Saturday, March 3, 2018

Napped Fabrics – Part II [1]
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

This is the seventy-fourth post in the "Art Resource" series, specifically aimed to construct an appropriate knowledge base in order to develop an artistic voice in ArtCloth.

Other posts in this series are:
Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms
Units Used in Dyeing and Printing of Fabrics
Occupational, Health & Safety
A Brief History of Color
The Nature of Color
Psychology of Color
Color Schemes
The Naming of Colors
The Munsell Color Classification System
Methuen Color Index and Classification System
The CIE System
Pantone - A Modern Color Classification System
Optical Properties of Fiber Materials
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part I
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part II
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part III
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part IV
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part V
Protein Fibers - Wool
Protein Fibers - Speciality Hair Fibers
Protein Fibers - Silk
Protein Fibers - Wool versus Silk
Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Cotton
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Linen
Other Natural Cellulosic Fibers
General Overview of Man-Made Fibers
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Viscose
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Esters
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Nylon
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Polyester
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Acrylic and Modacrylic
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Olefins
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Elastomers
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Mineral Fibers
Man Made Fibers - Other Textile Fibers
Fiber Blends
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part I
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part II
Melt-Spun Fibers
Characteristics of Filament Yarn
Yarn Classification
Direct Spun Yarns
Textured Filament Yarns
Fabric Construction - Felt
Fabric Construction - Nonwoven fabrics
A Fashion Data Base
Fabric Construction - Leather
Fabric Construction - Films
Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins
Fabric Construction – Foams and Poromeric Material
Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns
Weaving and the Loom
Similarities and Differences in Woven Fabrics
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part I)
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part II)
The Three Basic Weaves - Twill Weave
The Three Basic Weaves - Satin Weave
Figured Weaves - Leno Weave
Figured Weaves – Piqué Weave
Figured Fabrics
Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements
Crêpe Fabrics
Crêpe Effect Fabrics
Pile Fabrics - General
Woven Pile Fabrics
Chenille Yarn and Tufted Pile Fabrics
Knit-Pile Fabrics
Flocked Pile Fabrics and Other Pile Construction Processes
Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms
Napped Fabrics – Part I
Napped Fabrics – Part II
Double Cloth
Multicomponent Fabrics
Knit-Sew or Stitch Through Fabrics
Finishes - Overview
Finishes - Initial Fabric Cleaning
Mechanical Finishes - Part I
Mechanical Finishes - Part II
Additive Finishes
Chemical Finishes - Bleaching
Glossary of Scientific Terms
Chemical Finishes - Acid Finishes
Finishes: Mercerization
Finishes: Waterproof and Water-Repellent Fabrics
Finishes: Flame-Proofed Fabrics
Finishes to Prevent Attack by Insects and Micro-Organisms
Other Finishes
Shrinkage - Part I
Shrinkage - Part II
Progressive Shrinkage and Methods of Control

There are currently eight data bases on this blogspot, namely, the Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, the Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, the Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns, Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements, Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms and the Glossary of Scientific Terms, which has been updated to Version 3.5. All data bases will be updated from time-to-time in the future.

If you find any post on this blog site useful, you can save it or copy and paste it into your own "Word" document etc. for your future reference. For example, Safari allows you to save a post (e.g. click on "File", click on "Print" and release, click on "PDF" and then click on "Save As" and release - and a PDF should appear where you have stored it). Safari also allows you to mail a post to a friend (click on "File", and then point cursor to "Mail Contents On This Page" and release). Either way, this or other posts on this site may be a useful Art Resource for you.

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Blankets are a specialized end-use group of fabrics, which are primarily used for warmth. A maximum amount of nap is desired, since the effectiveness of the blanket depends on the amount of dead air space in it.
Nap quilted throw blanket.

Today’s post concludes our investigation into napped fabrics.

With modern heated houses and the additional use of electric blankets, fewer blankets are needed in cold climates than what were needed many years ago. There is also a trend toward the use of thinner “sheet” blankets.

Thinner “sheet” blanket.

Fiber content is an important factor in the selection of blankets, because fibers differ in their ability to maintain dead air spaces. Other fiber properties are also important considerations in choosing blankets.

Wool has been widely used because of its excellent springiness. Mohair is even fluffier but is more expensive and so is seldom on the blanket market.

Plaid mohair throw blanket.

Wool is the most expensive of the commonly used fibers. Its non-flammability is of value, since many fires are started by people who fall asleep while smoking in bed or by placing a radiator near flammable materials. Its drawback, other than price, are:
(a) It shrinks easily and becomes boardy when shrunk.
(b) It is subject to moth damage and so is usually stored in sealed containers with a sprinkling of moth crystals.

100% Yak wool blanket.

Cotton and rayon are low in cost but lack the resiliency necessary to keep a blanket fluffy.

100% Rayon bedding.

Cotton, however, is very washable and is a good choice if frequent washing or sterilization is necessary.

100% Cotton baby bedding set.

Acrylics and mod-acrylics excel in softness, light weight, and bulk.

100% Acrylic blanket.

They are washable and not subject to moth damage. The acrylics, however, burn like cotton. Mod-acrylics melt but do not burn.

100% Mod-acrylic blankets.

Blends containing wool are just as subject to moth damage as are 100% wool blankets.

Italian made wool blend blanket.

Olefins are the lightest weight and low in cost.

100% Olefin fabric comfy faux throw blanket.

Polyesters are used in the skinny blankets.

100% Polyester blanket.

Blanket Construction
The warp yarn twist is usually low in blanket fabrics and some of the nap comes from warp yarn, Below is a chart for a typical Orlon blanket construction.

Type 39 Orlon Construction.

The Type 39 Orlon filling yarn is a blend of staple lengths running from 1.25 to 3 inches and with deniers of 2 to 6.

A double woven blanket construction is shown in the figure below.

Double-faced blanket construction.

Single-cloth construction in either a plain or twill weave is shown in the figure below.

Blanket of single-cloth construction in twill weave.

As mentioned previously, yarns in highly napped fabrics may be made with cotton core for strength.

Thermal Blankets
Hospitals require blankets the can be sterilized, but do not shrink, nor lose its loftiness. The first development, called the thermal blanket, was made of low-twist plied cotton yarns in a fancy leno weave, resulting in a fabric with waffle-like depressions and ridges. When used with a sheet above and below the blanket, it held in sufficient body heat for warmth.

Hospital thermal blankets.

As thermal blankets were adapted for home use other weaves and fibers were used. To improve their appearance and warmth, some were napped.

Thermal blanket adapted for home use.

Most blankets can be washed. Wool blankets must be washed in warm water with as little agitation as possible to prevent shrinkage.

Electric blankets should not be dry-cleaned because it can cause damage to the insulation of the wiring.

Machine washable, detachable controllers, electric blanket.

In order to reduce the frequency with which a blanket must be cleaned, protect it by turning down a length of the end of the sheet over the upper part of the blanket.

Bedding turned to protect upper part of blanket.

[1] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd Edition, MacMillan Company, London (1968).

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