Saturday, June 24, 2017

"Wall Flower"
A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Fabric Lengths

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

On this blog spot there are posts that center on my “Wearable Art” (e.g. scarves, digital or analogue created fabric lengths etc.) For your convenience I have listed these posts below.

A Selection of My Scarves
Leaves Transformed: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
My New Silk Rayon Velvet Scarves@Purple Noon Art And Sculpture Gallery
My Fabric Lengths@QSDS
My Fabric Collection:"Oh, Oh Marilyn and Mona!"@Spoonflower
2013 Australian Craft Awards – Finalist
My Scarves@2014 Scarf Festival: "Urban Artscape" Pashminas
My New Scarves and Fabric Lengths
New Range of Silk Neckties - Karma and Akash
AIVA: My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
New Colorways For My 'Cultural Graffiti' Fabrics
Byzantine Glow: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Wall Flower
Ink Fern: A New Collection of My Digitally Designed Fabrics
Celebratory Fireworks
My New Silk ArtCloth Scarves
New ‘Unique State’ Silk ArtCloth Scarves
 - My New Hand Dyed & Printed Fabric Design
Renaissance Man - My New Hand Dyed & Printed Fabric Design
Banksia - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

Ginkgo Love - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

“Garden Delights I & II”
 - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
Wallflower III - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
Rainforest Beauty
 Collection - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
Spring & Autumn Flurry Collection
 - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

La Volute Collection - My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design
Urban Butterfly -
 My New Hand Printed Fabric Design
Acanthus Dream
 - My New Hand Printed Fabric Design

Cascading Acanthus - 
My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed Fabric Design

My New Hand Dyed and Hand Printed 'Rainforest Beauty' Pashmina Wraps Collection

I have been designing my hand dyed and hand printed fabric lengths using a range of fabrics and multiple surface design techniques. As a professional senior graphic designer/illustrator in a previous career, I have always had an interest in creating imagery, prints, illustrations, posters and publications using digital processes. This interest has led to some fascinating explorations in the field of digitally created fabrics and textiles. This post centers on my new digitally designed fabric collection - "Wall Flower".

"Wall Flower" - A New Collection of Digitally Designed Fabrics
The "Wall Flower" collection of digitally designed fabrics is a unique series of vintage style fabric designs based on images of my post-graffiti artwork depicting distressed, worn, aged and organic botanic illustrations found originally in illustrated books and now reinterpreted on contemporary urban walls in our cityscapes.

The techniques employed to create my original post-graffiti artwork included hand painted, stamped and silk screened imagery using fibre reactive dyes and pigment paint on cotton. The imagery was then scanned and digitally reworked in Photoshop to create fabric colors that reference colors of bygone eras. The colors have been sensitively and painstakingly created.

These funky, contemporary botanical designs can be used for interior design, clothing items and other decorative purposes. There are five color-ways in the "Wall Flower" collection that are available for purchase.

The printed designs are available in the following natural fibres from Spoonflower - basic cotton ultra, Kona® cotton ultra, cotton poplin ultra, light weight cotton twill, cotton spandex jersey, linen cotton canvas ultra, organic cotton knit ultra, organic cotton sateen ultra, heavy cotton twill and silky crepé de chine. The printed designs are also available in the following Spoonflower polyester range of fabrics - satin, performance pique, poly crepe de chine, silky faille, performance knit, modern jersey, fleece, minky, sport lycra, eco canvas and faux suede. Fabric widths vary from 40" (102 cm), 42" (107 cm), 54" (137 cm), 56" (142 cm), and 58" (147 cm) depending on the chosen fabric. The designs are also available to use as self-adhesive wallpaper and giftwrap paper - see My Spoonflower Collection for more information. There is no minimum order and the printed fabrics range from a test swatch (8" x 8" or 20 cm x 20 cm) to a fat quarter (21" x 18" or 53 cm x 46 cm) or to whatever your yardage requirements may be.

These fabric designs can be used for wearable art, accessories, furnishing and interior design projects. If you would like to purchase fabric lengths from my "Wall Flower" collection please email me at - Marie-Therese - for pricing and/or any other information.

My "Wall Flower" collection - for wearable art, accessories, interior and other decorative design projects - are shown below. Each work in the collection below shows a fat quarter (21" x 18" or 53 x 46 cm) view of the printed fabric design and a one yard length (36" or 91.5 cm) view of the printed fabric design. To view more of my Digital Fabric Collections please click the following url - My Spoonflower Collection.

Wall Flower 1: In a blue-grey, cream and purple colorway (fat quarter).

Wall Flower 1: In blue-grey, cream and purple colorway (one yard).

Wall Flower 2: In cobalt blue, lilac and violet colorway (fat quarter).

Wall Flower 2: In cobalt blue, lilac and violet colorway (one yard).

Wall Flower 3: In navy blue, apricot and rose colorway (fat quarter).

Wall Flower 3: In navy blue, apricot and rose colorway (one yard).

Wall Flower 4: In cream, blue and turquoise colorway (fat quarter).

Wall Flower 4: In cream, blue and turquoise colorway (one yard).

Wall Flower 5: In black and white colorway (fat quarter).

Wall Flower 5: In black and white colorway (one yard).

Saturday, June 17, 2017

Rock Covers – 1950s
Works on Paper

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Music and art appear intrinsically linked. Go to an opera performance and what do you experience: a storyline enacted within musical frame; wearable art on display; art fabrication in terms of sets within scenes.

Puccini’s Madama Butterfly @ the Sydney Opera House.

So what was I doing whilst my parents were listening to opera? I was under my doona with a transistor radio to my ear, listening to the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, Donovan, Jerry and the Pacemakers, Pink Floyd, Them, Aretha Franklin, Otis Redding, Alice Copper, Badfinger, Chicago, and Dylan – just to name a few! Clearly I had an eclectic taste back in the 1960s (that didn’t extend to opera)!

Self-Titled Album Cover. “Them” were a Northern Irish band formed in Belfast in April 1964, most prominently known for the garage rock standard "Gloria" and launching singer Van Morrison's musical career. The original five-member band consisted of Van Morrison, Alan Henderson, Ronnie Millings, Billy Harrison and Eric Wrixon.

So what made these bands so appealing? First and foremost it was their music and then of course their sex appeal. There was little in the way of imagery since video clips were far too expensive and they did not really take off until the 1980s, although the origins of music videos date back to musical short films that first appeared in the 1920s. The rock video really came into prominence in the 1980s when MTV based their format around that particular medium.

This vinyl L.P. (long playing) record sits proudly in my record collection. My favourite song - Try A Little Tenderness - of course! Don't come to my place when I'm playing it. I use to be a go-go dancer in the '70s. Got the picture!

Also living in Melbourne (Australia) it was difficult to see overseas bands perform live on stage in the 1960s/70s and so television played a role in bringing still photographs of international rock bands to its audience whilst playing their music (The Hit Parade was Australia's top rating Teen show).

The Beatles outside The Southern Cross Hotel in Melbourne in the 1964 tour of Down Under. Ringo Starr was ill but returned to the band for their Melbourne performances.

For a number of reasons albums appeared as a more adult appreciation of rock music. Sure singles (one song on each side of the vinyl) were a lot cheaper and even EPs (extended plays) contained anywhere between 3 and 5 songs that usually gave 30 minutes of music. However, it was the LPs (long plays) that expanded the aural and visual experience to the listener. Albums were at least 5 inches bigger and approximately four times more expensive. They also enabled thematic musical experiences as well. You could go through the visual photographs of the groups whilst listening to their music.

Album Cover of The Beatle’s Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.

The 1950s covers needed to be wholesome in appearance since Church groups who had a lot of influence in those days, saw body movements by rock singers as being sexually provocative and even seducing girls to engage in sex before marriage. In the 1950s being an unmarried pregnant teen would cast you and your family in a terrible light and so backyard abortions or giving a child to a Christian adoption agency was prevalent.

Rock ‘n Roll is the Devil’s Music.

By the 1960s the “pill” had arrived and with it sex and pregnancy were no longer inextricably linked and together with the concomitant rise of feminism, women were demanding sexual control over their own body and so not only did music flourish in the new-found age of liberation, but album covers followed suit and so became more sexually explicit.

Herb Alpert’s Tijuana Brass, “Whipped Cream and Other Delights” (1965).

In the digital age, digital disruption is always present. There is that much imagery now available on the internet - from musical clips to interviews of bands to still images etc – the visibility of bands is now determined by a much larger myriad of factors (with luck still being one of them). The album and album cover is now a thing of the past since you can pre-arrange so many songs from so many bands on your digital device that you can program yourself a musical-mood trip. Imagine if you wanted to feel “serene” in the good old days, playing one song from ten different albums in a particular sequence. Such a chore would cause a serious mental meltdown. Nowadays you can exercise your body to an array of pounding music from an array of different bands without leaving your treadmill! Clearly life has changed for this woman who at one time in her lifetime listened to - “If I Needed Some One” (LP: Rubber Soul) - on her transistor radio under a doona!

Beatle’s “Rubber Soul” album cover.

The Rock and Roll Story [1]
The 1950s was a time when the baby boomers (i.e. born during or immediately after the war) were reaching their teens. The swing bands of the 1940s were down-sized into smaller combinations since the spotlight descended on solo singers and vocal groups rather than on orchestras.

Swing It Again - album cover.

The exact emergence of rock and roll is of course unclear. In the US Jonny Otis, Joe Turner, Ray Brown and Fats Domino all started recording before 1951. This gave rise to a number of independent US record labels like Atlantic, Chess, Vee Jay and Specialty that basically got kick-started by recording non-mainstream artists, namely, the early rockers. By the middle of the 1950s, rock and roll swept the US as Bill Haley’s "Rock Around the Clock" became the biggest rock hit to date. It became the rock and roll anthem.

Bill Haley and the Comets - Rock Around the Clock (Album Cover).

Rock and roll was often accused of alluring whites to black man’s music, which demonstrates the paranoia in the US at that time. However, soon it was white singers that started to dominate that genre. For example, Elvis Presley started recording for Sun in 1954, but it was not until he switched to RCA in 1956 that he became famous. In 1956, Elvis had five number one hits on the US charts and featured in a film – Love Me Tender (also an album). He appeared on national TV eleven times and so swiftly reach legend status.

Elvis Presley - Love Me Tender (Album Cover).

Rock and roll became mainstream and so was seen regularly on TV such as on Dick Clark’s “American Bandstand”. By the end of the 1950s rock and roll started to wane as the new teens of the 1960s wanted to embrace a new phenomenon alien to what their elder sisters and brothers danced to.

Single - (What a) Wonderful World - by Sam Cooke. It was released on the 14th of April 1960 by Keen Records.

Rock Covers – 1950s:
Below are just a sampler of 1950s album covers (works on paper).

Album: Jamboree.
Various Artists.
Record Label: Warner Brothers (1955).
Designer: Unknown.

Album: Johny Ray.
Artist: John Ray.
Record Label: Warner Columbia (1951).
Designer: Unknown.

Album: Elvis.
Artist: Elvis Presley.
Record Label: RCA Victor (1956).
Designer: Unknown.

Album: Rockin'.
Artist: Frankie Laine.
Record Label: Columbia (1957).
Photograph: John Engstead.

Album: This is Fats.
Artist: Fats Domino.
Record Label: Imperial (1957).
Designer: Unknown.

Album: Here's Little Richard.
Artist: Little Richard.
Record Label: Specialty Records (1957).
Designer: Thad Roark.
Photograph: Globe

Album: Dance Album of Carl Perkins.
Artists: Carl Perkins.
Record Label: Sun (1957).
Designer: Unknown.

Album: We are the Chantels.
Artists: Chantels.
Record Label: End (1958).
Designer: Unknown.

Album: Please, Please, Please.
Artist: James Brown and His Famous Flames.
Record Label: King (1958).
Design: Record Design Studio.

Album: Jerry Lee Lewis.
Artist: Jerry Lee Lewis.
Record Label: Sun (1958).
Designer: Unkown.

Album: Frankie Avalon.
Artist: Frankie Avalon.
Record Label: Chancellor (1958).
Photograph: Bob Chiraldin/Arsene Studios, New York.

Album: The Flying Platters Around The World.
Artists: The Platters.
Record Label: Mercury (1959).
Photographer: Herman Leonard.

Album: Hold That Tiger!.
Artist: Fabian.
Record Label: Chancellor (1959).
Photograph: Marvin Wellen/Topix.

Album: Shout!
Artist: The Isley Brothers.
Record Label: RCA Victa (1959).
Designer: Unknown.

Album: He's So Fine.
Artist: Jackie Wilson.
Record Label: Brunswick (1959).
Designer: Unknown.

Album: The Great Ray Charles.
Artist: Ray Charles.
Record Label: Atlantic (1959).
Design: Marvin Israel.
Photographer: Lee Friedlander.

[1] M. Ochs, Classic Rock Covers, Taschen (2001) New York.

Saturday, June 10, 2017

Felted Accessories
Wearable Art

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

This blogspot has a number of related articles on felt and felted objects some of which have been listed below for your convenience.
Felted Garments
Fabric Construction - Felt
Nuno Felted Scarves@Felted Pleasure
Hallstatt Textiles

Felting is one of the oldest methods of making fabrics. Primitive peoples made felt by washing wool fleece, spreading it out while still wet, and beating it until it had matted and shrunk together in fabric-like form. In the modern factory, layers of fiber webs are built up until the desired thickness is attained and then heat, soap and vibration are used to mat the fibers together and to shrink or full the cloth. Finishing processes for felt resemble those for woven fabrics.

Lilyana Bekic, Grey Corollarium (2009).

Felt has many industrial and clothing uses. It is used industrially for cladding, sound proofing, insulation, filtering, polishing and wicking. Traditionally felt is not used for "fitted" clothing because it lacks the flexibility and elasticity of fabrics made from yarns. It has a wide use in such things as hats, house slippers, and clothing decorations and pendants. Because felt does not fray, it needs no seam finish. Colored felt letters or decorations on white sport sweaters or other garments often fade in washing and so should be removed or the garments should be sent to a dry cleaner who knows how to treat them.

With the resurgence of interest in the making of felted objects over the last decade, felt as garments are now making an "indie" fashion statement.

Felted Accessories

Vanderbos – embracement #058 (2007).
Materials and Techniques: Industrial felt; sewn, steam molded.
Size: 65 x 50 x 25 cm.
Photograph courtesy of Mirjam Verschoor[1].

Gar Wang – Watermelon Hat (2003).
Materials and Techniques: Merino wool; wet felted.
Size: 50.8 x 25.4.
Photograph courtesy of Claus Wickrath[1].

Leiko Uchiyama – Mosaic (2009).
Materials and Techniques: Merino wool, silk fabric; dyed, wet felted.
Size: 160 x 50 cm.
Photograph courtesy of Kazuhiro Kobushi[1].

Sue Heathcote – Wrap (2006).
Materials and Techniques: Lamb's wool; machine knitted, hand manipulated.
Size: 184 x 28 cm.
Photograph courtesy of Noel Shelley[1].

Carol Ingram – Marketplace Wrap (2009).
Materials and Techniques: Merino roving, commercial merino pre-felt, paj silk, rayon, silk chiffon; hand dyed, wet felted, nuno techniques.
Size: 172.7 x 36.8 cm.
Photograph courtesy of Jody Brewer[1].

Uta Marschmann – Adere Elecko: Path to the Mill (2007).
Materials and Techniques: Merino fleece, natural indigo; wet felted, dyed, reserve technique.
Size: 160 x 50 cm.
Photograph courtesy of Alexander Heuberger[1].

Sheila Ahern – Cloche Hat (2008).
Materials and Techniques: Merino fleece, mulberry silk; wet felted.
Size: 16 x 25 cm.
Photograph courtesy of Joanna Tomaszewska[1].

Karoliina Arvilommi – Karelia Hat (2007).
Materials and Techniques: Finnish Landrace wool batting, yarn; wet felted.
Size: 35 x 35 x 20 cm.
Photograph courtesy of Liselotte Habets[1].

Bottura Sabrina – Column Hat (2009).
Materials and Techniques: Merino fleece; wet felted, handmade.
Size: 19 x 17 x 18 cm.
Photograph courtesy of artist[1].

Gar Wang – Broccoli Crown and Hole-Y Shirt (2003).
Materials and Techniques: Merino wool; hand dyed, felted.
Size: Crown - 30 x 23 cm; Shirt - 50 x 50 cm.
Photograph courtesy of Claus Wickrath[1].

[1] N. Mornu and J. Hale, 500 Felt Objects, Lark Crafts, New York (2011).

Saturday, June 3, 2017

Crêpe Fabrics
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

This is the sixty-fifth post in the "Art Resource" series, specifically aimed to construct an appropriate knowledge base in order to develop an artistic voice in ArtCloth.

Other posts in this series are:
Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms
Units Used in Dyeing and Printing of Fabrics
Occupational, Health & Safety
A Brief History of Color
The Nature of Color
Psychology of Color
Color Schemes
The Naming of Colors
The Munsell Color Classification System
Methuen Color Index and Classification System
The CIE System
Pantone - A Modern Color Classification System
Optical Properties of Fiber Materials
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part I
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part II
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part III
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part IV
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part V
Protein Fibers - Wool
Protein Fibers - Speciality Hair Fibers
Protein Fibers - Silk
Protein Fibers - Wool versus Silk
Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Cotton
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Linen
Other Natural Cellulosic Fibers
General Overview of Man-Made Fibers
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Viscose
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Esters
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Nylon
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Polyester
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Acrylic and Modacrylic
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Olefins
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Elastomers
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Mineral Fibers
Man Made Fibers - Other Textile Fibers
Fiber Blends
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part I
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part II
Melt-Spun Fibers
Characteristics of Filament Yarn
Yarn Classification
Direct Spun Yarns
Textured Filament Yarns
Fabric Construction - Felt
Fabric Construction - Nonwoven fabrics
A Fashion Data Base
Fabric Construction - Leather
Fabric Construction - Films
Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins
Fabric Construction – Foams and Poromeric Material
Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns
Weaving and the Loom
Similarities and Differences in Woven Fabrics
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part I)
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part II)
The Three Basic Weaves - Twill Weave
The Three Basic Weaves - Satin Weave
Figured Weaves - Leno Weave
Figured Weaves – Piqué Weave
Figured Fabrics
Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements
Crêpe Fabrics
Crêpe Effect Fabrics
Pile Fabrics - General
Woven Pile Fabrics
Chenille Yarn and Tufted Pile Fabrics
Knit-Pile Fabrics
Flocked Pile Fabrics and Other Pile Construction Processes
Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms
Napped Fabrics – Part I
Napped Fabrics – Part II
Double Cloth
Multicomponent Fabrics
Knit-Sew or Stitch Through Fabrics
Finishes - Overview
Finishes - Initial Fabric Cleaning
Mechanical Finishes - Part I
Mechanical Finishes - Part II
Additive Finishes
Chemical Finishes - Bleaching
Glossary of Scientific Terms
Chemical Finishes - Acid Finishes
Finishes: Mercerization
Finishes: Waterproof and Water-Repellent Fabrics
Finishes: Flame-Proofed Fabrics
Finishes to Prevent Attack by Insects and Micro-Organisms
Other Finishes
Shrinkage - Part I
Shrinkage - Part II

There are currently eight data bases on this blogspot, namely, the Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, the Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, the Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns, Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements, Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms and the Glossary of Scientific Terms, which has been updated to Version 3.5. All data bases will be updated from time-to-time in the future.

If you find any post on this blog site useful, you can save it or copy and paste it into your own "Word" document etc. for your future reference. For example, Safari allows you to save a post (e.g. click on "File", click on "Print" and release, click on "PDF" and then click on "Save As" and release - and a PDF should appear where you have stored it). Safari also allows you to mail a post to a friend (click on "File", and then point cursor to "Mail Contents On This Page" and release). Either way, this or other posts on this site may be a useful Art Resource for you.

The Art Resource series will be the first post in each calendar month. Remember - these Art Resource posts span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist to that required by a final year University Fine-Art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource post may appear far too technical for your needs (skip over those mind boggling parts) and in other parts, it may be too simplistic with respect to your level of knowledge (ditto the skip). The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that Art Resource posts will hopefully be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately may not be satisfying to all!

A crêpe crinkle can be obtained in several ways. This post and next months post - unlike previous posts on weaving - deals with the family of crêpe fabrics including those made by crepe weave.

J Crew - pleated silk crêpe blouse.

“Crêpe” is a French word meaning “crinkle”. Crêpe fabrics are classified according to the way crinkle is obtained. True crêpe has a crinkle resulting from high twist yarns – see post: Yarn Classification.

Dollhouse bettie - pinup and vintage lingerie - 30s vintage feather light silk crêpe peignoir.

Crêpe-effect fabrics (next month’s post) are those in which the crinkle is achieved by the weave, finish or by textured yarns. The crêpes and crêpe effects will be compared below.

Comparison of crêpe fabrics.

True Crêpe
True crêpe fabrics are made with plain weave and high twist crêpe yarns (see Yarn Classification). They are made on a loom with a box attachment that can insert alternating S- and Z-twist yarns to enhance the amount of crinkle. Rayon, cotton, flax, wool and silk are fibers that are used for high twist yarns because the liveliness of the high twist can be controlled or “set” by wetting and drying before weaving.

Wool crêpe dress.

Thermoplastic fibers will not take such a set. They must be set with heat, which kills the liveliness of the fabric. Acetate fiber is often used for the low-twist warp yarns.

Grey-goods crêpe fabric is smooth as it comes from the loom. It is woven wide and then shrunk to develop the crinkle. Immersion in water causes the crêpe-twist yarns to regain their liveliness and contact or shrink. For example, the fabric is 47 inches wide on the loom, contracts to 30-32 inches in boil-off and is finished to 39 inches. This explains why crêpe fabric will shrink when it gets wet and why garment size is so much more easily controlled by dry cleaning than washing.

True crêpe fabrics are classified by the position of the crêpe yarn as: filling crêpes, warp crêpes, balanced crêpes, and variations.

Filling Crêpe Fabrics
These fabrics have high twist crêpe yarns in the filling direction and low-twist yarns in the warp direction.

Typical filling crêpe fabrics.

Multfilament and French crêpe are the smoothest and most lustrous of the true crêpe family. Because they are smooth, they are washable and are used in lingerie and sometimes in blouses, They contain crêpe yarns of the lowest twist.

Orange and green embroidered french crêpe dress material with dupatta.

Flat crêpe is the most widely used filling crêpe. It has a dull crepy surface. A rayon/acetate fiber combination is frequently used. The acetate is very low-twist filament warp and the rayon is the crêpe yarn filling. The rayon crêpe yarns alternate with S- and Z-twist or with 2S- and 2Z-twist. A high warp count and low filling count give a cross-wise rib effect. Low count in the filling gives the crêpe yarns room to contract so that the amount of crinkle will be greater. The flat crêpe shown in the figure below shows a filling crêpe. Analysis of the filling crêpe fabric will show that it is easy to distinguish between the warp and the filling yarns.

Flat crêpe. Notice crimp on the regular yarn due to the pressure of crêpe yarns when fabric was pressed. These are not crêpe yarns.

When sewing crêpe it is not advisable to preshrink the cloth with the hope that it will then be completely relaxed. If crêpes are completely relaxed, they will stretch too much during pressing and use. True crêpes present some problems in pressing, but the secret is to work quickly with as little pressure and moisture as is necessary to obtain good results. It is best to dry clean crêpes that have enough crinkle to present pressing or shrinkage problems.

Warp Crêpe Fabrics
Warp crêpe fabrics are made with crepe yarns in the warp and regular yarns in the filling direction.

Crêpe weave fabric with satin stripes cotton and rayon.

There are very few warp crepes on the market, possibly because they tend to shrink more in the warp direction and it is, therefore, difficult to keep an even hemline in washable fabrics. Bemberg sheer and some wool crêpes belong in this group.

Diagram of a warp crêpe.

Vintage: Bemberg sheer navy blue fabric.

Balanced Crêpe Fabrics
Balanced crêpe fabrics have crêpe yarns in both directions and are usually balanced in thread count. They are often made in sheers and the crepiness of the yarns in both directions helps to prevent yarn slippage.

Diagram of a balanced crêpe.

Woman's dovetail balance micro gold crêpe dress.

Other forms of true crêpes are the crepe seersuckers and the double cloth crepes.

Puckered rayons (seersuckers) are made in plain weave with alternating groups of regular yarns and crêpe yarns in the filling direction. Warp yarns are regular yarns. When the fabric is wet in finishing, the crêpe yarns shrink causing crosswise puckers in the regular yarn stripe.

Rayon crêpe seersucker.

Brooks Brothers seersucker dress.

Matelassé is a double-cloth construction with either three or four sets of yarns. Two of the sets are always the regular warp and filling yarns and the others are crêpe yarns. They are woven together so that the two sets criss-cross as shown below. It is as if two fabrics are interlaced with each other. The crêpe yarns shrink during wet finishing and create puffy areas in the regular-yarn part of the fabric. Matelassé is usually a rayon/acetate combination.

Printed satin-metalassé skirt.
Metalassé double-cloth construction showing crêpe and regular yarns crisscrossing.

[1] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd Edition, MacMillan Company, London (1968).