Saturday, August 5, 2017

Pile Fabrics[1] - General
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

This is the sixty-seventh post in the "Art Resource" series, specifically aimed to construct an appropriate knowledge base in order to develop an artistic voice in ArtCloth.

Other posts in this series are:
Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms
Units Used in Dyeing and Printing of Fabrics
Occupational, Health & Safety
A Brief History of Color
The Nature of Color
Psychology of Color
Color Schemes
The Naming of Colors
The Munsell Color Classification System
Methuen Color Index and Classification System
The CIE System
Pantone - A Modern Color Classification System
Optical Properties of Fiber Materials
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part I
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part II
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part III
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part IV
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part V
Protein Fibers - Wool
Protein Fibers - Speciality Hair Fibers
Protein Fibers - Silk
Protein Fibers - Wool versus Silk
Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Cotton
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Linen
Other Natural Cellulosic Fibers
General Overview of Man-Made Fibers
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Viscose
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Esters
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Nylon
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Polyester
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Acrylic and Modacrylic
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Olefins
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Elastomers
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Mineral Fibers
Man Made Fibers - Other Textile Fibers
Fiber Blends
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part I
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part II
Melt-Spun Fibers
Characteristics of Filament Yarn
Yarn Classification
Direct Spun Yarns
Textured Filament Yarns
Fabric Construction - Felt
Fabric Construction - Nonwoven fabrics
A Fashion Data Base
Fabric Construction - Leather
Fabric Construction - Films
Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins
Fabric Construction – Foams and Poromeric Material
Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns
Weaving and the Loom
Similarities and Differences in Woven Fabrics
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part I)
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part II)
The Three Basic Weaves - Twill Weave
The Three Basic Weaves - Satin Weave
Figured Weaves - Leno Weave
Figured Weaves – Piqué Weave
Figured Fabrics
Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements
Crêpe Fabrics
Crêpe Effect Fabrics
Pile Fabrics - General
Woven Pile Fabrics
Chenille Yarn and Tufted Pile Fabrics
Knit-Pile Fabrics
Flocked Pile Fabrics and Other Pile Construction Processes
Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms
Napped Fabrics – Part I
Napped Fabrics – Part II
Double Cloth
Multicomponent Fabrics
Knit-Sew or Stitch Through Fabrics
Finishes - Overview
Finishes - Initial Fabric Cleaning
Mechanical Finishes - Part I
Mechanical Finishes - Part II
Additive Finishes
Chemical Finishes - Bleaching
Glossary of Scientific Terms
Chemical Finishes - Acid Finishes
Finishes: Mercerization
Finishes: Waterproof and Water-Repellent Fabrics
Finishes: Flame-Proofed Fabrics
Finishes to Prevent Attack by Insects and Micro-Organisms
Other Finishes
Shrinkage - Part I
Shrinkage - Part II

There are currently eight data bases on this blogspot, namely, the Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, the Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, the Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns, Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements, Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms and the Glossary of Scientific Terms, which has been updated to Version 3.5. All data bases will be updated from time-to-time in the future.

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The Art Resource series will be the first post in each calendar month. Remember - these Art Resource posts span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist to that required by a final year University Fine-Art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource post may appear far too technical for your needs (skip over those mind boggling parts) and in other parts, it may be too simplistic with respect to your level of knowledge (ditto the skip). The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that Art Resource posts will hopefully be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately may not be satisfying to all!

The next five posts in this series will be on pile fabrics, namely: General, Woven, Chenille Yarn and Tufted Pile, Knitted, and Flocked Pile and Other Pile Constructions.

Pile Fabrics – General[1]
Pile fabrics are three-dimensional fabrics that have yarns or fibers forming a dense cover of the ground fabric.

High pile fabrics.

Pile fabrics can be both functional and beautiful. In apparel fabrics, a high pile is used to give warmth in coats and jackets as either the shell or the liner and as the liner for boots and gloves.

Pile jacket.

In household uses, high-count fabrics give durability and beauty in carpets, upholstery, and bedspreads. In towels and washcloths, low-twist yarns give absorbency. Other uses for pile fabrics are stuffed toys, wigs, paint rollers, buffing and polishing cloths, and decubicare pads for bed-ridden patients.

Some carpet piles are denser than others.

Interesting fabric effects can be achieved by use of cut and uncut pile combinations, pile of various heights, high- and low-twist yarn combinations, areas of pile on a flat surface; printing, curling, crushing or forcing pile into position other than upright.

Fabrics in which the floats are cut are called cut pile fabrics. Velvet is a cut pile fabric.

Fabrics in which the pile is not cut are known as uncut pile. Terrycloth is an uncut pile fabric.

Velveteen is also a cut pile fabric.

Corduroy is also a cut pile fabric.
Note: Fabric in which an extra set of filling yarns is used is called a filling-pile fabric. Velveteen and corduroy are examples of filling-pile fabrics. Hand-woven cut and uncut pile carpets and rugs are also examples of filling-pile fabrics.

In pile fabrics, the pile wears out first but a durable base structure is necessary in order to have a satisfactory pile. Close weaves increases resistance of a looped-pile to snagging and of a cut-pile to shedding and pulling out. A dense pile will stand erect, resist crushing and give better cover.

A modern luxurious soft dense pile - thick cream beige oatmeal shaggy rug.

Care must be taken in washing and ironing to keep the pile erect. Cut-pile fabrics usually look better if dry-cleaned, but they can be washed if the laundry procedures are suited to the fiber content. All pile fabrics are softer and less wrinkled if tumble-dried or line-dried on a breezy day. Minimum or no pressure and a steam iron should be used to remove in removing wrinkles. Flattening of the pile causes the fabric to appear lighter in color. Many pile fabrics are pressed in finishing so the pile slants to give an up and down. Garments should be cut so that the pile is directed up (see figure below).

Pile should be directed up.

The fabric looks richer and deeper in color as one looks into the pile. However, it is not as important that the pile be directed up as it is that the pieces of a garment all be cut with the pile going in the same direction. Otherwise, light is reflected differently and it looks as if two different colors were used in the garment. The direction of the pile can be determined by running the hand over the fabric.

Pile fabrics can be made by several different methods. These are presented and compared briefly in the table below.

Some methods in making pile fabrics.

[1] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd Edition, MacMillan Company, London (1968).

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