, Simple Screenprinting, Larks Books, New york (2005).

[9] R. Adam and C. Robertson, Screenprinting, Thames & Hudson, London (2003).

[10] A. Campbell, The Designer's Handbook, MacDonald & Co., Sydney (1983).

[11] K.L. Casselman, Craft of the Dyer, University of Toronto Press, Toronto (1980).

[12] E.P.G. Gohl and L.D. Vilensky, Textile Science, Longman Cheshire, Melbourne (1989).

[13] G.H. Aylward and T.J.V. Findlay, SI Chemical Data, John Wiley and Sons, Elwood (1983).

[14] R. Mayer, The Artist's Handbook, 4th Edition, Faber and Faber, Norfolk (1982).

[15] K. Wells, Fabric Dyeing And Printing, Conrn Octopus Ltd., London (2000).

[16] A. Kornerup and J.H. Wanscher, Methuen Handbook of Colour, 3rd Edition, Eyre Methuen Ltd, London (1983).

[17] C. E. Kicklighter and R.J. Baird, Crafts - Illustrated Designs And Techniques, The Goodheart-Willcox, Company, Inc. South Holland (1986).

[18] K. Skinner, The Paint Effects Bible, Gary Allen Pty Ltd, Smithfield, Australia (2003).

[19] E.J. Gawne, Fabrics For Clothing, 3rd Edition, Chas. A. Bennett Co. Inc., Peoria, USA (1973).

[20] M.E. Ratcliffe, Fabric Painting, Salamandar Books Ltd, New York (1988).

[21] Editors A. Jeffs, W. Martensson and and P. North , Creative Crafts Encyclopedia, Octopus Books, London (1984).

[22] L. Wauchope, Silk Painting, Simon and Schuster, Sydney (1992).

[23] E.B. Feldman, Varieties Of Visual Experience, 2nd Edition, Prentice-Hall, New York (1982).

[24] J. Fish, Designing and Printing Textiles, The Crowood Press Ltd., Ramsbury (2005).

[25] A.H. Barr, Cubism and Abstract Art, Arno Press, New York (1966).

[26] D. Piper, The Illustrated History Of Art, Bounty Books (2000).

[27] N. Dyrenforth, The Technique of Batik, B.T. Batsford Ltd., London (1988).

[28] W. Caruana, Aboriginal Art, 3rd Edition, Thames & Hudson, London (2012).

[29] Editors A. Newline and Chris Uhlenbeck, Ukiyo-e To Shin Hansa, Bison Books Ltd (London) 1990.

[30] Artlandia SymmetryWorks.

[31] M-T Wisniowski, personal communication (2013).