Saturday, February 7, 2015

Man Made Fibers - Other Textile Fibers[1]
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

This is the thirty-sixth post in the "Art Resource" series, specifically aimed to construct an appropriate knowledge base in order to develop an artistic voice in ArtCloth.

Other posts in this series are:
Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms
Units Used in Dyeing and Printing of Fabrics
Occupational, Health & Safety
A Brief History of Color
The Nature of Color
Psychology of Color
Color Schemes
The Naming of Colors
The Munsell Color Classification System
Methuen Color Index and Classification System
The CIE System
Pantone - A Modern Color Classification System
Optical Properties of Fiber Materials
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part I
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part II
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part III
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part IV
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part V
Protein Fibers - Wool
Protein Fibers - Speciality Hair Fibers
Protein Fibers - Silk
Protein Fibers - Wool versus Silk
Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Cotton
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Linen
Other Natural Cellulosic Fibers
General Overview of Man-Made Fibers
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Viscose
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Esters
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Nylon
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Polyester
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Acrylic and Modacrylic
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Olefins
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Elastomers
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Mineral Fibers
Man Made Fibers - Other Textile Fibers
Fiber Blends
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part I
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part II
Melt-Spun Fibers
Characteristics of Filament Yarn
Yarn Classification
Direct Spun Yarns
Textured Filament Yarns
Fabric Construction - Felt
Fabric Construction - Nonwoven fabrics
A Fashion Data Base
Fabric Construction - Leather
Fabric Construction - Films
Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins
Fabric Construction – Foams and Poromeric Material
Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns
Weaving and the Loom
Similarities and Differences in Woven Fabrics
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part I)
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part II)
The Three Basic Weaves - Twill Weave
The Three Basic Weaves - Satin Weave
Figured Weaves - Leno Weave
Figured Weaves – Piqué Weave
Figured Fabrics
Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements
Crêpe Fabrics
Crêpe Effect Fabrics
Pile Fabrics - General
Woven Pile Fabrics
Chenille Yarn and Tufted Pile Fabrics
Knit-Pile Fabrics
Flocked Pile Fabrics and Other Pile Construction Processes
Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms
Napped Fabrics – Part I
Napped Fabrics – Part II
Double Cloth
Multicomponent Fabrics
Knit-Sew or Stitch Through Fabrics
Finishes - Overview
Finishes - Initial Fabric Cleaning
Mechanical Finishes - Part I
Mechanical Finishes - Part II
Additive Finishes
Chemical Finishes - Bleaching
Glossary of Scientific Terms
Chemical Finishes - Acid Finishes
Finishes: Mercerization
Finishes: Waterproof and Water-Repellent Fabrics
Finishes: Flame-Proofed Fabrics
Finishes to Prevent Attack by Insects and Micro-Organisms
Other Finishes
Shrinkage - Part I
Shrinkage - Part II
Progressive Shrinkage and Methods of Control

There are currently eight data bases on this blogspot, namely, the Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, the Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, the Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns, Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements, Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms and the Glossary of Scientific Terms, which has been updated to Version 3.5. All data bases will be updated from time-to-time in the future.

If you find any post on this blog site useful, you can save it or copy and paste it into your own "Word" document etc. for your future reference. For example, Safari allows you to save a post (e.g. click on "File", click on "Print" and release, click on "PDF" and then click on "Save As" and release - and a PDF should appear where you have stored it). Safari also allows you to mail a post to a friend (click on "File", and then point cursor to "Mail Contents On This Page" and release). Either way, this or other posts on this site may be a useful Art Resource for you.

The Art Resource series will be the first post in each calendar month. Remember - these Art Resource posts span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist to that required by a final year University Fine-Art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource post may appear far too technical for your needs (skip over those mind boggling parts) and in other parts, it may be too simplistic with respect to your level of knowledge (ditto the skip). The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that Art Resource posts will hopefully be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately may not be satisfying to all!

There are a number of fibers that are in a category on their own - for example, alginates and carbon fibers are just two of that type. This post will concentrate on these fibers.

General Properties
Strictly speaking alginates are not synthetic fibers. They are the calcium salt of alginic acid, which is chemically similar to cellulose: one hydroxyl (-OH) group is replaced by a carboxylic acid (-COOH) group on each ring. Alginic acid is obtained from brown (but not red or green) seaweeds. The Latin for sea weed is alga - hence the name.

Brown seaweed used in the production of alginates.

The powdered brown seaweed is treated with causation soda (sodium hydroxide or NaOH) to extract the soluble alginate. The solution is carefully purified and spun on viscose machines into an acid calcium chloride (CaCl2).

Production of alginate fibers.

Alginate fibers have two remarkable properties: they are flame proof because of calcium (Ca); and they dissolve in soapy water, because they are ionic salts. Note: table salt is an ionic salt and it too readily dissolves in water. It is this latter property which gives alginates their commercial importance.

Alginate fibers.

Delicate laces can be embroidered on alginate supporting cloths. When the fabric is washed, the backing disappears, leaving the fine lace. During the manufacture of socks, hosiery and other repeat-unit knitted items, alginate yarns can be used as separating threads between knitted units. During wet finishings, the socks or hose separate automatically.

An important use of alginates is as thickening agents for printing pastes used in the dyeing trade.

Artist: Marie-Therese Wisniowski, Millennium Palimpsest I (Full View).
Technique: Dyed, multiple over-dyes including clamp resist, discharged, illumination discharge, stenciled and silk screened employing thickened fiber reactive dyes on cotton voile with silver lurex thread. Size: 1.15 meters (width) x 2.00 meters (length).

Carbon Fibers
General Properties
Carbon in the form of graphite is such an excellent conductor of electricity that it is used as the contact in electric generators and motors.

When used as a textile fiber, carbon prevents the build-up of static electricity in specialised, mainly industrial fabrics.

Chopped carbon fiber.

Carbon can also be included in powder form in the melt of nylons that are to be used in anti-static applications. The small quantity needed minimises discolouration.

Because of their excellent strength and rigidity, carbon fibers have their main outlet as a reinforcement of other fibers as well as plastics and metal alloys.

Women's underwear body shaping split set bamboo carbon fiber seamless beauty care clothing.

Carbon fibers are produced by carbonising (heating to very high temperatures, but in the absence of oxygen to prevent burning) organic fibers such as acrylics or high-strength regenerated cellulose fibers. Precise control of carbonising temperatures (up to 3000oC) determines the physical properties of the resultant carbon fiber.

Carbonising Process.

[1] A. Fritz and J. Cant, Consumer Textiles, Oxford University Press, New York (1986).

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