Saturday, April 2, 2016

Fabric Construction – Foams and Poromeric Material[1]
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

This is the fifty-first post in the "Art Resource" series, specifically aimed to construct an appropriate knowledge base in order to develop an artistic voice in ArtCloth.

Other posts in this series are:
Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms
Units Used in Dyeing and Printing of Fabrics
Occupational, Health & Safety
A Brief History of Color
The Nature of Color
Psychology of Color
Color Schemes
The Naming of Colors
The Munsell Color Classification System
Methuen Color Index and Classification System
The CIE System
Pantone - A Modern Color Classification System
Optical Properties of Fiber Materials
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part I
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part II
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part III
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part IV
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part V
Protein Fibers - Wool
Protein Fibers - Speciality Hair Fibers
Protein Fibers - Silk
Protein Fibers - Wool versus Silk
Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Cotton
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Linen
Other Natural Cellulosic Fibers
General Overview of Man-Made Fibers
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Viscose
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Esters
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Nylon
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Polyester
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Acrylic and Modacrylic
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Olefins
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Elastomers
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Mineral Fibers
Man Made Fibers - Other Textile Fibers
Fiber Blends
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part I
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part II
Melt-Spun Fibers
Characteristics of Filament Yarn
Yarn Classification
Direct Spun Yarns
Textured Filament Yarns
Fabric Construction - Felt
Fabric Construction - Nonwoven fabrics
A Fashion Data Base
Fabric Construction - Leather
Fabric Construction - Films
Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins
Fabric Construction – Foams and Poromeric Material
Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns
Weaving and the Loom
Similarities and Differences in Woven Fabrics
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part I)
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part II)
The Three Basic Weaves - Twill Weave
The Three Basic Weaves - Satin Weave
Figured Weaves - Leno Weave
Figured Weaves – Piqué Weave
Figured Fabrics
Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements
Crêpe Fabrics
Crêpe Effect Fabrics
Pile Fabrics - General
Woven Pile Fabrics
Chenille Yarn and Tufted Pile Fabrics
Knit-Pile Fabrics
Flocked Pile Fabrics and Other Pile Construction Processes
Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms
Napped Fabrics – Part I
Napped Fabrics – Part II
Double Cloth
Multicomponent Fabrics
Knit-Sew or Stitch Through Fabrics
Finishes - Overview
Finishes - Initial Fabric Cleaning
Mechanical Finishes - Part I
Mechanical Finishes - Part II
Additive Finishes
Chemical Finishes - Bleaching
Glossary of Scientific Terms
Chemical Finishes - Acid Finishes
Finishes: Mercerization
Finishes: Waterproof and Water-Repellent Fabrics
Finishes: Flame-Proofed Fabrics
Finishes to Prevent Attack by Insects and Micro-Organisms
Other Finishes
Shrinkage - Part I
Shrinkage - Part II

There are currently eight data bases on this blogspot, namely, the Glossary of Cultural and Architectural Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, the Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, the Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns, Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements, Glossary of Paper, Photography, Printing, Prints and Publication Terms and the Glossary of Scientific Terms, which has been updated to Version 3.5. All data bases will be updated from time-to-time in the future.

If you find any post on this blog site useful, you can save it or copy and paste it into your own "Word" document etc. for your future reference. For example, Safari allows you to save a post (e.g. click on "File", click on "Print" and release, click on "PDF" and then click on "Save As" and release - and a PDF should appear where you have stored it). Safari also allows you to mail a post to a friend (click on "File", and then point cursor to "Mail Contents On This Page" and release). Either way, this or other posts on this site may be a useful Art Resource for you.

The Art Resource series will be the first post in each calendar month. Remember - these Art Resource posts span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist to that required by a final year University Fine-Art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource post may appear far too technical for your needs (skip over those mind boggling parts) and in other parts, it may be too simplistic with respect to your level of knowledge (ditto the skip). The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that Art Resource posts will hopefully be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately may not be satisfying to all!

Foams are used in fabric laminates, as carpet backings, in mattresses, cushions, pillows and pads of various sorts.

Laser cut foam laminate.

On the other hand, poromeric material is a generic term coined from the two major characteristics of the material – a porous structure and polymeric composition.

Zona winter bra I-shaped half type poromeric body-building bra female non steel ring sports underwear.

Most foams used in fabric construction are made of rubber or polyurethane. Polyurethane is a type of plastic material prepared by the reaction of di-isocyanate with a compound containing two or more hydroxyl groups in the presence of a suitable catalyst.

Image showing the production process for polyurethane foam technology.

By the selection of chemicals, polyurethane foams may be obtained with a wide range of physical properties - very stiff and brittle to soft and rubbery. The size of the cells or holes can also be controlled. Chemicals and foaming agents are mixed together thoroughly. After the foam is formed, it is cut into blocks 200 to 300 yards long and strips of the desired thickness are cut from these blocks.

The usefulness of foam is obvious in terms of its worldwide production.

Chemback is a foam product especially designed as a primary backing for carpet tufting. This product consists of a nylon scrim encapsulated in a polyurethane foam, which is approximately 1/8 of an inch thick. It is said to have better process-ability than jute or duck. Because it does not ravel, the carpet requires no edge finish and the performance is improved.

Poromeric Material
Poromeric material is defined as a micro-porous and permeable cariaceous sheet material comprising a urethane polymer material reinforced with polyester. Corfu is a registered trademark of the Du Pont Company.

Men's Corfam® dress shoes.

Corfam is not considered a plastic, an imitation leather, or a leather replacement, but rather a new basic material. The first end-uses were shoe uppers and gaskets, packings and beltings for industrial equipment. Other uses are handbags, luggage, upholstery, and home furnishings and ready-to-wear clothing. It is interesting to note that the end-uses are the same as for leather.

Omega buckle and Corfam strap 16 mm.

Corfam is like leather in its fibrous structure. In cross-section, the Corfam changes from a loosely arranged fibrous structure at the base to a rather tightly built structure at the top. Corfam is easy to clean, resistant to scuffing, holds its shape, and can be finished to resemble leather or in ways leather can never be finished.

Corfam shoe uppers.

[1] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd Edition, MacMillan Company, London (1968).

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