Saturday, January 14, 2017

The Three Basic Weaves - Satin Weave[1]
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

This is the sixtieth post in the "Art Resource" series, specifically aimed to construct an appropriate knowledge base in order to develop an artistic voice in ArtCloth.

Other posts in this series are:
Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms
Units Used in Dyeing and Printing of Fabrics
Occupational, Health & Safety
A Brief History of Color
The Nature of Color
Psychology of Color
Color Schemes
The Naming of Colors
The Munsell Color Classification System
Methuen Color Index and Classification System
The CIE System
Pantone - A Modern Color Classification System
Optical Properties of Fiber Materials
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part I
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part II
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part III
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part IV
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part V
Protein Fibers - Wool
Protein Fibers - Speciality Hair Fibers
Protein Fibers - Silk
Protein Fibers - Wool versus Silk
Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Cotton
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Linen
Other Natural Cellulosic Fibers
General Overview of Man-Made Fibers
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Viscose
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Esters
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Nylon
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Polyester
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Acrylic and Modacrylic
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Olefins
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Elastomers
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Mineral Fibers
Man Made Fibers - Other Textile Fibers
Fiber Blends
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part I
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part II
Melt-Spun Fibers
Characteristics of Filament Yarn
Yarn Classification
Direct Spun Yarns
Textured Filament Yarns
Fabric Construction - Felt
Fabric Construction - Nonwoven fabrics
A Fashion Data Base
Fabric Construction - Leather
Fabric Construction - Films
Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins
Fabric Construction – Foams and Poromeric Material
Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns
Weaving and the Loom
Similarities and Differences in Woven Fabrics
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part I)
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part II)
The Three Basic Weaves - Twill Weave
The Three Basic Weaves - Satin Weave
Figured Weaves - Leno Weave
Figured Weaves – Piqué Weave
Figured Fabrics
Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements
Crêpe Fabrics
Crêpe Effect Fabrics
Pile Fabrics - General
Woven Pile Fabrics
Chenille Yarn and Tufted Pile Fabrics
Knit-Pile Fabrics
Flocked Pile Fabrics and Other Pile Construction Processes
Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms
Napped Fabrics – Part I
Napped Fabrics – Part II
Double Cloth
Multicomponent Fabrics
Knit-Sew or Stitch Through Fabrics
Finishes - Overview
Finishes - Initial Fabric Cleaning
Mechanical Finishes - Part I
Mechanical Finishes - Part II
Additive Finishes
Chemical Finishes - Bleaching
Glossary of Scientific Terms
Chemical Finishes - Acid Finishes
Finishes: Mercerization
Finishes: Waterproof and Water-Repellent Fabrics
Finishes: Flame-Proofed Fabrics
Finishes to Prevent Attack by Insects and Micro-Organisms
Other Finishes
Shrinkage - Part I
Shrinkage - Part II
Progressive Shrinkage and Methods of Control

There are currently eight data bases on this blogspot, namely, the Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, the Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, the Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns, Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements, Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms and the Glossary of Scientific Terms, which has been updated to Version 3.5. All data bases will be updated from time-to-time in the future.

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The three basic weaves – plain, twill and satin – can be made on a simple loom without the use of any attachment. Today’s post will concentrate on satin weave.

Rapier loom for satin weave.

Satin Weave
Satin weave is one in which each warp yarn floats over four filling yarns (4/1) and interlaces with the fifth filling yarn with a progression of interlacings by two to the right or the left. (Or each filling yarn floats over four warps and interlaces with the fifth warp [1/4] with a progression of interlacings by two to the right or left).

Satin weave 4/1, warp-face. Top: Schematic of 4/1 satin weave. Bottom: Fabric.

Satin weave fabric 1/4 - filling faced. Top: Schematic of 1/4 satin weave. Bottom: Fabric.

In certain fabrics such as double damask and slipper satin, each yarn floats across seven yarns and interlaces with the eighth yarn.

Above is a schematic of an 8-end satin weave. This diagram represents an 8-thread satin weave. The long floats created mean the light that settles on the yarn is not so broken up and scattered as in a 1/1 weave. Light is reflected off the long float of yarn and creates a smooth lustrous surface we call satin. In Jacquard Damask fabrics the way the warp yarns and weft yarns interlace is a more complex arrangement of satin threads and this same technique is used to create a more ornate pattern.

Satin weave is the third basic weave that can be made on a simple loom and the basic fabrics made with this weave are satin and sateen.

Fashion trumpet mermaid one shoulder sleeveless floor-length satin dress.

Bejewelled sateen dress.

Satin weave fabrics are characterized by luster because of the long floats that cover the surface. Note in checkerboard designs that (i) there are few interlacings; thus the yarns can be packed close together to produce a very high-count fabric; and (2) no two lacings are adjacent to one another so no twill effects results from the progression of interlacings unless the thread count is low.

The Rose dress by St John features a vibrant floral print with a watercolor effect, on silk in a satin weave.

When warp yarns cover the surface, the fabric is a warp-faced fabric – satin – and the warp count is high. When filling floats cover the surface, the fabric is filling-faced fabric – sateen – and the filling count is high. These fabrics are, therefore, unbalanced; but the high count compensates for the lack of balance.

Full color sateen skirt.

All these fabrics have a right or wrong side. A high yarn count gives them strength, durability, body, firmness and wind repellency. Fewer interlacings give pliability and resistance to wrinkling but may permit yarn slippage and raveling.

Satin is a weave and not a material. The description ‘Satin Bow Tie’ is in truth not the full description as many satin bow ties are made from cotton rather than silk. The main feature of satin weaves is the uniform distribution of the interlacings, which are never adjacent to one another. A basic satin weave repeats over at least five ‘ends’ and five ‘picks’, but the warp ‘ends’ interlace only once. This type of weave pattern leads to the creation of long ‘floats’ which because of the scarcity of interlacings (and thread density) in turn produces the smooth, even and lustrous sheen often associated with satin.

Designs may be achieved with satin weave by changing the direction of floats (from warp to filling floats) to make figures, stripes or checks. Satin weaves may be used in combination with other weaves to produce woven designs.

1958 Silk plain weave, printed; silk plain weave; tulle; metal. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Warp-faced satin weave fabrics.

Satin fabrics are usually made of bright filament yarns with very low twist. Warp floats completely cover the surface. Because of the bright fibers, low twist and long floats, satin is one of the most lusterous fabrics made. It is made in many weights (see above table) for use in dresses, linings, lingerie, draperies and upholstery. It seldom has printed designs. It is especially good for linings, because the high count rate makes it very durable and the smooth surface makes the garment easy to slip on and off.

Satin weave lingerie. Satin weave is distinguished by its lustrous, or 'silky', appearance. Satin describes the way the threads are combined. Silk satin is characterized by four or more warp yarns floating over a single weft yarn. This explains the even sheen, as unlike in other weaves, the light reflecting is not scattered as much by the fibers, which have fewer tucks.

Satin makes a more pliable lining than taffeta and thus does not split so readily at the hem edges of coats and suits. Quality is particularly important in linings. The higher the count rate, the better the quality. Low count satins will pull at the seams, rough up in wear and the floats will shift in position to make bubbly areas and wrinkle effects on the surface of the cloth. Satin upholstery should be applied in such a manner that one “sits with the floats”.

In crêpe-back satin, the crêpe yarns are used in the filling and the low twist warp floats give the smooth satiny surface to the fabric. The crêpe yarns give softness and drapability.

Prabal Gurung black silk crêpe back satin hand draped gown from fall/winter 2013 collection.

Care of satin fabrics should be directed toward maintenance of luster and prevention of distortion of floats. Wash or dry clean as indicated by the fiber content and press on the wrong side or iron with the direction of floats.

Filling-Faced Satin Weave Fabrics

Typical sateen fabrics.

Sateen is a highly lustrous fabric made of staple fiber. In order to achieve luster with staple fibers, low twist must be used in the yarns forming the float surface. These yarns are the filling yarns because if warp yarns were made with twist that is low enough to produce luster, they would not be strong enough to resist the tensions of weaving. A resin finish is also used on the woven cloth to enhance the luster and make it durable.

Filling sateen is a smooth lusterous cotton fabric used for draperies and dress fabrics. It is often made with carded yarns with a high filling thread count. Yarns are similar in size to those used in print cloth, but the filling yarns have a low twist and are larger in size than the warp yarns. This factor can be used to help identify the warp and filling direction of the fabric.

1950s style red cotton sateen scallop brenda swing dress.

Luster is obtained by the Schreiner finish. Schreinering is a mechanical finish in which fine lines, visible only under a hand lens, are embossed on the surface. Unless a resin finish is applied at the same time, the finish is only temporary. Carded sateens are Schreinered only, because of the short fibers used; mercerization would not produce enough luster to justify the cost. Combed sateens are usually mercerized as well as Schreinered.

100% Cotton sateen fabric constructed with a high thread count and designed to ensure minimal to zero shrinkage during first wash. While some fabrics have a basic calendered finish this cotton sateen fabric has been specially finished using the Schreiner techniques. This lines up all the surface threads to improve opacity, handle and appearance and gives an additional vibrance and radiance.

Warp sateens are cotton fabrics made with warp floats in 4/1 interlacing pattern. They have a rounded wale effect that makes them resemble a twill fabric. They are stronger and heavier than filling sateens, because of the high warp count. They are less lusterous than filling sateen and are used where durability is more important than luster. Large amounts of warp sateens are used in pillow and bed tickings.

Solid color cotton sateen stripe bedding sheet set for home use and hotel.

[1] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd Edition, MacMillan Company, London (1968).

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