Saturday, January 25, 2020

European Illumination - Romanesque Style[1]
Works On Paper

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

For your convenience I have listed other posts in this series below:
Chinese Calligraphy
European Illumination - Celtic Style
The Illumination Art of South-East Asia
European Illumination - Gothic Style

Romanesque emerged as the dominant style in Europe in the tenth, eleventh and twelfth centuries. Illumination thrived in the hands of the Church, which expanded in wealth and power, spawning new orders and an impressive building program. There were many centres of excellence in illumination in England, France and Germany.

Romanesque art, is an art form which was created in Western Europe in approximately 1000 AD. The art form is widely known as vigorous.

The historical initial, decorated with a narrative scene, became more popular during this period. Bibles and psalters (i.e. a copy of the biblical Psalms, especially for liturgical use), the most frequently illuminated books, tended to be larger with richly created initials. In Britain, many examples of illumination have survived from this period, faring better than other casualties of history and time, such as works on wood, stone, metal, ivory, embroidery and stain glass, the latter often sources for designs used in illuminations.

Depiction of the Prophet Daniel is colorful, stiff, and formalized (Romanesque stained glass).

Later Anglo-Saxon illumination, of the late tenth and eleventh centuries, can be seen to reject Celtic influences and align instead with France and Germany and the more prevalent Romanesque style.

Albani (St Albans) Psalter: Initial B & King Solomon English Romanesque ca. 1125.

In Germany, the Renaissance, inspired by Charlemagne, was given new life a century later by Otto I, the first in a line of Ottos who gave their name to the Ottonian style. Illuminated letters of this period show a mixture of influences, including Carolingian, early Christian and Byzantine, as well as the individual style of the Winchester School.

Illuminated letter O, Ottonian style.

The capital letters of the Romanesque Script are called Versals. They were generally used at the beginning of verses and seldom used for whole blocks of text. Versals are based on the Roman script.

Versals are built up from compound strokes, with the pen held at a horizontal angle. Double strokes are used for the thicker parts of the letter, usually the stem. The double strokes should start at one nib width apart at the head, meet in the middle (see the letter 'B'), then open out again at the base of the letter.

The shape of the letters are Roman, and based on a circular 'O'. The inside curves (called counters) of the letters must be formed from parts of a circle.

Numerals and lower case figures.

Origins of Illuminated Romanesque Letters J, V, O[1]
The example from which the below 'J' was adapted comes from the Grimbald Gospels, now in the British Library, which were completed in the early eleventh century.

Initial 'J' from the Grimbald Gospels (early 11th century).

Grimbald of St Bertin was founder and first Abbot of the New Minister at Winchester at the time of Alfred the Great.

The initial is a late example of Anglo-Saxon illumination, which shows more classical Roman than Celtic influence, and is perhaps taken from Carolingian examples. This can be seen in the construction of the letter, the rich colors and gilding, and the acanthus leaf decoration. In the adaption of this initial, the artist decided to add extra ornamentation to the trunk of the 'J' to break the starkness of the verticals.

Initial 'V" from the Pericopes of Emperor Henry II (early 11th century).

This rich but simple Ottonian 'V' has been taken from Periscopes of Henry II, which date from early eleventh century, and are now in the Bayerisches Staatsbibliothek, Munich. Periscopes are proportions of scriptures written to be read in public worship. The 'V' characterises the Ottonian style, in almost every way; the letters were very large on the decorated page, with words of the script fitted around them.

The initial has highly burnished gold-foliated branch work, with intense points of color in the interstices. To complement the richness of the gold, the outlining is in red rather than in black. This outline also serves to add relief to the main strokes of the initial by indicating the original calligraphic construction, that is, the two strokes of each line of the 'V'.

The initial 'O' from the Lincoln Psalms.

This delightful initial shows King David playing his harp. It comes from a Gloss on the Palms in psalter, now in Lincoln Cathedral, England, and was executed in the twelfth century. King David is seated on a throne, with two stylized curtains wither side of him - curtains are usually wrapped around columns in medieval portrait miniatures. There is a bird apparently 'talking' into the King's right ear and a mystical griffin-like animal forms the horizontal stroke of 'D'.

The asymmetrical nature of the scene is part of its appeal, together with the charming lyrical sway which you must take care not to lose in the process of tracing or enlarging this piece.

The Finished Reproductions of the Letters 'J', 'V' and 'O' Based On The Above[1]

Rich in gilding and color, but with controlled ornamentation, the result looks dignified. The highlights on the two central panels contrast well with the richer colors around the knot work at each end. Note: The fine details on the dog-head terminals.

This letter is truly rich, smacking of imperial grandeur. You can imagine how it would look on the dyed purple vellum used by Ottonian illuminators. The influence of metalwork design on such illumination, reinforced by the gilding. If you look carefully, you will see that the width of the outline varies, adding life to the illumination - this was considered to be part of the artistry of the professional.

The artist has managed to retain the character and sway of the original even though he used a postcard for reference that had a blurred image and unreliable color reproduction. This graceful illumination made use of the artist's in-depth knowledge of such manuscripts. He used the postcard to check color.

Romanesque Gallery[1]

The initial 'P' from the Winchester Bible (late 12th century).

This stunning illuminated initial 'P' shows three scenes from the biblical episode in which Moab rebels against Israel. The letter retains some Celtic-style interlace at its head but the inclusion of figures and scenes is typical Romanesque.

Initial 'B' from the Ramsey Psalter (late 10th century).

This is a masterpiece of Anglo-Saxon illumination and lettering. The 'B' is lavishly gilded, incorporating interlocking terminations and infilling of acanthus leaves. The grotesque gargoyle-like mask sprouts spirals of colourful foliage which relate to Anglo-Saxon carving and metalwork. The manuscript is believed to have been made at Winchester for use at Ramsey Abbey in Huntingtonshire.

Initial 'S' from Berenggardus' Commentary on the 'Book of Revelation' (early 12th century).

The whole structure of this flamboyant illuminated 'S' merges with the intertwining and spiralling stems. A dragon climbs among these stems, and a lion, eagerly pursued by a man, feasts on fruit.

Initial 'V' from the Book of Obadiah, Winchester Bible (late 12th century).

The historiated decoration within the initial 'V' shows Obadiah hiding 'a hundred prophets' in caves.

Initial 'O' from the Song of Solomon, Winchester Bible (late 12th century).

This striking initial 'O' shows the King entertaining the Queen of Sheba, enthroned together in a richly domed palace.

[1] P. Seligman and T. Noad, The Illuminated Alphabet, Simon & Schuster, Sydney (1994).

Saturday, January 18, 2020

My Contribution to:
The Lake Macquarie's Water Exhibition

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

My artwork has appeared in a number of exhibitions which has been featured on this blog spot. I have listed these posts below.
ArtCloth: Engaging New Visions (Marie-Therese Wisniowski - Curator's Talk)
Sequestration of CO2 (Engaging New Visions) M-T. Wisniowski
Codes – Lost Voices (ArtCloth Installation) M-T. Wisniowski
Unleashed: The Rise of Australian Street Art (Art Exhibition) Various Artists
Merge and Flow (SDA Members Exhibition) M-T. Wisniowski
The Journey (Megalo Studio) M-T. Wisniowski
Another Brick (Post Graffiti ArtCloth Installation) M-T. Wisniowski
ArtCloth Swap & Exhibition
My Thirteen Year Contribution to the '9 x 5' Exhibition
When Rainforests Ruled (Purple Noon Art & Sculpture Gallery) M-T. Wisniowski
When Rainforests Glowed (Eden Gardens Gallery) M-T. Wisniowski
My Southern Land (Galerie 't Haentje te Paart, Netherlands) M-T. Wisniowski
The Last Exhibition @ Galerie ’t Haentje the Paart
Mark Making on Urban Walls @ Palm House (Post Graffiti Art Work)
Fleeting - My ArtCloth Work Exhibited @ Art Systems Wickham Art Gallery
Man-Made Fish Kills

In November 2019, participating artists in the inaugural Lake Mac Open Studios Tour (LMOST) were invited to submit an artwork for the first curated ‘Art in Our Community’ exhibition program (theme of ‘water’) as part of the rebranded Lake Macquarie City Art Gallery. My piece, ‘Lake Macquarie - A Timeless Creator of Life’ was selected for the exhibition. This exhibition was included as part of the festival opening weekend of the new Museum of Art and Culture (MAC) Lake Macquarie, NSW and will be on display from the 23rd November to 2nd February 2020.

MAC's Story[1]
The Museum of Art and Culture (MAC) . . . yapang, is an exceptional cultural and tourist destination located at the northern tip of Lake Macquarie, NSW, Australia. It is uniquely positioned within 5 hectares of leafy grounds on the shore of Lake Macquarie, Australia's largest salt-water lake. The award-winning art museum has a cafe, retail shop, sculpture park and mosaic pathways. MAC, formerly known as Lake Macquarie City Art Gallery, was established in 1980. First housed in Lake Macquarie’s former council chambers on Main Road at Speers Point. The gallery relocated to First Street, Booragul in 1996.

The new site is significant to both the local Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, most importantly as a campsite and then as a parcel of land granted to Dr James Mitchell in 1842. The addition of the Aboriginal word yapang (meaning path or journey) solidifies the gallery’s ongoing commitment to Indigenous art and artists.

The gallery originally occupied Awaba House on this site from 1996 to 2000 when a decision was made to construct the new state-of-the-art facility. Designed by Colin Still of Cox Richardson, the new art gallery building was launched in May 2001 and saw the addition of an art seminar room in 2008.

With a growing audience, higher demands for public exhibition space and a rapidly developing collection, the need to expand again became essential. With a grant from the NSW government and assistance from Lake Macquarie City Council, the gallery underwent a $2.3 million transformation in 2019 resulting in more exhibition and collection space, a new name, new brand and the establishment of yapang, a dedicated Aboriginal program and space.

The recent exciting transformation has established MAC as a destination and enhanced its position as a dynamic, popular regional facility.

MAC's Vision[1]
For MAC to be a lively place where people are engaged in, inspired by, and connected with arts, culture and fresh ideas.

MAC's Mission[1]
To ensure MAC is inclusive, accessible and captivating by initiating and presenting dynamic, refreshing, creative and diverse art and cultural programs, engaging multiple communities as colleagues as makers, participants, audiences, collaborators and supporters[1].

The Museum of Art and Culture (MAC)[1]

Opening weekend of the Museum of Art and Culture, Lake Macquarie, NSW.
Image Courtesy: Good Thanks Media (MAC Facebook site).

View of Lake Macquarie from the grounds of the Museum of Art and Culture, Lake Macquarie.
Image Courtesy: Tripadvisor. Traveller photo submitted by Gerald H (January 2018).

MAC Visual Arts Program November 2019 - July 2020 Front Cover.
The program includes the next six months of exhibitions, events and art classes at your fingertips!
Image Courtesy: MAC Facebook site.

My Contribution to: The Lake Macquarie's Water Exhibition

Title: Lake Macquarie: Timeless Creator of Life (Full View).
Technique and Media: Screen printed, stencilled and hand painted employing gold foil, transparent and opaque pigment on cotton.
Created in 2019.
Artist Statement: The artwork highlights that Lake Macquarie has sustained life from the beginning of human occupation - from the initial Aboriginal occupation to its present day. Hence, the presence of trilobites and deconstructed fish shapes depicting an on-going living activity within the Lake that refracts from a conscious out-of-the-Lake observance. The lack of human form or activity on or in the Lake was consciously imposed within the artwork in order to emphasise the fragility of the Lake being inhabited, centres not on what exists within it, but rather on what exists outside of it.

Detail View 1.

Detail View 2.

Detail View 3.


Saturday, January 11, 2020

Durable Press and Wash-and-Wear Finishes - Part III[1]
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

This is the ninety-fifth post in the "Art Resource" series, specifically aimed to construct an appropriate knowledge base in order to develop an artistic voice in ArtCloth.

Other posts in this series are:
Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms
Units Used in Dyeing and Printing of Fabrics
Occupational, Health & Safety
A Brief History of Color
The Nature of Color
Psychology of Color
Color Schemes
The Naming of Colors
The Munsell Color Classification System
Methuen Color Index and Classification System
The CIE System
Pantone - A Modern Color Classification System
Optical Properties of Fiber Materials
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part I
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part II
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part III
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part IV
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part V
Protein Fibers - Wool
Protein Fibers - Speciality Hair Fibers
Protein Fibers - Silk
Protein Fibers - Wool versus Silk
Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Cotton
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Linen
Other Natural Cellulosic Fibers
General Overview of Man-Made Fibers
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Viscose
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Esters
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Nylon
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Polyester
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Acrylic and Modacrylic
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Olefins
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Elastomers
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Mineral Fibers
Man Made Fibers - Other Textile Fibers
Fiber Blends
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part I
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part II
Melt-Spun Fibers
Characteristics of Filament Yarn
Yarn Classification
Direct Spun Yarns
Textured Filament Yarns
Fabric Construction - Felt
Fabric Construction - Nonwoven fabrics
A Fashion Data Base
Fabric Construction - Leather
Fabric Construction - Films
Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins
Fabric Construction – Foams and Poromeric Material
Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns
Weaving and the Loom
Similarities and Differences in Woven Fabrics
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part I)
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part II)
The Three Basic Weaves - Twill Weave
The Three Basic Weaves - Satin Weave
Figured Weaves - Leno Weave
Figured Weaves – Piqué Weave
Figured Fabrics
Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements
Crêpe Fabrics
Crêpe Effect Fabrics
Pile Fabrics - General
Woven Pile Fabrics
Chenille Yarn and Tufted Pile Fabrics
Knit-Pile Fabrics
Flocked Pile Fabrics and Other Pile Construction Processes
Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms
Napped Fabrics – Part I
Napped Fabrics – Part II
Double Cloth
Multicomponent Fabrics
Knit-Sew or Stitch Through Fabrics
Finishes - Overview
Finishes - Initial Fabric Cleaning
Mechanical Finishes - Part I
Mechanical Finishes - Part II
Additive Finishes
Chemical Finishes - Bleaching
Glossary of Scientific Terms
Chemical Finishes - Acid Finishes
Finishes: Mercerization
Finishes: Waterproof and Water-Repellent Fabrics
Finishes: Flame-Proofed Fabrics
Finishes to Prevent Attack by Insects and Micro-Organisms
Other Finishes
Shrinkage - Part I
Shrinkage - Part II
Progressive Shrinkage and Methods of Control
Durable Press and Wash-and-Wear Finishes - Part I
Durable Press and Wash-and-Wear Finishes - Part II
Durable Press and Wash-and-Wear Finishes - Part III
Durable Press and Wash-and-Wear Finishes - Part IV
Durable Press and Wash-and-Wear Finishes - Part V

There are currently eight data bases on this blogspot, namely, the Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, the Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, the Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns, Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements, Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms and the Glossary of Scientific Terms, which has been updated to Version 3.5. All data bases will be updated from time-to-time in the future.

If you find any post on this blog site useful, you can save it or copy and paste it into your own "Word" document etc. for your future reference. For example, Safari allows you to save a post (e.g. click on "File", click on "Print" and release, click on "PDF" and then click on "Save As" and release - and a PDF should appear where you have stored it). Safari also allows you to mail a post to a friend (click on "File", and then point cursor to "Mail Contents On This Page" and release). Either way, this or other posts on this site may be a useful Art Resource for you.

The Art Resource series will be the first post in each calendar month. Remember - these Art Resource posts span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist to that required by a final year University Fine-Art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource post may appear far too technical for your needs (skip over those mind boggling parts) and in other parts, it may be too simplistic with respect to your level of knowledge (ditto the skip). The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that Art Resource posts will hopefully be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately may not be satisfying to all!

Durable Press and Wash-and-Wear Finishes - Part III[1](Overview)
I. Wash-and-Wear with Thermoplastic Fibers
No chemical is needed.
Flat fabric or garments are heat-set by dry or moist heat.

II. Wash-and-Wear Finish of Flat Fabric.
Conventional Method

Saturate the fabric with the resin cross-linking solution and dry.
Cure in a curing oven (cross links form between molecular chains).
Cut and sew garment. Press with iron.
The figure below shows the steps involved in the process.

Fabric has good wrinkle recovery (when properly finished) if "good" laundry procedures are used.
Less loss of strength and abrasion resistance than durable-press.

Fabric resists being shaped into garment; creases are difficult to press, seams pucker etc.
Exhibits other problems common to durable press (see below).

Old Trade Names:
Discipline cotton (Bates).
Regulated cotton (Penney's).
Belfast (Deering-Millikin).
If Sanforized, the fabrics were labeled Sanforized Plus.

III. Durable-Press Finish for Garment.
Postcure Process

Saturate the cloth with a resin cross-linking solution and dry.
Cut and sew garment and press shape with a hot-heat press.
Cure by putting pressed garment into a curing oven at 325 to 250o F.
The figure below show the steps in the process.

Garment retains shape and smoothness. Wide range of blends may be processed.

Higher level of resins needed.
Garment alteration is difficult.
Some garment shrinkage occurs so garments need to be cut oversize (see discussion of problems).

Old Trade Names:
Koratron (Korot of California).
Dan-Press (Dan River Mills).
Reeve-set (Reeves Bros.)

IV. Durable-Press Finish for Garments.
Precured Process (Recured Process).

Treat fabric with cross-linking resin (sulfone) solutions and dry.
Cure in the flat state.
Cut and sew the garment.
Set or secure the garment shape in the hot-heat press.
The setting temperature must be higher than the flat fabric curing temperature. Its purpose is chiefly to set the shape of the thermoplastic fibers in the blend.

Hot heat press for procure (secure).

Old Trade Names:
Coneprest (Cone Mills).
Burma-Crease (Burlington Mills).

V. Durable-Press Finish on Garments
Vapor Phase Process

For 100% Cotton: Garment, preimpregnated with cross-linking agents is put in a reaction chamber which is then closed.
A gas (e.g. nitrogen, air or carbon dioxide) is passed through the vapor reagent and on into the chamber.
Reaction with impregnated garment takes place.

No baking at high temperature.
Higher overall strength.
Resistant to chlorine.
Durable to laundering.
Softer fabric.
Low add-on (2 to 3%).

Old Trade Name: Commercialized by Dubin-Haskell-Jacobson.

[1] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd Edition, MacMillan Company, London (1968).